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Full text of "Plutarch's Lives"

H[ fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

^CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. tW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, M.A. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.b.hist.soc. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 
VI 



PLUTAKCH'S 
LIVES 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
BERNADOTTE PERRIN 

IN ELEVEN VOLUMES 
VI 



DION AND BRUTUS 
TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS PAULU8 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MOMMV 




First printed 1918 
Reprinted 1943, 1954 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



PAOB 

PREFATORY NOTE VJi 

ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION ... ix 

TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES X 

DION 1 

BRUTUS ]25 

COMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS 249 

TIMOLEON 259 

AEMILIUS PAULUS 357 

COMPARISON OF TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS PAULUS . . . 459 

DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 467 



PREFATORY NOTE 

As in the preceding volumes of this series, agree- 
ment between the Sintenis (Teubner, 1873-1875) 
and Bekker (Tauchnitz, 1855-1857) editions of the 
Parallel Lives has been taken as the basis for the 
text. Any preference of the one to the other, and 
any departure from both, have been indicated in the 
brief critical notes. An abridged account of the 
manuscripts and editions of Plutarch's Lives may 
be found in the Introduction to the first volume. 
None of the Lives presented in this volume is 
contained in either of the two oldest and best 
manuscripts. No attempt has been made, naturally, 
to furnish either a diplomatic text or a full critical 
apparatus. For these, the reader must still be 
referred to the major edition of the Lives by 
Sintenis (Leipzig, 1839-1846, 4 voll., 8vo), The 
reading which follows the colon in the critical notes 
is that of the Teubner Sintenis, and also, unless 
otherwise stated in the note, of the Tauchnitz 
Bekker, 



PREFATORY NOTE 

Some use has been made of the Siefert-Blass 
edition of the Timoleon (Leipzig, Teubner, 1879), 
and also of Holden's edition of the same Life 
(Cambridge, Pitt Press Series, 1889). 

All the standard translations of the Lives have 
been carefully compared and utilized, including that 
of the Brutus by Professor Long. 

B. PERRIN. 

New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. 
December, 1917. 



ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS 

EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE 

OF THE GREEK LIVES. 



Volume I. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 
Comparison. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 
Comparison, 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 
Comparison. 

Volume II. 

(4) Themistocles and 

Camillus. 



(9) Aristides and Cato the 
Elder. 
Comparison. 

(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 
Comparison. 

Volume III. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Max- 

imus. 
Comparison. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 
Comparison. 

Volume IV. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriola- 

nus. 
Comparison. 
(12) Lysander and Sulla. 
Comparison. 

Volume V. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 
Comparison. 
(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 
Comparison. 



Volume VI. 

(22) Dion and Brutus. 

Comparison. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius 

Paulus. 

Comparison. 

Volume VII. 
(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 
Comparison. 
Alexander and Julius 
Caesar. 



(17) 



Volume VIII. 
(15) Sertorius and Eumenea. 

Comparison. 
(18) Phocion and Cato the 
Younger. 



Volume IX. 
(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

Comparison. 
(11) PyrrhusandCaiusMariua. 



Volume X. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and 
Tiberius and Caius 
Gracchus. 
Comparison. 
(10) Philopoemen and Flam- 
ininus. 
Comparison. 

Volume XI. 

(23) Aratus. 

(24) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE 
PARALLEL LIVES. 

(1) Theseus and Romulus. 

(2) Lycurgus and Numa. 

(3) Solon and Publicola. 

(4) Themistocles and Camillus. 

(5) Pericles and Fabius Maximus. 

(6) Alcibiades and Coriolanus. 

(7) Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. 

(8) Pelopidas and Marcellus. 

(9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. 

(10) Philopoemen and Flamininus, 

(11) Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. 

(12) Lysander and Sulla. 

(13) Cimon and Lucullus. 

(14) Nicias and Crassus. 

(15) Sertorius and Eumenes. 

(16) Agesilaiis and Pompey. 

(17) Alexander and Julius Caesar. 

(18) Phocion and Cato the Younger. 

(19) Agis and Cleomenes, and Tiberius and Caius 

Gracchus, 

(20) Demosthenes and Cicero. 

(21) Demetrius and Antony. 

(22) Dion and Brutus. 

(23) Aratus. 

(24) Artaxerxes. 

(25) Galba. 

(26) Otho. 



DION 



AIQN 

I. *Apd ye, axj-Trep 6 '^ifiwvlhrj^i ^r^aiv, w y^^^ 
^oacTte ^epcKioop, toI<; K.opivdloL^ ov firjvUcv to »• i<>2^ 
IMOV €7naTpaTevaaai fxera T(av A'XCLLOiVy OTi ^*^ 
KCLKeivoL^ ol irepl TXavKov ef oLp^rj^ KoplvOio^ 
yeyovoTCf; (jvvefxd^ovv 7rpoOv/jLQ)<;, ovt(o<; etVo? rrj 
*AfcaSr)fjL€ia fxrjre 'Pcofialov^; /xT/re "EWT/i/a? iyxa- 
XeiV L(TOV <l>€pO/JL€VOV<i €K Ti)? 7/oa</)^? TavT7]<;, fj 
TW T€ BpOVTOV ir6pl€')(^eL /SloV KoL TOP Alo)vo<;, OiV 

fiev avTO) UXdroyvi, TrXrjaLdcraf;, 6 Be tol<; Xoyot'i 
€vrpa<f)el<i roL<i UXdrcovof;, uxrirep €k fiLd<; Mp/jLij- 
aav dfJL^oTepoi iraXaiarpa^; iirX tou<? p.eyL<TTOv^ 
2 dyS)va^» Koi to fiev o/jLOia iroWd Kal dBe\(f)a 
irpd^avra^i ^aprvprjcrat, ra> Kadrjyefiovc rr/f; ape- 
T^9 OTL Bet (f)povt]aei kov BLKaioavvrj BvvafiLV eVl 
TO avTO Kal rv^rfv avveXOelv, Xva KdXXo<i d/ia 
Kal /jLeyeOo^i at iroXiTLKal irpd^ei^ Xd^coatv, ov 
OavjJLacrrov iariv. w? yap 'l7r7ro/ia%09 o dXel- 
TTTT]^ eXeye tou? yeyv /ivacr/jLevov<; Trap* avro) Kal 
Kpea<i e^ dyopd<; IBojv ^epovra^ eTriypcovai rroppu)- 
Oev, ovTco TOP Xoyov eaTiv etKo^i twv TTeiraiBeV' 
fievcov 6fio[(o<: eirecrOai raU irpd^eaiv, ifjufjueXeidv 
Tiva Kal pvdfjiov eirtcpepovTa jxeTa tov Trpeirovro^, 




DION 



I. If it be true, then, O Sossius Senecio,^ as Si- 
monides says,* that Ilium " is not wroth with the 
Corinthians " for coming up against her with the 
Achaeans, because the Trojans also had Glaucus, 
who sprang from Corinth, as a zealous ally, so it is 
likely that neither Romans nor Greeks will quarrel 
with the Academy, since they fare alike in this 
treatise containing the lives of Dion and Brutus, 
for Dion was an immediate disciple of Plato, 
while Brutus was nourished on the doctrines of 
Plato. Both therefore set out from one training- 
school, as it were, to engage in the greatest struggles. 
And we need not wonder that, in the performance 
of actions that were often kindred and alike, they 
bore witness to the doctrine of their teacher in virtue, 
that wisdom and justice must be united with power 
and good fortune if public careers are to take on 
beauty as well as grandeur. For as Hippomachus 
the trainer used to delare that he could recognize 
his pupils from afar even though they were but 
carrying meat from the market-place, so it is natural 
that the principles of those who have been trained 
alike should permeate their actions, inducing in 
these a similar rhythm and harmony along with 
their propriety. 

* One of the many friends whom Plutarch made during hi^ 
residence at Rome. See on Thtstui, i. 1. 
'^ Fragment 50 ; Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Oraeci, iii.* p. 412. 

3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

II. At Be TV'xaiy tol<; (TVfnrrcofUKTL fjuaXXov tj 
ral^ TTpoaLpicrecTLv ovaai ai avrai, avvdyov(Ti tcov 
avBpMV Tou? /3lov(; eh ofiOLOTrjTa, irpoavrjpe- 
drjaav yap apui^orepoi rod riXov^, et? o irpovOevro 
Ta9 7rpd^€i<; ix ttoXXwv koX fieydXctyv dycovwv 
Karadeadai fir) hvvr)6evTe<^. o he irdvTwv dav- 
fiaaLMrarop, on koX to BaifiovLOv dfi(j)OTepoi<; 
viTeBr)Xw(Te Tr)v reXevTijv, o/io/ct)? ifcarepw ^da/uLa- 

2 T09 e/? oyJTLv ovK evfJL€vov<i irapayevofievov. Kalroi 
X0709 Tt? io-TL TMv dvaipovvTcov ra Toiavra, 
fjLTjBevl av vovv exovri ir poairea-elv (jydvTaa-p^a 
BaifjL0V0<; jJLrjBe eiBcoXov, dXXd iraiBdpta xal yv- 
vaia Kol 7Tapa(j)6pov<; Bl daOeveiav dvOpdyirov; 
€V riVL irXdvw yjrvxv^ V BvaKpaaia cr(OfjLaT0<; 
yevofievov^ B6^a<; e^eXKeadai Kevd<; koI dXXoKo- 
T0U9, Bal/JLOva irovrjpov iv avroh rrjv Beta-LBat- 

3 fJLoviav^ e^oi^ra?. el Be Alcov koI BpoOro?, dvBpe<^ 
i/JL^ptOeU fcal (f)LX6ao(f)OL kol tt/qo? ovBev aKpo- 
cr^Xe?9 ovB^ evdXwroi irddo'^, ovtw^ viro ^dafia- 
T09 BLeTe6r)(Tav axTre koX <f>pd<Tai 77/309 erepov<^, 
OVK olBa fiT) Twv irdw iraXatwv rov droTrwraTov 
dvayKacrOwfxev irpodBey^eaOai Xoyov, C09 ra <f)avXa 
Baifiovia KOL ^d(TKava, Trpoatpdovovpra T0t9 dya- 
6ol<; dvBpdac kqI Tat9 Trpd^eaiv evKTrdfJieva, 
Tapa')(a<; /cat (j)6^ou<; iirdyei, aeiovra Ka\ acftdX- 

4 Xovra Tr}V dperrjv, q)<; fir) Bi,a/i€ivavTe<; aTTTwre? 
iv r& KaXat koI aKepaioL ^eXT[ovo<; eKeivwv fiolpa<; 
fiera rr)v TeXevTr)v TV)(^Qi(TLv, dXXd ravra fiev 
€t9 dXXov dvaKeiaOo) Xoyov. iv tovtw Be, BcoBe- 

^ tV Seiariiai/xopiav Coraes and Bekker, instead of the ehcu 
9(i<rt9aiiJ.oviav of the MSS. : SeiffiSatfiovlay. 

4 



DION II. 1-4 

il. Moreover, tlie fortunes of the two men, which 
were the same in what befell them rather than in 
what they elected to do, make their lives alike. For 
both were cut off untimely, without being able to 
achieve the objects to which they had determined to 
devote the fruits of their many and great struggles. 
But the most wonderful thing of all was that Heaven 
gave to both an intimation of their approaching 
death, by the visible appearance to each alike of an 
ill-boding spectre. And yet there are those who 
deny such things and say that no man in his right 
mind was ever visited by a spectre or an apparition 
from Heaven, but that little children and foolish 
women and men deranged by sickness, in some aber- 
ration of spirit or distemper of body, have indulged 
in empty and strange imaginings, because they had 
the evil genius of superstition in themselves. But if 
Dion and Brutus, men of solid understanding and 
philosophic training and not easily cast down or over- 
powered by anything that happened to them, were 
so affected by a spectre that they actually told others 
about it, I do not know but we shall be compelled to 
accept that most extraordinary doctrine of the oldest 
times, that mean and malignant spirits, in envy of 
good men and opposition to their noble deeds, try to 
confound and terrify them, causing their virtue to 
rock and totter, in order that they may not continue 
erect and inviolate in the path of honour and so 
attain a better portion after death than the spirits 
themselves. But this subject must be reserved for 
discussion elsewhere, and in this, the twelfth book ^ 

* The Pericles was part of the tenth " book " (chapter ii. 3), 
the Demosthenes part of the fifth (chapter iii. 1). The ordi- 
nary arrangement of the Lives is purely arbitrary. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

AcaTft) Tc^v irapaWrfKoiV ovTi fflcji^, rov tov irpe- 
(T^vripov Trpoeiaaydyco/jLev, 

III. Atovv(Tio(; 6 7Tpe(rfivT€po<; ek ttjv dpxv^ 
Karaara^; €vOv<; eyrjpe rrjv 'EppoKpdrov^ rov 
XvpaKovaiov dvyarepa. ravrrjv, ovttw Trj<; rvpav- 
viBo<; LBpvp€vrj(; ^e0aio)^, aTroo-rai^re? ol ^vpa- 
Kovaioi Beiva^ xal irapavopov^ v^peL<; eh to aayp^a 
Ka0vl3pi(Tav, icj}^ ah TTporjKaro rov ^iov eKovai(o<;, 

2 Aiovv(rt,o<; Se rr)v dp^rjv dvaXajSoov kol /cparvvd- 
p.€vo<i avOi<i dyerai Bvo yvvaLKa<; dp,a, rrjv p.ev ix 
AoKpcov ovofMa AcoplBa, rrjv Be e'TTL')((i}pLov 'Api- 
<7Top.d^r}v, dvyarepa 'iTTTrapiVov, irpcorevo-avTO'; 
dvBpo^ '^vpaKov<TL(ov xal Aiovvalo) avvdp^avro<; 
ore irpSiTov avroKpdrcop eirl rov rroXe/jLOv rjpeOri 
arparrjyo'^. Xeyerai 8* rjP'epa fiev dp^orepa^ 
dyayeadai jJLid koX p^rjBevl yeveaOai <f>avepo<i dv- 
OpcoTTcov OTTorepa irporepa avveXdoi, rov Be dXXov 
'X^povov icrov ve/jio)v eavrov BiareXelv efcarepa, 
Kotvfj fiev eWi(rp,€V0}v Benrvetv fier avrov, irapd 

3 vvKTa Be ev fiepeL auvavaTravopievcov. Kairoi ra)]/ 
^vpaKOvaiwv e^ovXero ro 'TrXrido<s rrjv iyyevrj 
irXeov e')(eiv t^9 ^evr]<i' dXXa eKelvr) irporepa 
vTTTJpx^ reKovar) rov irpea^evovra rr]<; Aiovvalov 
yeveds vlov avrfj ^or]Oelv tt/jo? to yevo<;. rj Be 

ApLorTopd')(7] TToXvv ')(^p6vov d'iTaL<; avvwKei rw 
Aiovvaio) Kaiirep arrovBd^ovri irepl rrjv ex ravri^^ 
reKvcoatVy 09 ye xal rrjv prfrepa ri]<; AoKpiBo<; 
alriaadp,evo<^ Kara^app^aKevetv rrjv ^ Apiarop,d- 
')(r]v direKreive. 

IV. Tavr7)s dBeX^o^ ci)v 6 Aiwv ev dpxjj p-^v 
el^e Tip,r)v diro ri)^ dBeX<pr]^, varepov Be rou 



DION II. 4-iv. I 

of my Parallel Lives, I shall begin with that of the 
elder man. 

III. Dionysius the Elder, after assuming the reins 
of government,^ at once married the daughter of 
Hermocrates the Syracusan. But she, since the 
tyranny was not yet securely established, was ter- 
ribly and outrageously abused in her person by the 
seditious Syracusans, and in consequence put an end 
to her own life. Then Dionysius, after resuming the 
power and making himself strong again, married two 
wives at once, one from Locri, whose name was 
Doris, the other a native of the city, Aristomache, 
daughter of Hipparinus, who was a leading man in 
Syracuse, and had been a colleague of Dionysius when 
he was first chosen general with full powers for the 
war. It is said that he married both wives on one 
day, and that no man ever knew with which of the 
two he first consorted, but that ever after he con- 
tinued to devote himself alike to each ; it was their 
custom to sup with him together, and they shared 
his bed at night by turns. And yet the people of 
Syracuse wished that their countrywoman should be 
honoured above the stranger ; but Doris had the 
good fortune to become a mother first, and by pre- 
senting Dionysius with his eldest son she atoned 
for her foreign birth. Aristomache, on the contrary, 
was for a long time a barren wife, although Dionysius 
was desirous to have children by her ; at any rate, 
he accused the mother of his Locrian wife of giving 
Aristomache drugs to prevent conception, and put 
her to death. 

IV. Now, Dion was a brother of Aristomache, and 
at first was honoured because of his sister; after- 

1 In 405 B.C. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<f>pov€lv Sihovf; irelpav, rjhr] Kad^ eavrov rjjaTraTo 
Trapa ra> Tvpdvvcp. Kal 7rp6<; airaai tol^ aX\oi<; 
€Lpr]TO TOi? Ta/jLLaL<; 6 n av alrfj Almv BiBovai, 
B6vTa<; 8e 7rpo<; avrov avOrjiiepov ^pd^eiv, y)v Be 
Kal TTporepov v-^yXo^; rw rjOet kol fjL€ya\6(j)p(ov 
Kal dvBp(t)B7]<;, €TC fidWov iireBcoKC tt/jo? ravra 
Oeia Tivl rvxi) Tl\dT(ovo<; et? ^iKeXlav irapapa- 

2 \6vro<i, Kar ovBeva Xoyia-fibv dv6 pcoiT lvov dWa 
BalfKov Tt9, ot)9 eoiKe, iroppwOev dp^^rjv eXevOepiaf; 
^aWofievo^ ^vpaKOVcrioLf;, Kal TvpavviBo<; Kard- 
\vaLV firj'^avco/ievo^, eKo/jLtcrev i^ 'IraXia^ et? 
XvpaKovaa<i HXdrcova Kal Aicova (Tvvrjyayev et? 
X6yov<; avTO), veov fiev oi^ra Ko/jLiBfj, ttoXv Be evpua- 
Oecrrajov dirdvTCOv Ta>v UXdrtovi avyyeyovorcov 
Kal o^vrarov viraKOvaai 7rpo<; dper^v, cb? auro? 
yey pa(f)€ YiXdrcov, Kal rd Trpdyp^ara jxaprvpel. 

3 Tpa(f)€l<i yap iv yOeaiv vtto rvpdvvw Taireivol'^, 
Kal fiiov fjLev dvl<Tov Kal KaTa<j)6^ov, OepaTrela^i 
Be veoirXovTov Kal Tpv(f)rj<i direipoKaXov Kal 
BLaLTr]<i iv TjBovai^ Kal irXeove^iai'i TiOepLevrjf; to 
KoXov e6d^ Kal pLearb^; y€v6pL€vo<;, ax; irpcorov 
eyevaaro Xoyov Kal <f)iXo(Jo^ia<; r)y€/jLoviKr]<; tt/oo? 

dperrjv, dvecjjXexOv '^V^ '^^XV^ '^^X^> '^^'' "^V '^^P'' 
avrov evireideia tmv KaXcov dK.dK(o^ Trdvv Kal 
ve(OT€piK(x)<; TTpoaBoKYjcra^ vtto tcov avrojv Xoycov 
Sfioia TTeideadai Atovvcriov, iairovBaa-e Kal Bie- 
TTpd^aro TTOLTjadpLevo'i a)(pXrjv avrov ivrv)(^€Lv 
TlXdrcovL Kal aKOvaai, 



DION IV. 1-3 

wards, however, he gave proof of his Avisdom, and 
was presently beloved by the tyrant for his own 
sake. In addition to all his other favours, Dionysius 
ordered his treasurers to give Dion whatever he 
asked, although they were to tell Dionysius on the 
same day what they had given. But though Dion was 
even before of a lofty character, magnanimous, and 
manly, he advanced still more in these high qualities 
when, by some divine good fortune, Plato came to 
Sicily.^ This was not of man's devising, but some 
heavenly power, as it would seem, laying far in 
advance of the time a foundation for the liberty of 
Syracuse, and devising a subversion of tyranny, 
brought Plato from Italy to Syracuse and made 
Dion his disciple. Dion was then quite young, but 
of all the companions of Plato he was by far the 
quickest to learn and the readiest to answer the call 
of virtue, as Plato himself has written,^ and as events 
testify. For though he had been reared in habits 
of submission under a tyrant, and though he was 
fully accustomed to a life that was subservient and 
timorous, as well as to ostentatious service at court 
and vulgar luxury and a regimen that counts pleasures 
and excesses as the highest good, nevertheless, as 
soon as he got a taste of a rational philosophy which 
led the way to virtue, his soul was speedily on fire ; 
and since he very artlessly and impulsively expected, 
from his own ready obedience to the call of higher 
things, that the same arguments would have a like 
persuasive force with Dionysius, he earnestly set to 
work and at last brought it to pass that the tyrant, 
in a leisure hour, should meet Plato and hear him 
discourse. 

^ About 388 B.C., if this first visit be not a, myth. 
- Epist. vii. p. .327. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

V. TevofievT)^: he t»}9 avvova-ia^ avTol^ to fiev 
oKov Trepl avBpb<; apeTrj<;, trXeiaTOiv he irepl 
avhpeia^ hiaTropTjOevrcov, co? irdvTa<i ^ jjbaWov o 
YWaTwv rj Tou? rvpdvvov^ direcpacvep avSpeuov^, 
€K Be Tovrov rpaiTOfievo^; irepX 8t.Kaio(Tvvr]<; iSi- 
Baaxev &>? fiaKapio^ fiev 6 rSiv BiKaioiv, dOXio<; he 
6 Tcop olBlkcov ^io^y ovre tol"? \6yov(; ecpepev 6 
rvpavvof; oicrirep e^eXejxop'^po^;, ^%^6to re tol<; 
Trapovcn dav/j-aarco^ aTroBexo/jievoi'; rbv dvBpa koI 

2 KT)\ov/jLevot<i vTTo T(x)v XejofMepcov. TeXo<; Be Ov/jlcd- 
OeU KoX irapo^vvBeU tjpcorrjo-ev avrov 6 rt Brj 
^ovXoixevos eU ^iKeXiav irapayevoLTo. rod Be 
(f)'tjaavTO<; dyaOov dvBpa ^rjretv, uiroXa/SoDv e/cel- 
i/09, **'AWa v^ rov<; ^eou?/' elire, " Kal <^aivrj 
jjLrjTTCo TOLOVTOV evp7jK(o<;.^ 01 jiev ovv irepl top 
Aiwpa rovTo reXo? (popro r-^? 6pyrj<; yeyopevai, 960 
Kol TOP UXdrcopa airevBoPTa avpe^eTrefiirop eVl 
Tpii]pov<;, f) WoXXiP eKo/jLi^ep el<; ttjp 'EXXdBa top 

3 'E'TrapTidTrjp' 6 Be At,opvo-io<; Kpv(pa tov l\6XXi.Bo<! 
eiTOLrjaaTo Berforip fidXtaTa fiep diroKTelpav top 
dpBpa KUTU ttXovp, el Be fiy, Traz/roj? diroBoadar 
fiXa^rjaeaOai yap ovBep, aXV evBacfiop-^aeiP 
6/jlolco<;, BiKacop opTa, kup BovXo^; yeprjTai, Bio 
fcal XeyeTai IToWf? eU AXyipap (f)€pcop diroBoaOai 
Y\XdTO)Pa, voXe/jLOV tt/jo? ^AOrjpaiov^ 6Vto<? avTol<i 
Kul ^rj^ia^jxaTo^ otto)? 6 X7)(f)de\^ Wdrjpaiayp ep 
AlyivT) TTtiTpdaicrfTai. 

4 Oi) firjp 6 ye Al(op eXaTTOP €?%€ irapa tw 
AiopvaiM TL/jLrj<; rj 7rtcrT6«9, dXXd Trpea/Selaf; re 
Ta<i jj^iaTa^ BioiKei kol Tre/jLTrofjiepo'i tt/jo? Kap- 

^ vdvras Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske : irdpra. 
10 



DION V. 1-4 

V. At this meeting the general subject was human 
virtue, and most of the discussion turned upon man- 
liness. And when Plato set forth that tyrants least 
of all men had this quality, and then, treating of 
justice, maintained that the life of the just was 
blessed, while that of the unjust was wretched, the 
tyrant, as if convicted by his arguments, would not 
listen to them, and was vexed with the audience 
because they admired the speaker and were charmed 
by his utterances. At last he got exceedingly angry 
and asked the philosopher why he had come to 
Sicily. And when Plato said that he was come to 
seek a virtuous man, the tyrant answered and said : 
'' Well, by the gods, it appears that you have not 
yet found such an one." Dion thought that this was 
the end of his anger, and as Plato was eager for it, 
sent him away upon a trireme, which was conveying 
Pollis the Spartan to Greece. But Dionysius privily 
requested PolHs to kill Plato on the voyage, if it 
were in any way possible, but if not, at all events to 
sell him into slavery ; for he would take no harm, 
but would be quite as happy, being a just man, even 
if he should become a slave. Pollis, therefore, as we 
are told, carried Plato to Aegina and there sold him; 
for the Aeginetans were at war with the Athenians 
and had made a decree that any Athenian taken on 
the island should be put up for sale. 

In spite of all this, Dion stood in no less honour 
and credit with Dionysius than before, but had the 
management of the most important embassies, as, 
for instance, when he was sent to Carthage and won 

II 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XV^ovi>ov<; iOavfidaOrj 8i,a(f)6p6vTa)^' koL rrjv irap- 
prja-lav e^epev avrov /jlopov a-^eSov aSeco? XijovTo^; 
TO 7rapL(7Td/jL€Vov, 0)9 Kal Tr)p Trepl FeXoDi/o? iirl- 
5 TrXrj^iv. ')(Xeva^OfjL€pr]<; ydp, o)? eoi/ce, t^? Fe- 
Xcovof; dp'^rj^, avrov re rov TeXwva rod ^covvaiov 
yeXcora r^? ^iKekia^ 'yeyovevai (j)i]aavro<;, ol /xeu 
dWoi ro <TKco/jL/jLa irpoaeTTOiovvro Oav/j,d^eiv, 6 Be 
Alcov hvaxepdva^, ** Kal fxrjvr ecf)?], " av rvpav- 
vei<; Bid TeXcova Triarevdeif;' Bid ae Be ouSek 
€Tepo<i mcrrevOrjcreraL.^^ rw ydp ovrc (f)aLveTai 
KoXXiarov jxev TeXwv iircB€L^dp,€VO<; deajxa povap- 
')(pvp,evr)v TToXiv, ala")(^L(Trov Be Ai,ovvaio<;. 

VI. "Ovrcov Be Aiovvaia) TralBcov rpLcov p^ev ck 
T7j<i AoKplBo^y rerrdpcov Be e^ *Api(TTOfjLd^rj<;, wv 
Bvo rjaav 6vyarepe<;, ^co^poavvr] kol ^Aperr), 
X(0(l)pocrwr] p,€V Aiovvcriw rSi via) avvcpKrjaev, 
^Aperr) Be SeapiBrj rw dBeX^oy. reXevrrjaavro^ 
Be rov dBeXcpov SeapiBov Alcov eXa^e rrjv ^ Aperr)v 

2 dBeXc^iBrjv ovaav. eirel Be voacov eBo^ev 6 Atovv- 
(Tio^ d/3L(ora)<; e^^iv, eirexeLpTjaev avrw BtaXe- 
yeadai irepl rwv Ik rrj<; ^ Apicrrop.d'XpT^ tckvcdv 6 
AioiVy ol K iarpoX r& /neXXovrc rr]v dp')(7]v BiaBi- 
X€(76ai, x^pi^op^voL KUipov ov Trapea^op' o)? Be 
Tt/iato9 (prjai,, Kal (f)dpuaKov virvwriKov alrovvrt 
Bovre^ d(f)ei\ovro rrjv ato-Orjaiv avrov, Oavdrcd 
avvd'^avre<s rov virvov. 

3 Ov p,r}v dXXd avXXoyov Trpcorov rS>v <blXa)v 
yevopLevov irapd rov veov AiovvaLov ovrco BieXe- 
')^6rj irepl rcov av/ji(f)ep6vroov tt/^o? rov Kaipov c 

12 



V. 4-vi. 3 

great admiration. The tyrant also bore witn ms 
freedom of speech, and Dion was almost the only 
one who spoke his mind fearlessly, as, for example, 
when he rebuked Dionysius for what he said about 
Gelon. The tyrant was ridiculing the government of 
Galon,! and when he said that Gelon himself, true 
to his name, became the laughing-stock ("gelos") 
of Sicily, the rest of his hearers pretended to admire 
the joke, but Dion was disgusted and said : " Indeed, 
thou art now tyrant because men trusted thee for 
Gelon's sake ; but no man hereafter will be trusted 
for thy sake." For, as a matter of fact, Gelon seems 
to have made a city under absolute rule a very fair 
thing to look upon, but Dionysius a very shameful 
thing. 

VI. Dionysius had three children by his Locrian 
wife, and four by Aristomache, two of whom were 
daughters, Sophrosyne and Arete. Sophrosyne be- 
came the wife of his son Dionysius,'^ and Arete of 
his brother Thearides, but after the death of The- 
arides. Arete became the wife of Dion, her uncle. 
Now, when Dionysius was sick and seemed likely to 
die, Dion tried to confer with him in the interests 
of his children by Aristomache, but the physicians, 
who wished to ingratiate themselves with the heir 
apparent, would not permit it ; moreover, according 
to Timaeus, when the sick man asked for a sleeping 
potion, they gave him one that robbed him of his 
senses and made death follow sleep.^ 

However, in the first conference held between the 
young Dionysius and his friends, Dion discoursed 
upon the needs of the situation in such a manner 



* Gelon had been tyrant of Syracuse circa 485-478 B.C. 
« Cf. chapter iii. 3. ^ Jq 357 ^.o. 



13 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ai(ov a>(TT€ Tou? dWov<; airavra^ rfj fiev (ppopijaei, 
7ralBa<i airoSel^ai, ttj Be Trapprja-La SovXov^; t% 
Tvpavvlho^ dyevv(jj<i koX irepK^o^w^ ra jroWa tt/jo? 
4 xdpiv TO) fieipaKLw avfJu^ovXevovra^i. fjuakKTra 
Be avrov<i i^iirXyj^e rov diro Kap^rjBovo^ kIvBvvov 
eiTLKpepAp.evov rfj dpxfl BeBoL/cora^, v7ro(T')(o^vo<;, 
ct ^ev elpr)vr}<; Beotro ALOvvcno<;, ir\evaa<i evBv^ 
eh Ai^vrjv (w? dpLara BLaOrjaeaOai. rov 7r6\ep.ov, 
ei Be TToXe/jLelv 7rpoOv/j,oiTO, Opeyjreiv avTo<i lBlol^ 
TeXeac koI irape^eiv eh rov iroXefMov avr& 
irevTTjKovTa rpirjpeL^ ev irXeovaa*;} 

VII. 'O fiev ovv Aiovvaio<i virep^vajf; rrjv 
fieya\o'\lrv)(iav eOav/iaa-e koI rr)v irpoOvfiiav 
i^ydirijaev' ol Be eXiy^eaOaL rfj XafnrporrjTi koX 
raireLvovadav rrj Bvvd/iei rov Alcopo^; oio/jievot, 
ravrrjv evOv<; dp^rjv Xa^6vre<i, ovBefiid^i ecpeLBovro 
<l)a)vrj<; y to fieipdKiov e^aypcaiveiv e/xeXXov 7rpo<; 
avrov, ft)9 virep'^^ofMevov Bid rrj<; OaXdrrrj^ rvpav- 
viBa fcal irepidTroivra rah vavaX ri]v BvvafjLiv eh 
Toy? ^ApLaro/id)(7]<; 7raiBa<;, dBeX<l>tBov<; ovra^ 

2 avrS). (f)avep(orarai Be koX fiiyiaruL rcov eh 
<j)06vov fcal /LttfTO? alrcfov virrfp^ov rj rov ^lov 
Bia^opd KoX ro r?}? Bialrrj^i d/iiLKrov. ol fiev ydp, 
evOv<; ef dp)(^r]<; veov rvpdvvov fcal reOpapLfievov 
(f>avX(0'i o/jllXluv koI avvrjOeiav r)Bovah Kal KoXa- 
K€Lai^ KaraXaiifidvovre<;, del riva^ epcora^; kuI 
Biarpi^d<; ip^vfy^avwvro pefx^coBei^ rrepl rrorovi 

3 KaX yvvaLKa<;, koI 7ratBid<; er€pa<; d(T)(i]p'Ova<;, v(f 
a)V rj rvpavvh, coarrep (TiBrjpo^;, fiaXacrao/jLevT], 
roh /jL€V dp-)(^o/jLevoi,(i ecpavrj (f)iXdv6p(07ro<;, koX to 
Xiav dirdvdpwiTOV vnavfJKep, ovk eTrieiKeia rivl 

^ fv irKfovaas van Herwerden : ir\eova-as . 
14 



DION VI. 3-V11. 3 

that his wisdom made all the rest appear children, 
and his boldness of speech made them seem mere 
slaves of tyranny, who were wont to give their 
counsels timorously and ignobly to gratify the young 
man. But what most amazed them in their fear of 
the peril that threatened the realm from Carthage, 
was Dion's promise that, if Dionysius wanted peace, 
he would sail at once to Africa and put a stop to 
the war on the best terms possible ; but if war was 
the king's desire, he himself would furnish him with 
fifty swift triremes for the war, and maintain them 
at his own costs. 

VII. Dionysius, then, was greatly astonished at 
his magnanimity and delighted with his ardour ; but 
the other courtiers, thinking themselves put out of 
countenance by Dion's generosity and humbled by 
his power, began hostilities forthwith, and said every- 
thing they could to embitter the young king against 
him, accusing him of stealing into the position of 
tyrant by means of his power on the sea, and of 
using his ships to divert the power into the hands 
of the children of Aristomache, who were his 
nephews and nieces. But the strongest and most 
apparent grounds for their envy and hatred of him 
lay in the difference between his way of life and 
theirs, and in his refusal to mingle with others. For 
from the very outset they obtained converse and 
intimacy with a tyrant who was young and had been 
badly reared by means of pleasures and flatteries, 
and were ever contriving for him sundry amours, 
idle amusements with wine and women, and other 
unseemly pastimes. In this way the tyranny, being 
softened, like iron in the fire, appeared to its subjects 
to be kindly, and gradually remitted its excessive 

15 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjLoXXov rj paOvfila rod Kparovvro^ afjuffXyvofiivr). 
eK Be rovrov Trpo'iovaa koI v€/jlo/i€V7) Kara fUKpov 
r) nrepX to fieipaKLOv avea-i^ rov^ aBafiavTivovf; 
B€(r/jLOv<; €K€ivov<;, ol<; o irpecr^vTspof; Ai,ovv(tio^ 
e^T] hehepAvrjv aTToXeiireiv rr)v fjLovap-)(iav, i^errj^e 
4 fcal hie(f>6€Lp6V. r}fjL€pa<; yap, w? (fyaaiv, ivevrj- 
Kovra avv€)(a)<; eirivev ap^dixevo^i, koI rr)v avXrjv 
iv TO) 'X,pov(p rovT(p (TTTovBaioL^ avSpdcrc koI X6yoL<; 
d^arov xal dvelaohov ovcrav fiiOac Kal a/c(OfjL- 
fiara koX '\jraXfjLol koX 6p^7]a€t<; Kal ;8ft)/x.oXo%/at 
fcarelxov. 

VIII. ^Hv ovv, &)9 €Ik6<;, 6 Aia)v iiTa^Orjf; eh 
ovBev rjBv Kal vecorepiKov ivBiBoix; eavrov. Bio 
Kal TnOava KaKiwv irpoapr^fjiaTa Tat? dperal^ 
im^epovTe'i avrov Bte^aXXoVy virepo'^iav rr^v 
ae/jLvoTTjra Kal rrjv irapprja-iav avOdBeiav diroKa- 
Xx)vvre<i' Kal vovOercov Karrjyopelv eBoKci Kal firj 

2 avve^afiaprdvcov Kara(f)pov€iv. dfiiXeL Be xal 
^vcrei TLvd to tjOo^ oyKov el^ev avTov Kal Tpa^v- 
Tr]Ta BvaTrpoaoBov evTev^et Kal Bva^vfi^oXov. ov 
yhp fjLovov dvBpl veo) Kal BtaTeOpVfi/jieva) tcl coTa 
KoXaKeiai^ d^api^ rjv avyyeveaOai Kal 7rpo(TdvT7]<;, 
TToXXol Be Kal tcov irdvv ■)(^pcofj,ev(ov avrw Kal ttjv 
aTrXoTTjTa Kal to yevvalov dyaTTcovTCov tov Tpo- 
irov KaT€/jL€fi(j)ovTo Trj<; ofxCXLa^, &)9 dypoiKOTepov 
Kal ^apvTepov iroXiTiKOiv ')(^peio)v rot? Beofievou^; 

3 avvaXXdaGOVTa. irepl u)v Kal TlXdTwv vaTepov 
wairep aTrodeaTrl^cov eypayjre tt/oo? avTov i^ev- 
i6 



DION VII. 3-V111. 3 

cruelty, though its edge was blunted not so mucnl^ 
any clemency in the sovereign as by his love of ease. 
As a consequence, the laxity of the young king gained 
ground little by little, until at last those "adaman- 
tine bonds " with which the elder Dionysius said he 
had left the monarchy fastened, were melted and 
destroyed. For it is said that the young king once 
kept up a drinking bout for ninety consecutive days 
from its beginning, and that during this time his 
court gave no access or admission to men or matters 
of consequence, but drunkenness and raillery and 
music and dancing and buffoonery held full sway. 

VIII. Dion, then, as was natural, was obnoxious 
to these men, since he indulged in no pleasure or 
youthful folly. And so they tried to calumniate him 
by actually giving to his virtues plausible names of 
vices ; for instance, they called his dignity haughti- 
ness, and his boldness of speech self-will. Even 
when he admonished, he was thought to denounce, 
and when he would not share men's sins, to despise. 
And in very truth his character had naturally a 
certain majesty, together with a harshness that re- 
pelled intercourse and was hard to deal with. For 
not only to a man who was young and whose ears 
had been corrupted by flattery was he an unpleasant 
and irksome associate, but many also who were in- 
timate with him and who loved the simplicity and 
nobility of his disposition, were apt to find fault 
with the manner of his intercourse with men, on 
the ground that he dealt with those who sought his 
aid more rudely and harshly than was needful in 
public life. On this head Plato also afterwards wrote 
to him,^ in a tone almost prophetic, that he should 

^ Epist. iv. ad Jin. 

17 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xa^elcrOai rtjv avddBecav &)? ipTjfiia (TVVCiKOvaav. 
ov firjv aWa rore TrXeio'Tov Sokcov a^LO<i virdp- 
')(eLV 8i,a ra Trpdy/JiaTa koI fxovo^ rj fidXia-ra rrjv 
TvpavviBa (ToKevovaav dvopOovv koX Sca^vXaT- 
reiv, eyivcodKev ov iTpo<; ^dptv, dXX^ ukovto^ vtto 
')(p€ia<; Tov Tvpdvvov Trpwro^ a)v koI p.6yL(TT0<i. 

IX. Alriav Bk tovtov ttjv dTraihevcriav elvat 
vofjLi^cov ifi^aXeiv avrov et? BiaTpi^d<; eXevOepi- 
ou? €(f>iXoTifjL€LTO Kol yevcat Xoycov KOI pudrjfid- 

T<OV rjOoTTOlMV, €09 dpeTYjV T€ TTavaaiTO B€BlW<i Kal 

2 TOt? KaXoU ^(aipeiv iOiaOeiT]. <f)vaei yap ov 
yeyovei tmv ^avXordrwv rvpdvvwv 6 Aiovvctlo';, 
aW irarrip, BeBoi,Kca<i fir) <f)pov7]/jLaTO<; fieraXa- 
fioDv Kal avyyevofievo^ vovv e^ovaLV dvdp(t)7roi<i 
emPovXevaeiev avro) xal irapeXoiTO ttjp dp')(riv, 
i<l)povp€L KardKXeicrrov olkoi, Bl ipr^plav 6p.iXia<; 
ere/oa? Ka\ direipia irpayp.drwv, co? (paaiv, ajjud^ca 
Kal Xv')(yia<i Kal Bi(^pov^ ^vXivov^ Kal TyoaTre^a? 

3 reKTaivopievov. ovtco yap tjv dntaro^i Kal Trpo? 
diravra^i dv6pct)7rov<; {/ttottto? Kal Trpoffe^Xij/jievof; 
Bid cj)6^ov 6 7rp€a^vT€po<; Aiovvaio<; ware /JurjBe 
T^9 K€<f)aXr]^ Ta^; rpixcd d^eXelv ^ KovpiKai<i 
fia')(^aLpaL<;, dXXd riov irXaarMv rt? iiTL^oncav 
dvdpaKi rrjv KOfirjv irepieKaLCv. elarjeu Be tt/oo? 
avTov €19 TO Bco/jbdriov ovre. a0€X<^09 ovd^ f/09 009 
€TV)(^ev r)pi(^L€(TiJLevo<^, oA.X' eBe.L 7rp\v elaeXOelv 
diToBvvTa TrjV eavrov GToXrjv eKaarov erepav 
dvaXa^elv, opaOevra yvp,vov virb twv <pvXarr6i'- 

4 rcov. eVel Be Aeirr Lvr}<; 6 aS€\^09 avro) irore 



a<pf\€7v Bekker, after Coraes, has a<paipeiv. 



VIII. ^-ix. 4 

be on his guard against self-will, which was & ** coi 
panion of solitude." ^ However, at this time, thou| 
circumstances led men to think him of more value 
than any one else, and the only or the chief sup- 
porter and guardian of the storm-tossed tyranny, he 
knew that it was not out of goodwill, but against 
the wishes of the tyrant and owing to his needs, 
that he was first and greatest. 

IX. Considering, then, that a reason for this lay 
in the tyrant's want of education, he sought to 
engage him in liberal studies, and to give him a 
taste of such literature and science as formed the 
character, in order that he might cease to be afraid 
of virtue, and become accustomed to take delight in 
what was high and noble. For by nature Dionysius 
did not belong to the worst class of tyrants, but his 
father, fearing that if he should get wisdom and 
associate with men of sense, he would plot against 
him and rob him of his power, used to keep him 
closely shut up at home, where, through lack of as- 
sociation with others and in ignorance of affairs, as 
we are told, he made little waggons and lampstands 
and wooden chairs and tables. For the elder Diony- 
sius was so distrustful and suspicious towards every 
body, and his fear led him to be so much on his 
guard, that he would not even have his hair cut with 
barbers' scissors, but a hairdresser would come and 
singe his locks with a live coal. Neither his brother 
nor his son could visit him in his apartment wearing 
any clothes they pleased, but every one had to take 
off his own apparel before entering and put on an- 
other, after the guards had seen him stripped. And 
once, when his brother Leptines was describing to 

,, ; ■ ^ " * Cf. the Coriolanus, xv. 4. 

19 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'^(opiov <f)V(Tiv i^rjyovfjL€vo<; Xa^oiv Xoy^V^ irapd 
rivo<i Tcov Sopv(j)6p(i)v vTriypa-^jre top tottov, eicelvw 
fjLev la-^vpcof; i')(^a\e7r7jve, rbv Be Bovtu ttjv \6yxv^ 
aireKT€Lvev. eXeye Se rovfj (J>lXov<; (j>uXdTT€a6ai 
vovp €XOvra<; elSoD<; koX ^ovXofievovf; fxaXXov 
5 rvpavveXv rj rvpavvelaOaL. koX Mapavav Be riva 
TCOV irpoTjypevwv vii avrov fcal reTayfievcov €(f> 
r)y€fiovLa<; dveTXe Bo^avra Kara rov<; virvov^; 
(T<l>dTT€iv avrov, o)? air ivvoia^ fJLe6r]fiepivrj<; fcal 962 
BiaXoyi(T/jLOv t^? 6-\jr€(o<i ravrr]^ eh tov vttvov 
avrS> Trapayevo/Jievrjf;. 6 jiev Br) YiXdrcdvi, dv/xco- 
deh on fir] Trdprcov avrov dvOpcorrcov dvBpeiorarov 
ovra d7r€(f)r)v€v, ovrco rrepl^o^ov Koi roa-ovrcov 
VTTO BeiXua^; KaKcov fi€<rrr)v el^e rrjv "^vxri^. 

X. 'Tov S* vlov avrov, KaOdirep etprjrai, BiaXe- 
Xoafirj/ievov dTraiBevaia Kal avvrerpip^/juevov ro 
r}6o<i Aicov 6p(ov TrapexdXec tt/do? iraiBeiav 
rpaireaOai Kal Berjdrjvac rod irpdirov rS)v <j>LXoa6- 

2 <pcov irdaav Berjaiv iXOelv eh ^LKeXlav eXBovn 
Be irapaax^lv avrov, 67rco<; BiaKoaiirjOel^ ro rj6o<; 
€i9 dperrjf; Xoyov, Kal Trpo? to Oeiorarov d(l>o/jLOi(o- 
OeU TTapdBevyiia rwv ovrcov Kal KdXXiarov, o5 to 
irdv r)yoviiev(p rretOopevov ef dKo<T/jLta<; /cocryLto? 
earl, iroXXrjv fiev evBaifiovlav eavrw p^TjXi^vtja-eratf 
TToXXrjv Be roL<; iroXlraif;, ocra vvv ev ddvfxla 
BtoLKOvat 7r/309 dvdyKrjv tt)? dpxv^, ravra aaxppo- 
(Tvvr) Kal BiKaLoavvr) jxer ev/jLeveia^; irarpovopiov- 
fjLeva 7ra/oacr%a)y kol y€v6fievo<i /3a(TLXev<; ck rvpdv- 

3 vov. Tou? yap dBafxavrivov^ Beap.ov'i ov^t coairep 6 

20 



L 



DION IX. 4-x. 3 



him the nature of a place, and drew the plan of it 
on the ground with a spear which he took from one 
of his body-guards, he was extremely angry with 
him, and had the man who gave him the spear put 
to deatli. He used to say, too, that he was on his 
guard against his friends who were men of sense, 
because he knew that they would rather be tyrants 
than subjects of a tyrant. And he slew Marsyas, one 
of those whom he had advanced to positions of high 
command, for having dreamed that he killed him, 
declaring that this vision must have visited his sleep 
because in his waking hours he had purposed and 
planned such a deed; Yes, the man who was angry 
with Plato because he would not pronounce him the 
most valiant man alive, had a spirit as timorous as 
this, and so full of all the evils induced by cowardice. 
X. This tyrant's son, as I have said, Dion saw to 
be dwarfed and deformed in character from his lack 
of education, and therefore exhorted him to apply 
himself to study, and to use every entreaty with 
the first of philosophers to come to Sicily, and, 
when he came, to become his disciple, in order that 
his character might be regulated by the principles of 
virtue, and that he might be conformed to that 
divinest and most beautiful model of all being, in 
obedience to whose direction the universe issues 
from disorder into order ; in this way he would pro- 
cure great happiness for himself, and great happiness 
for his people, and that obedience which they now 
rendered dejectedly and under the compulsion of 
his authority, this his moderation and justice would 
base upon goodwill and a filial spirit, and he would 
become a king instead of a tyrant. For the "ada- 
mantine bonds" of sovereignty were not, as his 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vrrarrjp eXeyev avrov, cfyo^ov koI fflav koX veSiv 
itXtjOo^ elvat koI ^ap^cipcov fivplavSpop (fivXuKijv, 
evvoiav he koI TrpoOvfilav kol %ap4i^ lyyevoyikvi]v 
\)ir apeTTjf; KaX BLKaLoavvr]^;, a, Kalirep ovra 
fiaXaKooTepa t(ov ctvvtovwv kol aKkt^poiv €K€lvcov, 
lax^porepa Trpo? Bta/jLOvrjv r}y€/jLOv[a<; virdp'^^eLV. 

t %a)/3t? Be TOVTcov d^iXoTifiov elvac koI d^rfkov 
rov dpxopra, t& fiev acofiari irepiTToy^ dfiire^o- 
/JL6V0V fcal rfi irepl Trjv OLKrjatv d^porrjri, kuI 
KaraaKevy Xa/jLTrpwofievop, o/jliXlcl Be /cat Xoyw 
/jLTjBev ovra rov 7rpo(TTV)(^6v70<; aepLVorepov, firjBe 
T^9 -v/ru^TJ? TO ^aaiXeiov d^tovvra KCKoafjLijfxii'OP 
e^^LV PaaiXiKw^i Kal TTpeTTOvrco^. 

XI. Taura iroXXdKL^ rov Atoovof; TrapaLVovPTO^, 
Kol Tcop Xoycop rov HXdrcopo^ ecrriv ovaripaf vtto- 
aireipoPTOf;, ea^ev epw^ top Atopvaiop ofu? xal 
irepifiap'q's to)p re Xoycop koI tt}? avpovaia^; rov 
YiXdrwvo<;. €vdv<; ovp ^AOijpa^e TroXXd /lep 
ecpoira ypd/jL/jLara irapd rov Aiopvaiov, iroXXal 5' 
i'iri(TKy]yjr€i<; irapd rov Atwi/o?, dXXai S* e^ 'IraXta? 
irapd TCOP YlvdayopLKCop, BiaKcXevo/iepcop irapa- 
yepkdOai Kal pea^ '\jrv'x^r]<; i^ovaici fieydXy kol 
Bvpa/jLec 7TepLcj)€po/jLeprj<; eiriXa^eadaL koX Kara- 

2 cT')(elp efi^piOearepoLf; Xoyic7/jLOL<;. UXdrcop /jlcp 
OVP, CO? cprjaiP avTo^, eavrop ala^vpOeU /jidXiara, 
fir) Bo^eie X0709 elpai fiopop, epyov B' kfcoop ovBepo^ 
dp dyjraaOat, Kal '7rpoaBoKi]<ra<s Bl €p6<; dpBpo^i 
Mcnrep rjyepLOPLKov /iipov<; eKKadapOepro^ oXrjp 
larpevcreLP XcKcXlap poaovcrap, vinjKovaep, 

01 Be Tcp Alcopi TToXe/jLovPTe^ <fiOpovp,ePOL ttjp 
rov Aiopvaiov ixeTafioX^p eireLcrav uvtop diro ttj^ 



23 



DION X. 3-xi. 2 

Father used to say, fear and force and a multitude 
of ships and numberless barbarian body-guards, but 
goodwill and ardour and favour engendered by virtue 
and justice ; these, though they were more flexible 
than the bonds of severity and harshness, were 
stronger to maintain a lasting leadership. And be- 
sides all this, it was mean and spiritless in a ruler, 
while his body was magnificently clothed and his 
habitation resplendent with luxurious furnishings, 
to be no more majestic in his intercourse and con- 
versation than an ordinary man, and not to insist 
that the royal palace of his soul should be adorned 
in meet and royal fashion. 

XI. Since Dion frequently gave him such advice, 
and artfully mingled with it some of Plato's doc- 
trines, Dionysius was seized with a keen and even 
frenzied passion for the teachings and companionship 
of Plato. At once, then, many letters began to come 
to Athens from Dionysius, and many injunctions 
from Dion, as well as others from the Pythagorean 
philosophers of Italy, all of whom urged Plato to 
come and get control of a youthful soul now tossed 
about on a sea of great authority and power, and 
steady it by his weighty reasonings. Plato, accord- 
ingly, as he tells us himself,^ out of shame more than 
any thing else, lest men should think him nothing 
but theory and unwilling to take any action ; and 
further, because he expected that by the purification 
of one man, who was, as it were, a controlling factor, 
he would cure all Sicily of her distempers, yielded 
to these requests. 

But the enemies of Dion, afraid of the alteration 
in Dionysius, persuaded him to recall from exile 

» Epist. vii. p. 328. 
VOL. VI. « 23 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(f)vyrj<; fxeTairefJi'ireaOaL ^lXkttov, avBpa koI tts- 
iraiBev/jbevop irepl \6'yov<; koI TvpavviKMV rjOcav 
ifiTreiporaTOV, w? avTiTayfia tt/jo? UXdrcova /cal 

3 <j)i,\oao(f)Lap eKelvov e^ovre^. 6 yap hrj ^iXiaTo^ 
i^ apxv^ T6 TTJ TUpavviBi, KaOca-ra/jLevr] TrpoOvpLO- 
rarov kavTov irapeax^^ k^clI ttjv aKpav Bie^vXa^e 
(^povpapXMV eirl ttoXvv ')(^p6vov. rjv Se Xoyo-i ox; 
Koi TTj p.r)Tpl irXrfaid^oL rov Trpea^vrepov Aiovv- 
alov, Tov Tvpdvvov fir) Travrdiraaiv dyvoovvro^. 
itrel Be AeirTivr]^, eV yvvaiKo^ rjv Bia<\)6eLpa<i 
€T€pfp avvoiKovaav ecr%6 yeuop^evwy avrw hvelv 
Ovyarepcov, rrjv erepav eBwKe ^PcXiaro) /jurjBe (ppd- 
cra^ 7r/909 ^iovvcnov, opyiaOeU eKelvov rrjv /nev 
yvvuLKa TOV AeirTivov B^(Ta<; iv 7reSat<; KaOelp^e, 

4 TOV he ^iXiaTov e^rjXacre ^iKeXia^, <j>vy6vTa irapa 
feVou? TLva^ eU tov ^ABpiav, ottov koI Boxei to, 
irXelcTTa avvOelvai r^? laTopia<; a')(oXd^(ov. ov 
yap eiravrjXOe tov irpeafivTepov ^wvto^, dXXa 
fjL€Ta Tr)v eKelvov TeXevrrjv, wairep e'lprjTai., /caT7]- 
yayev avTov 6 Trpo? Alcova tmv dXXcov ^06vo<;, co? 
auTot? re pbdXXov eiriTrjBeiov ovTa koi tt) Tvpav- 
vlBl /:^e/3ai.6Tepov. 

XIL OuTo? pev ovv evOv<; KaTeXOoiv Bt€7r€(f>VK€i 
Trj<; TvpavviBo^' tw Be Alcovl koI irap dXXcov 
eTvy^avov ovaai Bia/SoXal koI KaTijyopiai tt/jo? 
TOV Tvpavvov, fo)9 BietXeypevw rrepl KaTaXvcrew<; 
T^9 dp'X^y)^ TTpof; t€ ^eoBoTTjv /cal 7rp6<; 'Upa- 
KXeiBrjv. rfXiTL^e pev ydp, ct)9 eoiKc, Bid DXarwi/o? 
irapayevopevov to BecnroTLKov Kal Xiav aKpaTov 
d(j)eXcov tt}? TVpavviBo<; eppueXi] Tcva Kal v6pip,ov 
'i ap'^ovTa TOV Alovvctlov KaTaaTrja-eiv el Be dvTi- 



24 



DION XI. 2-XII. 2 

Philistus, a man versed in letters and acquainted 
with the ways of tyrants, that they miglit have in 
him a counterpoise to Plato and philosophy. For 
Philistus at the outset had most zealously assisted in 
establishing the tyranny, and for a long time was 
commander of the garrison that guarded the citadel. 
There was a story, too, that he was very intimate 
with the mother of the elder Dionysius, and that 
the tyrant was not wholly ignorant of the fact. But 
when Leptines, who had two daughters by a woman 
whom he had corrupted when she was living with 
another man and then taken to wife, gave one of 
them to Philistus without so much as telling Diony- 
sius, the tyrant was wroth, put the wife of Leptines 
into fetters and prison, and banished Philistus from 
Sicily. Philistus took refuge with some friends in 
Adria, and there, it would seem, in his leisure, com- 
posed the greater part of his history. For he did 
not return to Syracuse while the elder Dionysius 
was alive, but after his death, as I have said, the 
envy which the other courtiers felt towards Dion 
brought about his recall ; they thought him a more 
suitable man for their purposes, and a stauncher 
friend of the tyranny. 

XII. Philistus, then, as soon as he had returned, 
was in close touch with the tyranny ; and there were 
others also wdio brought slanders and accusations 
against Dion to the tyrant, alleging that he had 
been in conference with Theodotes and Heracleides 
concerning a subversion of the government. For 
Dion had hopes, as it seems likely, that by means of 
the visit of Plato he could mitigate the arrogance 
and excessive severity of the tyranny, and con- 
vert Dionysius into a fit and lawful ruler ; but if 

25 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

paivoL Kol fir) fiaXdcraocTo, KaraXvaa^ eKelvov 
eyvci)K€L rrjv TTdXirelav aTToBtBovac XvpaKovaLoi,<;, 
ovK eiraivoyv fiev Srj/jLOKparlav, iravTw^ he ^eXrlw 
TVpavviBo<; r]yov[ievo^ rot? Siafiaprdvouatv vyiaL- 
vov(Tr}<; dpi(TTOKpaTLa<i. 

XIII. ^Ev TOiavTrj Be fcaraa-rdaeL T(ov Trpay/jud- 
T(ov ovTCDV YWdrcov et? ZiKekiav d(f)iK6/Ji€vo<; rrepl 
fiev ra? irpcara^; diravTrjo-eL'; Oavfiaarrjf; iTvy')(ave 
(f>Cko<^poavvri^ koX Tifirj<;. kol yap dpfia rcov 
^acfiXiKOiv avTM irapearr) k€ko(t/jL7}/jL6vov Biairpe- 
7r(o<i dTTo/SdvTC T^9 rpLrjpov<i, koX Ovaiav eOvcrev 6 
rvpavvo<; co? euTU^^JyLtaro? /xeydXov rfj dp-y^rj irpoa- 

2 yeyovoTO^;. alBax; Be avjjLTroaiwv kol a^rj/jua- 
Tiafio<; avXi]^ koX irpaorr)^ avrov rov rvpdvvov 
irepl GKaara tcop 'X^prj/uLarL^o/xevcov OavfiaaTd<; ive- 
BcoKev ik7rLBa<; yu-eTa/SoX?}? tol<; iroXiraL^. <popd 
Be Tt? ^v eirl \6yov(; Kal (piXoo-ocjilav dirdprcov, 
Kal TO TVpavvelov, w? (fyacn, KoviopTO<; viro irXyj- 

3 Oov<; TMV yeo) fierpovvTcov KaTet-)(^ev. y/jLepcov Be 
oXiyoav Biayevofievcov Ovcria jiev rjv irdrpco^ ev T0i9 
TVpavveioL^' rov Be Ki]pvKo^, oiairep elcoOei, Karev- 
^afiepov BiafxeveLV rrjv TvpavvlBa dadXeuTov ttoX- 
Xov<; 'X^povovf;, 6 Aiopvaco^; Xeyerai Trapearw^, 
** Ou iravarj,'^ <f)dvai,, *' Kara poo p.evo<; tj/jlIv;^^ tov- 
TO KOfjLiBfj Tou? Trepl Tov ^lXlcttov eXvTTTja-ev, 
dixa')(pv TLva tov Y\.XdTwvo<; r\yovjJikvov^ ecreaOai 
Xpovtd Kal avvqOeia ttjv Buva/iiv, el vvv eK avvov- 
aia^ o\iy'q<; rjXXoiwKev ovtco Kal fieTa^effXrjKe 
Tr)v yvMfMTjv to fieipaKCOV, 

26 



DION XII. 2-xiii. 3 

Dionysius should oppose his efforts and refuse to be 
softened, he had determined to depose him and 
restore the civil power to the Syracusan people ; not 
that he approved of a democracy, but he thought it 
altogether better than a tyranny in lack of a sound 
and healthy aristocracy. 

XIII. Such was the condition of affairs when Plato 
came to Sicily,^ and in the first instances he met 
with astonishing friendliness and honour. For a 
royal chariot, magnificently adorned, awaited him 
as he left his trireme, and the tyrant offered a sacri- 
fice of thanksgiving for the great blessing that had 
been bestowed upon his government. Moreover, the 
modesty that characterized his banquets, the deco- 
rum of the courtiers, and the mildness of the tyrant 
himself in all his dealings with the public, inspired 
the citizens with marvellous hopes of his reforma- 
tion. There was also something like a general 
rush for letters and philosophy, and the palace was 
filled with dust, as they say, owing to the multitude 
of geometricians there. ^ After a few days had passed, 
there was one of the customary sacrifices of the 
country in the palace grounds ; and when the herald, 
as was the custom, prayed that the tyranny might 
abide unshaken for many generations, it is said that 
Dionysius, who was standing near, cried : " Stop 
cursing us ! " This quite vexed Philistus and his 
party, who thought that time and familiarity would 
render Plato's influence almost irresistible, if now, 
after a brief intimacy, he had so altered and trans- 
formed the sentiments of the youthful prince. 

1 Soon after 368 B.C. 

2 Geometrical figures were traced in loose sand strewn 
upon the floor. 

27 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XIV. OvKer ovv kqO^ eva Kai XaOpaL(o<s, aWa 
Trdvre^ ava^avhov ekoihopovv rov Ai'cova, Xeyovre*; 
0)9 ov XeXrjde KareTraScov kol Karacfyapfida-acov tw 
nXttTOJi^o? Xoyqy Aiovvatov, otto)? d(^evTO^ eKov- 
aLQ)<; avTOV kol Trpoe/iievov ttjv dp')(r]v vTToXa/Sojv 
eh T0U9 ^ApiarofJ.dxV'^ irepiarrjar} iralha'^, a)v 
6€l6<; ianv. evioL he irpoaeiroLovvTo Svo-^epau- 
veiv, el TTporepov jiev ^AOrjvaloi vavriKol'^ koI 
ire^LKal'^ hvvdfxeai fjLeydXaL<; Sevpo irXevaavre^i 
aTTUiXovTO KOL 8ie(f)6dpr}(Tav irporepov rj Xaj3elv 

2 'EvpaKovcra^, vvvl Se hi epo<i aocjuarov KaraXvovai 
rijv Aiovvaiov rvpavvtSa, aviiireiaavTe^; avrov i/c 
Twv fJLvpLwv hopv(j)6pcov diroopdvTa, fcal KaraXi- 
TTovra ra? T€TpaKoaLa<; Tpu'jpeL^ kol roi)? fivplov^i 
L7r7rec<; Koi tou? 7roXXdKi<; roaovrov; oTrXtVa?, iv 
^AKahrjfxela to aicoTrco/jLevov dyadov ^rjrelv kol Blcl 
yecopbeTpia^; evhaipova yeveaOai, rrjv ev dp')(rj koI 
y^prjixacTL Koi rpv^al<; evSai/bLOViav Alwvl koI tol^ 
Aiwvo^ dheX<f)choL<i irpoefxevov. 

3 E/t TovTwv t/TTo-v^ta? irpoiToVy elra koX (fyavepeo- 
Tepa<s opyr]<i koI SLa<popd<; yevo/iiev7]<;, eKopiadr) ri^ 
eTTio'ToX't] Kpv(f)a Trpo? Aiovvaiov, fjv eyeypd<pei 
Aicov 7r/309 T0U9 Kap)(^rjBovLQ)V e7rt/^eA.7?Ta9 KeXevcov, 
orav Aiovvaiw irepl rr]<; elpr)vri<^ SiaXeycovraL, firj 
%&)pt9 avTOv 7roL7]aaa6ai, ttjv evrev^iv, a)9 irdvra 

4 dr]ao/jLepov<; dpLeraTTTcoTO)^ Si avrov. ravrrjv 
dvayvov^ Aiovvaiov ^iXiarw koi fxer ifceivov 
j3ovXevadfjLevo<;, W9 (f>7]ai Tlpaio<;, VTrrjXOe rov 
Aicova 7re7rXaa/ii€vai<i SiaXvaeai' Kal fierpia 
(TKijyjrdfievo^ SiaXXdrreaOai re (j)r](Ta<;, piovov re 
dirayayodv viro rrjv aKponoXiv 7r/909 rrjv ddXaa- 



28 



DION XIV. 1-4 

XIV. They therefore no longer abused Dion one 
by one and secretly, but all together and openly, 
saying that he was manifestly enchanting and be- 
witching Dionysius with Plato's doctrines, in order 
that the tyrant might of his own accord relinquish 
and give up the power, which Dion would then as- 
sume and devolve upon the children of Aristomache, 
whose uncle he was. And some pretended to be 
indignant that the Athenians, who in former times 
had sailed to Sicily with large land and sea forces, 
but had perished utterly without taking Syracuse, 
should now, by means of one sophist, overthrow the 
tyranny of Dionysius, by persuading him to dismiss 
his ten thousand body-guards, and abandon his four 
liundred triremes and his ten thousand horsemen 
and his many times that number of men-at-arms, 
in order to seek in Academic philosophy for a mys- 
terious good, and make geometry his guide to hap- 
piness, surrendering the happiness that was based 
on dominion and wealth and luxury to Dion and 
Dion's nephews and nieces. 

As a consequence of all this, Dionysius became at 
first suspicious, and afterwards more openly angry 
and hostile, and just then a certain letter was secretly 
brought to him, which Dion had written to the Car- 
thaginian officials, urging them, whenever they should 
treat with Dionysius for peace, not to hold their in- 
terview without including him, since he would help 
them to arrange everything securely. This letter 
Dionysius read to Philistus, and after consulting 
with him, according to Timaeus, he beguiled Dion 
by a feigned reconciliation. That is, after moderate 
protestations and a declaration that their quarrel 
was at an end, he led him off alone beneath the 

29 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aav, eSetfe rrjv einaTokrjv koL Karrjyoprjcrev cb? 
avviara/juevov fxera }^ap)(^y]8ovLcov eir* avrov. 
5 airokoyelaOav he ^ovXofiepov rov Aicovof; ovk 
avaayo}Jievo<^y aX,V ev6v<^y w? eZ%ei;, ivOefievo^; €ts 
CLKCLTLov Trpoaira^e tol<; vavTai^; KO/.d^ovTa<; avrov 
eKOelvat 7rpo<; rrjv 'IraXtai/. 

XV. Tevofxevov he rovrov koI (pavevTO<; ^fiov 
TOL<; av9p(07rot<;, ttjv fiev OLKiav rov rvpdvvov irev- 
6o<; €Z%6 hia Ta<; yvvac/ca<;, r) he ttoXl^ tcov %vpa- 
Kovalwv eTrrjpTO irpdyfiara vecorepa koX fjL€Tal3o\r]V 
Trpoahe^^^ofiepr] Ta')(^elav ck rov irepl Alayva Oopv- 
fiov KoX Trj<i 7rpo<; rov rvpavvov airiaTLa^ rcav 

2 dW(OV. a hrj avvopodv 6 Aiovvaio^ Koi hehoiKOOf;, 
Tov<; fiev (piXov^ irapeixvOelro koI ra? yvvaiKa'^ &)? 
ov <pv<yr](;, aXX' diTohr]fjLia<{ tw Alcovl <y€'y€vy]/JLevr]<;, 
©9 /jLi] TL y^elpov opyfj tt/oo? rrjp avOdheiav avrov 
Trapovro'i dfiaprelv ^iacrOeirj' hvo he vav<i rrapa- 
hov<; TOt? Aiwvo^ ol/ceiot'^ eKeXevcrev ivOefievoi'^ oaa 
^ovKoLvro rSiv eKeivov ')(p7]/j,ara Kal Oepdirovra'^ 

3 dirdyeiv irpo^ avrov eh TLeXoTTovvrjaov. rjv h' 
ovaia /leydXr] rw Alcovl Kal (T)(eh6v ri rvpavvtKrj 
iro/JUTTT] Kal KaraaKCVr) rrepl rrjv hiairav, fjv ol 
<j)lXot, (TvXXafiovre^ eKOfXi^ov. dXXa 5' eirefiirero 
TToXXa rrapa rwv yvvaiKwv Kal rwv eraip(ov, 
ware 'X^prjixdroav eveKa Kal irXovrov Xa/iTTpov ev 
rol's "EXXrjaLV elvai Kal hiac^avrjvaL rfj rov (pvyd- 
ho<; evTTopia rr)V rrj^ rvpavviho<^ hvvafMiv. 

XVI. WXdrcova he Aiovva-LO<i evdu^; fiev et? rrjv 
atcpoiroXiv fierea-rrjaev, evrcfiov avro) axw^^'' 
30 



DION XIV. 4-XV1. I 

acropolis down to the sea, and then showed him the 
letter and accused him of conspiring with the Car- 
thaginians against him. And when Dion wished to 
defend himself^ he would not suffer it, but at once 
placed him, just as he was, on board a small boat, 
and commanded the sailors in it to set him ashore 
in Italy. 

XV. At this proceeding, which seemed to men a 
cruel one, the women in the household of the tyrant 
put on mourning, but the citizens of Syracuse were 
cheered by the expectation of a revolution and a 
speedy change in the government, since Dion's 
treatment caused such a commotion and the rest 
of the courtiers distrusted the tyrant. Dionysius 
saw this and was afraid, and sought to console the 
friends of Dion and the women by saying that he 
had not sent Dion into exile, but upon a journey, 
in order that his wrath at the man's self-will when 
at home might not drive him to do him some 
worse wrong. He also handed over two ships to 
the kinsmen of Dion and bade them to put on 
board whatever property and servants of Dion's 
they pleased and convey them to him in Pelopon- 
nesus. Now, Dion had great riches and an almost 
princely splendour of appointment in his way of 
living, and this his friends got together and con- 
veyed to him. Besides, many other things were sent 
to him from the women of the court and from his 
adherents, so that, as far as wealth and riches went, 
he was a brilliant figure among the Greeks, to whom 
the affluence of the exile gave some idea of the 
power of the tyrant. 

XVI. As for Plato, Dionysius at once removed 
him to the acropolis, where he contrived to give 

31 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^€Via<; (piXavOpcoTTOv (ppovpav /jLtj^avrjaa/jLei'O'i, co? 
fiT) crv/jLTrXeoi, Alcovl /jbdpTV<; o)v T^SiKyjro. XP^^V 
Be Koi avvhtaiTrjaeL, Kaddirep "^avecv dvOpcinrov 
OrjpLOV, eOiaOeU virofieveiv rrjv re ^ opCkiav avrov 
Kol TOP \6yov, iQpda07) TVpavviKov epcora, piovo^ 
d^icop VTTO TL\dTa)VO<; dvTepaaOai kol Oavpid- 
^eadai pidXiara 7rdvT0)v, €roLpLO<; o)V eTnTpeireiv 
rd TTpdypLara Kal rr^v rvpavviSa pir) TrpoTipcovri 

2 Tr)v Trpo? Aicova (f)L\Lav rrj^ tt/Oo? avrov. rjv ovv 
TO) UXdrcovL avp(f)opd to 7rdOo<; avrov rovro, 
pbatvofjievov KaOdrrep ol Bva€pcor€<; viro ^tjXorv- 
Tr/a?, fcal TroXXa? p^eu opyd^ ev oXiyw ^/joi^ft), 
rroXXd^ he SiaX\ayd<; Kal 3e>;cret9 Troiovpievov 
TTyOo? avrov, aKpodaOat Be rcov Xoycov /cat KOLvwvelv 
T779 rrepX (f)iXocro(f)[av irpaypLareia'^ a7rovBd^ovro<; 
pLev VTrepcfivo)^, alSovpLevov Be rov<; diTorpe7rovra<;' 
&)? BtacfiOaprjaopLevov. 

3 'Ez^ rovrw Be iroXepiov rLvo<; ipLireaovro^ drro- 
Trepbiret rov YlXdrcova, avvOepi€vo<; eh wpav erov<; 
pLerairepi'^aaOaL Alcova. Kal rovro ptev evOv<; 
eyjrevaaro, ra? Be irpoao^ov^ rcov Knipbdrcov drri- 
irepLTTev avrw, d^tojv JJXdrcova avyyvoivav irepl 
rov xP^^o^ ^^^ '^02/ TToXepiOV' elptjvrj^; yap yevo- 
pLev7](; rd^ia-ra pLeraTrepbyjreaOaL rov Alcova, Kal 
d^LOvv avrov rjcrvxiav dyeLV Kal pLrjBev vewrepi^eiv 
/etrjBe ^Xacrc^i-j p,elv Kar avrov rrpo's rov<s 'KXXrjvaf;. 

XVII. Tavra erreipdro rroielv TlXdrwv, Kal 
Aicova rpeyjra<; eirl (f)LXoao(f)Lav ev ^AKaBrjpieia 
crvvetxev. (pKei p^ev ovv ev daret, irapd KaX- 
'Xlttttw nvl rcov yvojpipbwv, dypov Be BiaycoyTjf; 

^ viTOfXiveiv Tr}v re Schenkl : virofxfyeiv re Tr)y. 
32 



m 



DION XVI. i-xvii. I 

lim a guard of honour under pretence of hospitable 
kindness^ in order that he might not accompany 
Dion and bear witness to his wrongs. But after 
time and intercourse had accustomed Dionysius to 
tolerate his society and discourse, just as a wild 
beast learns to have deaHngs with men, he conceived 
a passion for him that was worthy of a tyrant, de- 
manding that he alone should have his love returned 
by Plato and be admired beyond all others, and he 
was ready to entrust Plato with the administration 
If the tyranny if only he would not set his friend- 
hip for Dion above that which he had for him. 
Now, this passion of liis was a calamity for Plato, 
for the tyrant was mad with jealousy, as desperate 
lovers are, and in a short space of time would often 
be angry with him and as often beg to be reconciled ; 
for he v/as extravagantly eager to hear his doctrines 
and share in his philosophical pursuits, but he dreaded 
the censure of those who tried to divert him from 
this course as likely to corrupt him. 

At this juncture, however, a war broke out, and 
he sent Plato away, promising him that in the summer 
he would summon Dion home. This promise, indeed, 
he immediately broke, but he kept sending to Dion 
the revenues from his property, and asked Plato to 
pardon his postponement of the time of Dion's re- 
call, because of the war ; as soon as peace was made 
he would summon Dion home, and he asked him to 
be quiet, and to attempt no revolution, and to say no 
evil of him to the Greeks. 

XVII. This Plato tried to effect, and kept Dion 
with him in the Academy, where he turned his at- 
tention to philosophy. Dion dwelt in the upper 
city of Athens ^ with Callippus, one of his acquaint- 

^ The "upper city," as distinguished from the Piraeus. 

33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X^pi'V ifCT)](TaTO, Kal tovtov varepov eh XtKeXLav 
nrXecov ^irevaiTnTW Bcopeap eScoKev, o5 /laXiara 
Tcov ^K6rjvr]ai (f)l\cov i')(^pr)TO Kal GvvhirjraTO, fiov- 
Xofievov Tov TLXdrcovo^; oixiXia %a/9tz^ ^yovcrrj koI 
TraiBiat; e/i/^eXou? Kara Kaipbv a-Trro/uLevrj Kepavvv- 

2 [xevov a^rjhvveaOaL tov Alcovo'; to rjdo^. tolovto^; 
he TL<s 6 ^7T€vai7r7ro<; rjv fj koL aKuyy^rai a^aObv 
avTov ev tol<; StWot? o Tificov Trpoa^jyopevaev. 
avT(p he TiXaTwvi j(ppriyovvTL Traihwv %opol> tov 
Te X^P^^ tjaKtiaev o Aiwv kol to hairdvrjfia irav 
CTeXeae irap eavTOv, avyx(^povvTO<; tov TLXdTo)vo<; 
TTjV T0iavT7]v ^iXoTifxiav 7rpb<; toi)? 'AOijvalovf;, 

ft)9 eKeivcp fjuaXXov evvoiav rj ho^av avTw ^epovaav. 965 

3 'ETre^otra he Kal rat? dXXai<; iroXeaiv 6 Aicov, 
Kal avveaxbXa^e Kal avveiravrjyvpi^e toI<; dpi- 

<TTOl<i Kal TTOXiTLKCOTdTOLf; dvhpdcTLV, OvheV ev TTJ 

htaiTTf (ToXoLKov €7nheiKVV/jLevo^ ovhe TvpavviKov 
ovhe eTTiTedpv/jL/uLevov, dXXd aco(ppocrvi>t]v Kal dpe- 
TTjv Kal avhpelav Kal ire pi X6yov<; Kal irepl (f)LXo- 
(7ocj)Lav evcrxvP'Ova^ hLaTpL^d<;. ecf)' ol? euvoia 
Tvapd irdvTcov eyiveTo Kal ^i]Xo<; avTM Tip.ai Te 
hrjfjboaiai Kal yfry]<j)ia/uiaTa Tvapd tcov TroXeoov. 

4 AaKehaLfiovLoc he Kal ^irapTidTTjv avTov eTroiij- 
aavTOf T^9 Atovvaiov KaTa(f)pov}jaavTe<; 0/37^9, 
Kaiirep avT0L<; roTe 7rpoOv/jLco<; iirl tov<; StifiaLov<; 
avfjL/xaxovvTO^. XeyeTai he iroTe tov Aiwva tov 
Meyapew'; IlTOLohcopov heofievov eirl Tyv oIkluv 
eXOelv r)v he, ft)9 eoiKe, twv TrXovalcov rt? Kal 

5 hvvaTOdv 6 UiTOLohajpo^' o^Xov ovv iirl 6vpaL<; 
Ihcbv 6 Alcov Kal irXrjdo^ daxoXicov Kal hvaev- 
TevKTOv avTOv Kal hvairpoaohov, dirihajv 7rpo9 
Tov<; </)tXou9 hvax^pa^vovTa^ koI dyavaKTOvvTa<i, 

34 



DION XVII. 1-5 

ances, but for diversion he bought a country-place, 
and afterwards, when he sailed to Sicily, he gave 
this to Speusippus, who was his most intimate friend 
at Athens. For Plato desired that Dion's disposition 
should be tempered and sweetened by association 
with men of charming presence who indulged season- 
ably in graceful pleasantries. And such a man was 
Speusippus; wherefore Timon, in his '^Silli/' spoke 
of him as "good at a jest." And when Plato him- 
self was called upon to furnish a chorus of boys, 
Dion had the chorus trained and defrayed all the 
expense of its maintenance, and Plato encouraged 
in him such an ambition to please the Athenians, on 
the ground that it would procure goodwill for Dion 
rather than fame for himself. 

Dion used to visit the other cities also, where he 
shared the leisure and festal enjoyments of the 
noblest and most statesmanlike men, manifesting 
in his conduct with them nothing that was rude or 
arrogant or effeminate, but rather great modera- 
tion, virtue, and manliness, and a becoming devotion 
to letters and philosophy. This procured him the 
emulous goodwill of all men, and decrees of public 
honours from the cities. The Lacedaemonians even 
made him a citizen of Sparta, without any regard 
for the anger of Dionysius, although at that time the 
tyrant was their zealous ally against the Thebans. 
And it is related that Dion once went to pay a visit 
to Ptoeodorus the Megarian, upon his invitation. Now 
Ptoeodorus, it would seem, was one of the wealthy 
and influential men of the city ; and when, therefore, 
Dion saw a crowd of people at his door, and a press 
of business, which made him difficult of access and 
hard to come at, he turned to his friends, who were 

35 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

**Tl TOVTOV,^^ €(f>rf, '' /jL€/jL(f)6/i€6a; KoX jap avTol 
TTai/Tft)? iv XvpaKov(Tai<i opboia tovtoi<; iTroLovfiev.'* 
XVIII. \p6vov Be TTpo'iovTOf; 6 Aiovvaio<; ^rjXo- 
TVTTCOV fcal SeSocfcco^; rod Aicovo<; rr]v irapa toI<; 
"KXKr](7iv evpoiav, eiravaaTO Ta<; irpoaohov^ awo- 
(TTeXXoov Koi TTjv ovaiav irapeBwrcev Ihioi^; iTrirpo- 
TTOfc?. ^ovXojiievof; Be koX ttjv ei? rov^ (jaXocro^ov^ 
Blcl YWdrciyva KaKoBo^lav dva/jLd)(^eadaL, iroWovs 
(Tvvrj'ye rwv ireiraiBevcrOai Bokovvtcov. (ptXori.- 
fjLOVfjL€vo<i Be TO) BiaXeyeaOai, Trepielvai Trdvrcov, 
"^vay/cd^eTO TOt? UXdroyvof; irapaKovafiaac kuko)'; 
')(^prja6ai. Koi irdXiv e/celvov eirodei, koX Kareyi- 
vcocTKev avTO<^ aurov [it] '^^prjadfievo^ irapovri /n]Be 
BiaKOvaa<i oaa /caXco^; eL')(ev. ola Be rvpavvo^; 
€p.7rXr]KT0<; del ra2^ e7ri,6vpLiat<; koi irpo^ irdcav 
6^vppo7ro<i (TTTOvBtjv, evOv^ copprjaev eirl rov YlXd- 
Tcova, Koi irdaav firj-^avrfv alpwv, avveireiae tou<; 
irepl ^Ap-^urav YivOayopucov^ tcov ofxoXo'yovfJLevwv 
dvaB6)(^ov'^ yevofxevov^ KaXelv TiXdrw^a' Bl €K€l- 
vov yap aL'TOi? eyeyovei (f)LXia koX ^evia to nrpo)- 
Tov. ol 5' eirefMyfrav ' Ap')(^eBripov irap avTov 
eire/jLyfre Be koI Atovv(TLo<; rpLrjpr) kul ^tXoi/? 
Ber}(Topevov<; rov UXdrcovo^;' avr6<i re cra^w? koX 
BLapptjBrjv eypayjreu &)? ovBev dv yevoLTO tcov 
/leTpicov Al(ovl /jLtj nekaOevTo^ T[\dTO)vo<; eXOelv 
€19 XifceXlap, 7r€LaOevTO<; Be irdpra. TroXXal 8' 
dcpLKOvTo 7r/309 Aicova irapd t^9 dBeX^rj<^ koI 
yvvaiKo<i eTnaKrjy^ei^, BelaOai TlXdrcovos viraKov- 
aaL ALovvaufp kul jjlt] 7rp6(f)aaiv 7rapaa)(€lv. ovrw 

36 



DION XVII. 5-XV111. 3 

vexed and indignant at it, and said : " Why should 
we blame this man ? For we ourselves used to do 
just so in Syracuse." 

XVIII. But as time went on, Dionysius became 
jealous of Dion and afraid of his popularity among 
the Greeks. He therefore stopped sending him his 
revenues, and handed his estate over to his own 
private stewards. However, with a desire to make 
head against the bad repute which he had also won 
among the philosophers on Plato's account, he as- 
sembled at his court many men with a reputation 
for learning. But he was ambitious to surpass them 
all in discussion, and was therefore driven to use 
inaptly what he had imperfectly learned from Plato. 
So he yearned once more for that philosopher, and 
reproached himself for not having utilized his pres- 
ence to learn all that he should have learned. And 
since, like a tyrant, he was always extravagant in his 
desires and headstrong in all that he undertook, he 
set out at once to secure Plato, and, leaving no stone 
unturned, persuaded Archytas and his fellow Pytha- 
goreans to become sureties for his agreements, and 
to summon Plato ; for it was through Plato, in the 
first place, that he had entered into friendly rela- 
tions with these philosophers. So they sent Arche- 
demus to Plato, and Dionysius also sent a trireme 
for him, and friends to entreat his return. He also 
wrote to him himself in clear and express terms, 
saying that no mercy should be shown to Dion unless 
Plato were persuaded to come to Sicily ; but if he 
were persuaded, every mercy. Dion also received 
many injunctions from his wife and sister, that he 
should beg Plato to listen to Dionysius and not 
afford him an excuse for further severity. Thus it 

37 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjL€V ^1] ^rjaiv 6 HXuTcov iXOelv ro rpirov eh rov 
TTopO/uLov rov irepl ^KvXkav} 

0(f) p* en TTjv 6\or}v dva/jLeTprjaece X.dpvl3Biv* 

XIX. ^FjXOodv Be fji€yd\r)<; fiev avrov €V€7r\rjcr6 
')(apd<i, /jL€yd\r)<i Be ndXiv eA-TTtSo? ^LKeXiav, avvev' 
'X^OfievrfV Kol (TV/jL(j)iXori,/jLov/jLevr)v UXdrcova /nev 
^iXlo-tov irepvyeveaOai, ^L\oao<f)iav Be rvpav- 
ViBo<;. Tjv Be TToWrj fjuev rcov yvvaiKMV a-irovBrj 
irepX avrov, e^atpero^ Be rrapd rw Aiovvalo) 
irian^i, rjv ovBei<i dWa el^^ev, dBiepevvrjrov avrm 

2 TrXrja-td^etv. B(i)ped<; Be %p77/xaTft)i^ ttoWcju koI 
TToWdKL^i rov fiev BiBovro^, rov Be /jltj Bexofievov, 
rrapoDV 'Apto-rtTTTTO? o Kvpr)vaLo<; acr^aXw? e(f)7) 
fi€yaX6-\{rv^ov elvai ALovvacov avroh p,ev yap 
jjbiKpd BiBovat TrXeiovcov BeojjLevoc^, UXdrcovi Be 
TToXXd fjLTjBev XafzjSdvovri, 

3 Merd Be ra? irpdira^ (ptXo^poavva^;, dp^a/mevov 
TlXdrcovo<; ivrvy^dvetv rrepi Alcovo';, VTvepOecreL^ 
ro rrpSirov yaav, elra /xe/x-v/ret? fcal BLa(f)opal Xav- 
ddvovcrat, tou? €Kr6<;, eTrt/cpvTrrofievov Atovvaiov 
Koi, ral^ dXXai^ rov TiXdrwva OepaireiaL'; Koi 966 
TifjLal<; Treipcofievov Trapdyeiv diro t>}9 Alcovo^; ev- 
voia^t ovB* avrov ev ye rol<^ rrpcoroi<s 'X,povot.^ drro- 
KaXvirrovra rrjv dinariav avrov teal yjrevBoXoyiav, 

4 dXX^ iyKaprepovvra kol o-)(rj/j,arL^6fi€vov. ovreo 
Be BiaKet/jievcov 7r/oo9 dXXrjXov^ xal XavOdvetv 

^ SKuAXav as in Plato, EpisL vii. p. 346 ; Coraes retains 
the ^iKfKlav of the MSS. 

38 



DION XVIII. 3-XIX. 4 

was, then, that Plato, as he himself says, " came for 
the third time to the straits of Scylla, 

That he might once more measure back his way to 
fell Charybdis/'i 

XIX. His arrival filled Dionysius with great joy, 
and the Sicilians again with great hope ; they all 
prayed and laboured zealously that Plato might 
triumph over Philistus, and philosophy over tyranny. 
The women also were very earnest in his behalf, 
md Dionysius gave him a special token of his trust, 
which no one else had, in the privilege of coming 
into his presence without being searched. The tyrant 
offered him, too, presents of money, much money 
and many times, but Plato would not accept them. 
Whereupon Aristippus of Cyrene, who was present 
on one of these occasions, said that Dionysius was 
safely munificent; for he offered little to men like 
iiim, who wanted more, but much to Plato, who 
would take nothing. 

After the first acts of kindness, however, Plato 
introduced the subject of Dion, and then there were 
postponements at first on the part of Dionysius, and 
afterwards faultfindings and disagreements. These 
were unnoticed by outsiders, since Dionysius tried 
to conceal them, and sought by the rest of his kind 
attentions and honourable treatment to draw Plato 
away from his goodwill towards Dion. And even 
Plato himself did not at first reveal the tyrant's 
perfidy and falsehood, but bore with it and dis- 
sembled his resentment. But while matters stood 
thus between them, and no one knew of it, as they 

* Odyssey, xii. 428, with slight adaptation from the first 
person. 

39 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irdvra^ oLOfiei'wv, 'EXlkcov 6 Kv^ik7]vo<; el? tmu 
Il\dr(ovo<; (Tvvijdcov rfkiov irpoelirev eKk^L'^LV kol 
y€V0fi€V7]<; ft)? Trpoelire, 6avixa(j6e\<^ vtto tov Tvpdv- 
vov Scopedv eXa^ev dpyvpLov rdXavrov. *Api- 
(TTLiriTO^ he Trai^cov Trpb^; tov<; aWof? (f)i.Xoa'6(f)ov<; 
e<pr} Ti Kol avTo<i €')(^eiv rcov irapaho^cov irpoeiTrelv. 
6K6LVCOV Be ^pdaai Beofiepcov, " UpoXiyco toli/vv/' 
elirev, " oXiyov y^povov YiXdrcdva Kal Aiovvaiov 

5 i'x6pov<; y€vr]aofjL€VOv<;" reXo<i Be rrjv /lev ovaiav 
TOV Al(ovo<; 6 AiovvaLO<; iirciiXei, kol rd y^prnjLara 
Karelx^i HXdrcDva 8' iv rw irepl rrjv ocKiav kyjitm 
BiaiTco/jievov €t9 tov(; /jua^ocfiopovf; [lerearriae ird- 
Xac jiLaovvTa^ avrov xal ^rjTovvra^; dveXelv co? 
ireiOovra Aiovvonov d^elvat, rrjv rvpavvlSa teal 
^rjv d8opV(f)6p7)TOP. 

XX. *Ev TOLovTW Be klvBvvw yevofievov tov 
UXdTcovo^ 01 Tvepl ^Ap'XyTav TrvOofxevoi Ta')(y ireiM- 
TTOvai irpeapeiav kol Tpia/covTopov, diratTovvre^; 
TOV dvBpa irapd Aiovvaiov Kal Xeyoz^re? w? av- 
T0U9 XajBonv dvaB6')(ov^ ttj^ da(f)aXeia<^ irXevaeiev 
eh ^vpaKovaa<;. diroXeyofxevov Be tov Aiovv- 
aiov Tr)V ej(6pav eaTidaeai Kal (ptXo(f)pocrvvai<; 

2 irepl TTjv TTpoTTOfiiTrjv, ev Be tl Trpoa-)(SevTO'i 7rpo<; 
avTov TOLovTov eliTelv' " 'H ttov, YiXdTwv, TroXXd 
KOL Betvd KaTr]yoprj(7ei'^ rj/jLMV 7rpo9 tov<; avfji<j>LXo- 
<Tocf)ovvTa<;'^' v7ro/jLeiBidaa<; eKelvo^; direKpivaTO' 
** M^ ToaavTT] XoycDV iv 'A/caBijfxela yevoLTO (nrd- 
VL<; (0(TTe aov Tiva p,vr]/jiovevaat.^' toluvttjv fiev 
Tr)v dTToaToXrjv tov YlXdTwvo'^ yeveadat Xeyovaiv 
ov fievTOL Ta UXdTCDvo'i avTov irdvv toutols aw- 
dBei, 



40 



DION XIX. 4-xx. 2 

supposed, Helicon of Cyzicus, one of Plato's inti- 
mates, predicted an eclipse of the sun. This toolc 
place as he had predicted, in consequence of which 
he was admired by the tyrant and presented with a 
talent of silver. Thereupon Aristippus, jesting with 
the rest of the philosophers, said that he himself 
also could predict something strange. And wlien 
they besought him to tell what it was, " Well, then," 
said he, " 1 predict that ere long Plato and Dionysius 
will become enemies." At last Dionysius sold the 
estate of Dion and appropriated the money, and re- 
moving Plato from his lodging in the palace garden, 
put him in charge of his mercenaries, who had long 
liated the philosopher and sought to kill him, on 
the ground that he was trying to persuade Dionysius 
to renounce the tyranny and live without a body- 
guard. 

XX. Now when Archytas and his fellow Pytha- 
goreans learned that Plato was in such peril, they 
quickly sent a galley with an embassy, demanding 
him from Dionysius and declaring that Plato had 
taken them for sureties of his safety when he sailed 
to Syracuse. Dionysius sought to disprove his enmity 
to Plato by giving banquets in his honour and making 
kind provisions for his journey, and went so far as 
to say something like this to him : "' I suppose, Plato, 
thou wilt bring many dire accusations against me to 
the ears of your fellow philosophers." To this Plato 
answered with a smile : '^ Heaven forbid that there 
should be such a dearth of topics for discussion in the 
Academy that any one mention thee." Such, they 
say, was the dismissal of Plato ; Plato's own words,^ 
however, do not entirely agree with this account. 

1 Epist. vii. p. 349 f. 

41 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXI. Ai(ov Be Kol Tovroi<; €%aXe7rati/6, Kal fier 
okiyov ^(povov 6^67ro\e/jL(t}6r] iravrdiTaai, 7rv06/jL€PO<; 
TO irepX TTjv ryvvaLKa, irepl ov Kal HXdrcov yvl^aro 
ypdcjjcov 7r/?o? AiovvaLOV, tjv he tolovtov. fjbera 
rr)v eK^oXrjv rov Aioyvo^ aTroTre/nTrcov UXdrcova 
Atovv(Tio<; ixeXevaev avrov Si diroppi^Tuiv irvOe- 
adai, fxr} ri kcoXvoi rrjv yvvoLKa irpo^ ydfjuov erepm 

2 SoOrjvar Kal yap rjv X0709, eW dXrjOrjq etre o-vv' 
reOeU viro rcov Alcova fiiaovvTcov, 009 ov KaB* rjSo- 
vrjv 6 yd/jLO<; etrj Alcovi yeyovoo<; ouS' €vdp[ioaTO<^ rj 
irpcx; TTjv yvvaiKa au/jL^La)ai,<;. co? ovv r)Kev 6 
TiXdTWV ^Adv/va^e Kal tw Almvl irepl irdvTMv 
eveTV)(€, ypd^ei tt/oo? tov rvpavvov iTTiaroXrjp ra 
fiev dWa aacpw^ irdaiVy avro Be rovro fxovw yvd)- 
pt/jLov eKeiv(p ^pd^ovaav, 009 Bia\e')(6eir] Alcovi 
irepl TOV 7rpdy/jLaT0<; eKeivov Kal (T(j)6Bpa Br]\o<i eirj 
XaXenaLVcov, el tovto Aiovvcrto^ e^epydaaiTo. 

3 Kal T0T€ fjbev 6ti ttoWmv eXTTiBcov ovaoyv 7rpo<s 
TCL^ Bia\v(Tet<; ovBev eirpa^e irepl ttjv dB€\<j)r}v 
vecoTepov, dX)C eta fxeveiv avrrjv fieTO, tov TraiBiov 
TOv Al(ovo<; OLKOvaav. iwel Be iravrdiraaLv 
d(JvpblBdTOi)<^ el')(e Kal TlXdTcov av0i<; eXOobv dire- 
7re/JL<p6r) tt/jo? direx^eLav, ovtco ttjv *ApeTrjp 
aKovaav evl tmv (piXcov TifioKpaTec BiBwaiv, ov 
/j,i/ji7}adfievo<; ttjv KaTd ye tovto tov iTaTpo<^ 
eTneiKeiav. 

4 ^l^yeyovei ydp, co? eoiKe, KciKelvw TioXv^evo<i 6 
T7]v dBeX(j)rjv €)(a}v avTOv SeaTrjp iroXejUo^;. diro- 



4« 




DION XXI. 1-4 

XXI. But Dion was vexed by all this, and shortly 
afterwards became altogether hostile when he learned 
how his wife had been treated, on which matter 
Plato also spoke covertly in a letter to Dionysius. 
The case was as follows. After the expulsion of 
Dion, and when Dionysius was sending Plato back,^ 
he bade him learn from Dion confidentially whether 
he would oppose his wife's marrying another man ; 
for there was a report, whether true or concocted 
by Dion's enemies, that his marriage had not proved 
agreeable to him, and that he did not live harmo- 
niously with his wife. Accordingly, after Plato came 
to Athens and had conferred with Dion about every- 
thing, he M'rote a letter to the tyrant which spoke 
of other matters in a way that was clear to anybody, 
but of this particular matter in language that could 
be understood by Dionysius alone, saymg that he 
had talked with Dion about that business, and that 
Dion would evidently be exceedingly angry if Dio- 
nysius should carry it through. ^ Now, as long as 
there were many hopes of a reconciliation, the tyrant 
took no violent measures with his sister, but suffered 
her to continue living with Dion's young son ; when, 
however, the estrangement was complete, and Plato, 
who had come to Sicily a second time, had been sent 
away in enmity, then he gave Arete in marriage, 
against her will, to Timocrates, one of his friends. 
And in this action, at least, he did not imitate the 
reasonableness of his father. 

For the elder tyrant also, as it would appear, had 
a sister, Theste, whose husband, Polyxenus, had be- 
come his enemy. When, therefore, Polyxenus was 

^ For the first time ; cf. chapter xvi. 3. 
« Cf. Epist. xiii. p. 362 ad Jin. 

43 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hpaino^ ovv avrov Bia (f)6fiov Kal (^vyovro^ Ik 
XifceXiaf; fxeraireix-^diievo^: yriaro rrjv d8eX(prjv, 
on avveihvla rrjv (f)uyr}v rov dvBpo<; ov KarsLTre 

5 7rpo<i avrov. rj 3' dveKiTXrjKTW^ /cal vrj At' d(f)6- 
ySo)?* "Ei^' ovTco (Toc BoKO), ^LovvcTie, (pavXij yVVT} 
yeyovevat koX avavhpo^ ware irpoyvovaa rrjv 
(fivyrjp rov dvBpo'i ovk av avveKifkevGav /cal p,€Ta- 
(JX^lv Trj<^ avrrj<; tv')(^7]<;; dXV ov irpoeyvwv eirei 
Ka\(o<; elx^ P'Ot p^aXXov HoXv^evov yvvaiKa (j)€V- 
yovTO^ rj aov TVpavvovvTO^; uBeXcprjv XeyeaOat.^^ 
ravra rrj^; OecJT?;? irapprjcnaaap.evr]'^ Oavpdaai 

6 XeyovaL rov rvpavvov. iOav/iao-av Be Kal ol 
^vpaKovaiOL rrjv dpejrjv t?)? yvvaiKO'^, ware Kal 
fiera ttjv KaraXvaiv rrj(; TVpavviBo<^ eKelvrj ti/jltjv 
Kal Oepaireiav fiaatXiKr)V virapxeiv, d7roOavovar}<; 
Be Brjpoala tt/qo? rrjv Ta(f)r]v eiraKoXovOrjaai tou? 
TToXira?. ravra jiev ovv ovk d^p7]arov e;^€t rr)v 
irapeK^aaiv. 

XXII. 'O Be Aicov evrevOev rjBr] rpeirerai tt/oo? 
TToXe/iov, avrov p,ev TLXdrcovo^; ckitoBoov larapevov 
Bv alBcj rrj<; 7rpo<^ Atovvaiov ^€VLa<^ Kal yrjpa<i, 
^TTevaiiTTrov Be Kal rcov dXXwv eralpayv rw Aicovi 
avXXap^^avovrcov Kal irapaKeXevofMevcov eXevOe- 
povv ^LKeXlav %€tpa9 opeyovaav avra> Kal irpoOv- 
2 //,&)? vTToBexopevTjv. ore yap ev ^vpaKovaaif; 
UXdrcov Bierpi^ev, ol irepl ^Trevannrov, &)? eoLKe, 
fMoXXov dva/jLcyvvpevoi rots" dvOpcoTrot^; Karepdv- 
Oavov rrjv Bidvoiav avrcov. Kal rb p>€v rrpMrov 
€<f)o^ovvro rrjv irapprjaiav co? Bidneipav ovaav 
inro rov rvpdvvov, "^povw B' eiricrrevaav. 6 yap 
avrb<; r)v irapd Trdvrcov X6yo<; Beop^vcov Kal irapa- 
KcXevopevcov eXOdv Aicova fjurj vav<; e^ovra p,r)B^ 

44 



DION XXI. 4-XX11. 2 

moved by fear to run away and go into exile from 
Sicily, the tyrant sent for his sister and upbraided 
her because she had been privy to her husband's 
flight and had not told her brother about it. But 
she, without consternation, and, indeed, without fear, 
replied : " Dost thou think me, Dionysius, such a 
mean and cowardly wife that, had 1 known before- 
hand of my husband's flight, I would not have sailed 
off with him and shared his fortunes ? Indeed, I 
did not know about it ; since it would have been 
well for me to be called the wife of Polyxenus the 
exile, rather than the sister of Dionysius the tyrant." 
The tyrant is said to have admired Theste for this 
bold speech. And the Syracusans also admired the 
virtue of the woman, so that even after the dissolu- 
tion of the tyranny she retained the honours and 
services paid to royalty, and when she died, the 
citizens, by public consent, attended her funeral. 
This is a digression, it is true, but not a useless 
one. 

XXII. From this time on Dion turned his thoughts 
to war. With this Plato himself would have nothing 
to do, out of respect for his tie of hospitality with 
Dionysius, and because of his age. But Speusippus 
and the rest of his companions co-operated with Dion 
and besought him to free Sicily, which stretched out 
lier arms to him and eagerly awaited his coming. 
For when Plato was tarrying in Syracuse, Speusippus, 
as it would appear, mingled more with its people 
and learned to know their sentiments ; and though 
at first they were afraid of his boldness of speech, 
thinking it a trap set for them by the tyrant, yet 
in time they came to trust him. For all now spoke 
in the same strain, begging and exhorting Dion to 

45 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

OTrXiTaf; firjB* tTTTToi"?, dW' avrov et? virrjperiKov 
ifjL^dvra ^(^priaaL to awfia koI tovvo/mi ^LKeXto)- 

3 raL^ eVl rov /^lovvctlov. ravra tmv irepl ^irev- 
(TLTTTTOV djyeWovTcov €7nppo)o-del<; i^evoXoyei 
/cpv^a Koi hi erepcov e7nKpV7rT6/jLevo<; rrjp ^td- 
votav. (TvveTTpaTTOv he zeal rSiv ttoXltikcov ttoWoI 
KoX rcov (f)i\ocr6(t)a)v, 6 re Kv7rpi,o<i F^vStj/jlo^;, eh ov 
^Api(TroTe\r)<; diroOavovTa top irepX '^t'X?}? Zid- 

4 Xoyov eTTOirjcre, koX TificoPiBr]^ 6 Aeu/caSiO?. avp- 
eaTrjaap Se koL ^iXTap avTM top SeaaaXop, 
dvhpa fidpTLP KOL p^eTea^rjKOTa tt}? ep ^AKaSrj/jLeia 
Si,aTpL^T]<^. T(OP S' vTTo Tov Tvpdppov 7re(f)uyaSev- 
fjbepwp, ov fielop rj '^iXlcov optwp, Trei^re kol eUoaL 
/jLOPOi Trj<; (TTpaTeia^ eKotPcoprjaap, ol 8' dXXoi 

5 TTpovBoaap diToheiXLaaavTe^;. opfirjTrjpLOP 3' rjp 
7} ZaKVpOicop pr)ao<;, eh fjp ol cTTpaTLMTai avpeX- 
eyr)(Tap OKTaKoaiwp eXarTou? yepopuevoi, ypcoptfioi 
Be TrdpTe^i ck ttoXXcov koX fieydXwp aTpuTeicop, Kal 
Toh (Too/jLaaLP r)aK7]p.epoL StacpepopTco^;, i/jLTreLpia Be 
fcal toX/jLtj ttoXv irdpTcop xpdTiaTOL, Kal BvpdfiepoL 
rrXr)6o<=; ocrop y^Xirt^ep e^eip ev St/ceXua Alcop vTre/c- 
Kavaai koI avpe^op/jLijaai, 7rpo<; uXktjp. 

XXIII. OvTOL TO pi€P irpoiTOP dKouaapTe<; iirl 
Aiopvaiop Kal XcKeXlap atpeaOai top cttoXop, 
€^€7rXdyrjcrap Kal KaTeypcoaap, co? opyrj<i tlvo<; 
iTapa(l)poavvr] Kal pbapia tov Alcopo<; rj ^prjCTTSiv 
iXiriBcop diropla pL7rT0VPT0<; eavTOP eh aTreypcoa- 
/jLepa<; irpd^ei'i' Kal Toh eavTOip 7]yefxo<Ji Kal 
^epoXoyoL'i wpyt^opTO firj irpoeLTrovcTiP ev6v<^ ef 
2 dp'^i]<; TOP TToXe/xop. eVel Be Alwp to) Xoyw to, 
aaOpd tt)? TvpapplBo^ eTre^ioDp iBlBacTKep, o)? ov 

46 



DION XXII. 2-XXIII. 2 

come without ships, men-at-arms, or horses ; he was 
simply to come himself in a small boat, and lend the 
Sicilians his person and his name against Dionysius. 
Encouraged by this information from Speusippus, 
Dion collected mercenaries secretly and by the 
agency of others, concealing his purpose. He was 
assisted also by many statesmen and philosophers, 
such as Eudemus the Cyprian, on whose death 
Aristotle wrote his dialogue " On the Soul," and 
Timonides the Leucadian. Furthermore, they en- 
listed on his side Miltas the Thessalian also, who 
was a seer and had studied in the Academy. But 
of those who had been banished by the tyrant, and 
there were not less than a thousand of them, only 
twenty-five took part in the expedition ; the rest 
played the coward and abandoned it. The rendez- 
vous was the island of Zacynthus, and here the 
soldiers were assembled. They numbered fewer than 
eight hundred, but they were all well known in con- 
sequence of many great campaigns, their bodies were 
exceptionally well trained, while in experience and 
daring they had no equals in the world, and were cap- 
able of inciting and inflaming to share their prowess 
all the host which Dion expected to have in Sicily. 

XXIII. At first, indeed, when these men heard 
that their expedition was directed against Dionysius 
and Sicily, they were full of consternation and de- 
nounced the enterprise, declaring that Dion, in a 
mad frenzy of anger, or in despair, was plunging 
into desperate undertakings ; they were also enraged 
at their own leaders and recruiting officers for not 
having told them at the very outset about the war. 
But when Dion addressed them, setting forth in 
detail the unsound condition of the tyranny, and 

47 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(TTpaTL(OTa<;, aWa fidWov rjye/jLOva*; avroix; ko/jll- 
^OL XvpaKovaucov koX twi/ aWcov ^L/ceXicoTOiv 
iraXai irpo^ airoGTaaiv eToijicov virapxovTcov, 
fiera Be top Atcova hiake'^OevTO^ avroU ^AXkc- 
/ievov<;, 09 tt/owto? c!)V ^A'x^aioov Bo^r) koI yevei 
(7vv€(TrpdT€V€v, eiTeiaOrjcTav. 

*Hz^ iiev ovv Oipov^ clk/jLT) kol Karelxov irrjaiaL 
TO 7reXa709> r] Be aeXrjvr] Bc^o/jLrjplav r^'ye. too S' 
^AttoWwvl OvaLav fieyaXoTrpeirr] TrapaaKevdaa^; 6 
Alcov e-nofiTTevae /lerd rwv o-rparicoTcov k€ko(t/jL7j- 
fievodv Tai? TTavoTrXiai^ irpo'; to lepov koI fiera 
rrjv Ovaiav ev to3 arahiw rwv ZaKwdicov Kara- 
K\iOevTa<s auTOu? elaria, Oavfid^ovra^ dpyvpoyv 
KoX %puo-a)i/ eKTrco/jbdrcov koX rpaire^wv virepfidX- 
Xovaav IBlwtlkov ttXovtov XafiTrporrjra, kol Xo- 
ryL^Ofievovf; otl iraprjK/jiaKay^i dvr^p ijBr] kol roaav- 
Trjf; evTTOpla^ /cvpio^ ovk up iTri^^eipoir] 7rapafi6Xot<; 968 
Trpdy/jLacTL %ft>/)t9 iXiriBo^} jSe^alov kol (plXcov 
ivBiBovTcov eKetOev avrw rd<; TrXeiaraf; kol fieyi- 
o-Ta<? d(l)opfid<;. 

XXIV. MeTa Be Ta? a-novBaf; kol Ta9 vevo/iia- 
fi€va<; Karev^df; e^eXiirev rj aeXrjvr]. koI tol<; 
fjuev Trepl top Alcopu davfiaaTOP ovBep rjp Xoyi^o- 
^evoi<i Ta9 eKXeLirTLKa^ irepLoBov^ koI ttjp yipo- 
fieprjp Tov crKidcrfjLaTO<; aTrdprrjaip 7rpo9 ttjp 
(TeXr)pr]P koI Tr)9 7^9 rr]P dpricppa^ip 7r/309 TOi; 
rfXLOP. eirel Be tol^ (rTpaTicoTat.<; BiarapaxOeLdip 
eBei T£i/09 TTapi^yopia^, Mt\Ta9 o fidpTLf; ep fieacp 
Karacrrdf; eKeXeve Oappelp avTOv<; kuI irpocrBoKap 

48 



DION XXIII. 2-XXIV. 2 

[eclarm^^hat lie was taking them, not as soldiers, 
but as commanders of the Syracusans and the rest 
of the Sicilians_, who had long been ready for a 
revolt ; and when, after Dion, Alcimenes, who was 
an Achaean of the highest birth and reputation and 
a member of the expedition, had argued with them, 
they were persuaded. 

It was now midsummer,^ the Etesian winds ^ pre- 
vailed at sea, and the moon was at the full. Dion 
had prepared a magnificent sacrifice to Apollo, and 
marched in solemn procession to the temple with his 
soldiers, who were arrayed in full armour. After 
the sacrifice, he gave them a banquet in the stadium 
of the Zacynthians, where, as they reclined on their 
couches, they wondered at the splendour of the gold 
and silver beakers, and of the tables, for it passed 
the limits set by a private man's fortune ; they 
reasoned, too, that a man who was already past his 
prime and was master of such great affluence, would 
not engage in hazardous enterprises unless he had 
solid hopes of success, and friends over there who 
offered him unbounded resources. 

XXIV. But after the libations and the customary 
prayers, the moon was eclipsed. Now, to Dion this 
was nothing astonishing, for he knew that eclipses 
recurred at regular intervals, and that the shadow 
projected on the moon was caused by the interposi- 
tion of the earth between her and the sun. But 
since the soldiers, who were greatly disturbed, 
needed some encouragement, Miltas the seer stood 
up amongst them and bade them be of good cheer, 

' 357 B.C. 

2 Winds blowing steadily from the North during the 



49 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO, Kpariara' arj/iiaCveiv yap to Baifioviov eKXei- 
y^iv Tivo's T(t)V vvv iirKpavcov eiricpavearepov 8e 
fxrjhev elvai tt}? ALOvvalov rvpavvuSo^, 979 to 
\afi7rp0v airoa^eaeiv eKsivovf; ev6v<; ay^afxevov^ 

3 ^LK6\ia<;. rovTO fiev ovv 6 M/Xra? eh fieaov 
e^eOrjKe Trdar to Be rcov iiekiaawv, at irepl ra 
irXoia rov Atwvo^; co(f)67]Gav eafiov Xa/jLJSdvovcraL 
Kara irpvixvav, Ihia irpo'^ avrov Kal tou? (piXov^ 
e(j)pa^6 hehievai /jltj KaXal fiev at 7Tpd^eL<i avrov 
jevcovrat, ')(^p6vou 8' oXljov dv67]aaaai fiapavQ^iGi. 
Xeyerai he Kal tw Aiovvaiw iroXXa Tepardahv, 

4 irapa rov haifjioviov yeveaSai G-qfjiela. aero^ 
fiev yap dp7rd(Ta<; Sopdnov rivo^i rcov Bopvcf)6pcov 
dpdfjbevo^ v-y^ov Kal (pepcov ucfirJKev eh rov ^vdov 
rj Be TTpocTKXv^ovaa irpo^ rijv aKpoiroXiv 6d- 
Xaaaa jxiav rjfMepav rb vScop yXvKv Kal rro- 
TL/jLOv irapea^ev, (oare yevaafxevoi'; irdai. Kara- 
SrjXov elvat. '^(olpoi S* ere)(^d7]aav avrw rwv fiev 
dXXcov ovBevof; evBeei^ fiopiwv, odra B' ovk exovre<;. 

5 direcpaivovro S* ol fjidvrei^ rovro fiev diroard- 
creo)^ Kal d7rec6eLa<i elvai arjjjLelop, 009 ovKeri rwv 
ttoXltmv aKovaofievwv rrj<i rvpavvLBo'^, rrjv Be 
yXvKvrrjra rr)<i OaXdaar]<; /juera^oXrjv Kaipoiv 
dviapcov Kal irovqpoiv eh irpdyfiara ')(pr}(7rd 
<f)epeiv Z,vpaKovaioL<i. dero'i Be depdrrcov Afo?, 
Xoy^Tj Be rrapdarjixov dp^rj^i Kal BvvaareLa<i' 
d^fiavLdjiov ovv Kal KardXvaiv rfj rvpavviBi ySou- 
Xeveiv rov rcov Oecov fieyiarov. ravra fiev ovv 
®e67rofirro<; laroprjKe. 

XXV. Toi;? Be arparicoraf; tou? Attoi/09 e^eBe- 
^avro arpoyyvXai Bvo vav^y rpirov Be irXolov ov 
fieya Kal Bvo rpiaKovropoi iraprfKoXovdovv. oirXa 

50 



It 



DION XXIV. 2-xxv. I 



d expect the best results ; for the divine powers 
indicated an eclipse of something that was now re- 
splendent ; but nothing was more resplendent than 
the tyranny of Dionysius, and it was the radiance of 
this which they would extinguish as soon as they 
reached Sicily. This interpretation, then, Miltas 
made public for all to know ; but that of the bees, 
which were seen settling in swarms upon the sterns 
of Dion's transports, he told privately to him and 
his friends, expressing a fear that his undertakings 
would thrive at the outset, but after a short season 
of flowering would wither away. It is said that 
Dionysius also had many portentous signs from 
Heaven. An eagle snatched a lance from one of 
his body-guards, carried it aloft, and then let it drop 
into the sea. Furthermore, the water of the sea 
which washed the base of the acropolis was sweet 
and potable for a whole day, as all who tasted it 
could see. Again, pigs were littered for him which 
were perfect in their other parts, but had no ears. 
This the seers declared to be a sign of disobedience 
and rebellion, since, as they said, the citizens would 
no longer listen to the commands of the tyrant ; the 
sweetness of the sea-water indicated for the Syra- 
cusans a change from grievous and oppressive times 
to comfortable circumstances ; an eagle, moreover, 
was servant of Zeus, and a spear, an emblem of 
authority and power, wherefore this prodigy showed 
that the greatest of the gods desired the utter dis- 
solution of the tyranny. Such, at all events, is the 
account which Theopompus has given. 

XXV. The soldiers of Dion filled two merchant- 
ships, and a third transport of small size, together 
with two thirty-oared galleys, accompanied these. 

51 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be, %ft)/ot9 MV €i)(^ov 01 (TTparicJoraL, Sia'^iXiaf; fiev 
eKOfii^ev aa7ri,Sa<;, fieXrj Be koI Bopara iroWd, 
KaX ir\rj6o<^ i<f>oBi(ov d(f)dovov, otto)? iTriXiTrr} 
fjurjBev avTov<; TTOvroiropovvra^;, are Br) to nvjiTrav 
eirl TTvevfjLaai koI OaXdaarj 7r€7ron]fjLevov<; rov 
ttXovv Bia TO Tr}p yfjv (f)o/3€ia0at, koI TTwOdveaOaL 
^iXicTTov iv ^laTTuyLO, vavXo^ovvra 7rapa(f)vXdT- 

2 revv. dpaiw Be koI fiaXaKW TTPeu/jbari 7rX€V(ravT€<; 
r}/jLepa<; BcoBeKa, rfj rpcaKaiBcKdrr} Kara Hd^wov 
rjaav, aKpav rrjf; ^LKeXia<;. Koi II/jwto? /jlcv 6 
KV^epvrjTT]^ Kara ra^o? eKeXevcrev diro^aiveiv, 
ft)?, av dirocnTaaOoiGi t?;? y?}? kolI rr]v uKpav 
eKovre^; dcpcoai, TroXXa? rjfjLepa<; koI vvKTa<^ iv rw 
ireXdyeL Tpi^7jaofjLevov<;, copa Oepov^ vorov irepifxe- 
vovra^* Alcov Be ttjv eyyv^; roov TroXepiicov diro- 
fiaaiv BeBioD^s Kol twv irpocrw fidXXov d'^aaOat 

3 ffovX6fjLevo<; irapeTTXevae rov Hdxwov. ck Be 
TOVTOV T^a^u9 p^ev diTapKTLa<; eiTLTreacov rfXavve 
iroXXw kXvBcovl Td<; vav<; aTro rrj^; Xi/C€X[,a<;, 
darpairal Be koi ^povral (f)avei>TO^ * Ap/crovpov 
avp^Treaovcrai, ttoXvv e'f ovpavov ')(eip,o)va koX 
payBalov op^^pov i^ix^av c5 tcov vavTOiv avv- 
TapaxdevTwv kol 7rXdvrf<; <yevop.evr]<; KaOopcos-iv 
alcpvlBiov viro rov KvpbaTO^ a}Oovp,eva<; ra? vav<; 
iirl Tr)v 7r/?o? Acfivr] KepKivav, fj pidXicrra Kprjp,- 
vot)Br]<; dinjvTa Koi rpa^i^la 7rpoa(f)epopevoL<; av- 

4 T0t9 t) vrjao<;. p,i/cpov ovv Berjaavre^i expLCptjvaL 
Koi crvvTpi/3i]vat, ire pi ra? irerpa^ e/Sid^ovro tt/oo? 
KOVTOV 7rapa(p€p6p,€vot, /toXt?, eo)? o xj^tp^oDV iXd)- 

52 



DION XXV. 1-4 

Moreover, besides the arms which his soldiers had, 
Dion carried two thousand shields, missiles and 
spears in great numbers, and a boundless store of 
provisions, that they might suffer no lack as they 
traversed the high sea. For they put themselves 
entirely at the mercy of winds and sea during their 
voyage, because they were afraid of the coast, and 
learned that Philistus was watching for them with 
a fleet at lapygia. After sailing witli a light and 
gentle breeze for twelve days, on the thirteenth 
they reached Pachynus, a headland of Sicily. Here 
Protus their pilot urged them to disembark with all 
speed, since, if they should be forced away from the 
shore, and should relinquish the headland which they 
had gained, they would be tossed about on the high 
sea for many days and nights, awaiting a south 
wind in the summer season. But Dion, fearing to dis- 
embark near the enemy, and wishing to land farther 
along the coast, sailed past Pachynus. Thereupon 
a boisterous wind from the north rushed down upon 
them, raised a great sea, and drove the ships away 
from Sicily, while flashes of lightning and peals of 
thunder, now that Arcturus was just rising, con- 
spired to pour down from the heavens a great storm 
of furious rain. The sailors were confounded by this 
and driven from their course, until on a sudden they 
saw that their ships were driving with the sea upon 
Cercina, off the coast of Africa, at a point where 
the island presented the roughest and most preci- 
pitous shore for their approach. Accordingly, after 
a narrow escape from being cast ashore and dashed 
to pieces on the rocks, they plied their punting-poles 
and forced their way along with great difficulty, until 



53 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^r)(Te Kol irXoLM (TVVTV)(6vT6<i eyvojaav iirl Tal<; 

0VT€<;. aOv/jLovai S* avTOL<; 7r/?09 rrjv yaXrjvrjv 
Koi BLa<f)€po/jL6voi<; avpav tlvcl KaredireLpev rj 
X'^P^ voTiov, ov Tvavv IT poaheycuxkvoi'^ vorov ovBe 

5 ircarevovaL rfj /jLera^oXij. Kara jjUKpov he pcov- 
vvjievov Tov TrvevfiaTO^i koX /juijedo^ \a/ji^dvovTo<: 
€KT€Lvavr€<i odov rjv icTTicov, KaX Trpoaev^d/jLevoi 
TOfc? 9eoh, ireXdyioi 7rpo<; rrjv XifceXiav ecfyevyov 
cLTTo T?79 AifivTj^i' KOI deovT6<; iXacfypco^ irepLirraZoL 
Kara ^livwav oyp/ilcrapTO, jroXiafidrtov iv rfj 
XiKeXia T^9 }^apxrihovi(i}v iTriKpareia^;. eTV)(e 
Be Trapoov 6 Kapxv^ovLO<i apx^t^v XvvaXo<; iv t(o 

6 x^pLw, feVo? cov Kol (f)LXo<i Al(ovo<;. dyvoMv he 
Tr)v irapovaiav avrov koi tov aroXov, eTreipdro 
KoyXveiv tou<; (TTpaTLdiTa<i dirofialvovra'i. ol Be 
fjuera rcov ottXcov iKBpa/jL6vT€<; direKreivav fiev 
ovBeva, diretpi^Kei yap Atft)2/ Blo. ttjv ovaav 
avTM <f)iXlav 7r/309 tov Kapxv^ovcov, ^evyovai Be 
avveiaTTecrovTe^ alpovai, to x^P^ov. co? 8' dir/jv- 
TTjaav dXX7]Xot<; ol rjyefxove^ koi yarrdaavTO, 
Ai(av /jL€v aTriBcoKC ttjv ttoXlv ^vvdXw, ovBev 
dBLKYjaa^, ^vvaXo<; Be tov<; cTpaTLooTa^ i^evi^e 
Kal avfiirapea Keva^ev wv Alcov eBelTO. 

XXVI. MdXtaTa B' avTov<; iOdppvve to av/jL- 
fiefirjK0<; avTOjidToo'^ irepl ttjv diroBrjixlav tov 
Atovv(TLov vecoa-TL yap eKireTrXevKCd^ eTvy^CLvev 
oyBorjKovTa vavalv et? ttjv ^iTaXiav. Blo kol tov 
Aicovo^i irapanaXovvTOf; ivTUvOa tov<; (TTpaTL(i>Ta<i 

54 



DION XXV. 4-XXV1. I 

the storm abated, when they learned from a vessel 
which they s[)oke that they were at what were called 
the Heads of the Great Syrtis. And now they were 
disheartened by the calm in whicli they found them- 
selves, and were drifting up and down, when a gentle 
southerly breeze was wafted to them from the land, 
although they were by no means expecting a south 
wind and could not believe in the change. Little 
by little, however, the wind freshened and grew 
strong, so that they spread all the sail they had, 
and praying to the gods, fled over the sea from 
Africa towards Sicily. For five days they ran swiftly 
on, and came to anchor at Minoa, a little town in 
that part of Sicily which the Carthaginians con- 
trolled. Now, it chanced that Synalus, the Cartha- 
ginian commander, was in the place, and he was a 
guest-friend of Dion's. But not knowing of Dion's 
presence or of his expedition, he tried to prevent 
his soldiers from landing. These, however, rushed 
on shore with their arms, and although they killed 
no one, since Dion had forbidden it because of his 
friendship with the Carthaginian, they put their 
opponents to flight, dashed into the place with the 
fugitives, and captured it. But as soon as the two 
commanders had met and greeted one another, Dion 
restored the city to Synalus, without doing it any 
harm, and Synalus entertained the soldiers and sup- 
plied Dion with what he wanted. 

XXVI. But what most of all encouraged them 
was the accidental absence of Dionysius from Syra- 
cuse ; for it chanced that he had recently sailed 
with eighty ships to Italy. Therefore, even though 
Dion urged his soldiers to recruit themselves here 



VOL. VI. . c 55 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avaXa/jL^dveLV ttoXvv ^poz/oz^ iv rf] OaXdaarj 
K€KaKa}fji€vov<;, ov^ v7re/jL€ivav avrol aTrevSovre'^ 
dpirdaai tov Kaipov, dXX' eKeXevov rjyetcrOai, tov 

2 Alcova 7r/309 Ta9 ^vpaKovaa^;. diroaKevaad- 
fievo<i ovv TO, irepLovra rcov ottXwv koX rwv (JDop- 
TLWv €fC6L, Koi TOV XvvdXov h€r]6ei<^, orav y 
Katpo^i, diroaTelXaL 'Trpo<i avrov, i^dSc^ev eirl ra? 
XvpaKOVcra^. iropevopAvw 3' avro) Trpcorov p^ev 
^AKpayavTLVoyv Trpocre^coprjcrav tTTTret? hiaKocnoL 
ro)V irepl rb "EKvofiov oIkovptwv, pera Be tovtov^ 
TeXwoL. 

3 ^CLX^ ^^ '^V'^ (pVH'V'^ Bt,aSpapLOvar](; et9 ^vpa- 
KOV(Ta<;TipoKpdTr)(;, 6 rfj Aicovo<; yvvaiKi avvotKcbv, 
Acovvaiov B' dBeXcpfj, rwv diroXeXeipLpbevwv ev rfj 
TToXei (^iX(ov TTpoearco^;, eKirepuTTGL Kara ra;^©? 
dyyeXov rep Atovvaiw ypdppara Kopl^ovra irepl 
TTJ? Alcovo^ dcpi^ecof;. avT09 Be rot? Kara T'qv 
ttoXlv Trpoael^e Oopv^oif; koI KivrjpLaaLv, iinjp- 
pbivcDV pL€V irdvTwv, Bid 3' dmaTiav en kol (f)6^ov 
r^av^a^ovTCdv. tw Be Tre/ncpOevri ypapp,aT0(f)6p(p 

4 rvxv "^^^ (JvpiriirTeL 7rapdXoyo<;. Bia7rXevaa<; 
yap et? rrjv 'IraXuav koX rrjv 'Frjylprjv BteXOcov, 
eiTetyopLevo^ eh ILavXwviav tt/^o? Alovvctlov djryjv- 
TT}ae TLVi TMV (Tvvi]0cov Upelov vswaTl reOvp,evov 
KopLL^ovrr Kal Xa^cov irap avrov polpav to)v 
Kpetjdv ex'^pei' (TTTOvBy. Tf]<; Be vvkto^ P'€po<; 
6Bevaa<i /cat puLKpov diroBapOelv viro kottov 
^iaa6eL<;, &>? el^e, nrapd rr]v oBov ev vXjj tlvl 

5 KareKXivev eavrov. tt^o? Be ri]v oap^yv Xvko^ 
eneXOcov, fcal Xal36pLevo<^ rcov Kpecov dvaBeBepievwv 
ifc T7J<; irrjpa^, (pX^'^^ (f)epci)v dpa avv avrol^ rrjv 
irripavt ev y Td<i eiriaToXd^: 6 dv6p(07ro^ ^'X^^* 

56 



DION XXVI. 



1-5 



after their long hardships on the sea, they would not 
consent to it, so eager were they of themselves to 
seize their opportunity, but urged him to lead them 
towards Syracuse. Accordingly, he deposited his 
superfluous arms and baggage there, asked Synalus 
to send them to him as opportunity offered, and 
marched against Syracuse. As he was on his way 
thither, first he was joined by two hundred horse- 
men belonging to the Agrigentines who dwelt about 
Ecnomum, and then by men of Gela. 

But the report of his doings quickly flew to Syra- 
cuse, where Timocrates, who had married Dion's 
wife, the sister of Dionysius, and who stood at the 
head of the tyrant's friends now left in the city, 
speedily sent off a messenger to Dionysius with 
letters announcing the arrival of Dion. He himself, 
naoreover, took steps to prevent any disturbances or 
tumults in the city, where all were greatly excited, 
but as yet kept quiet owing to their distrust and 
fear. But a strange misfortune befell the man who 
had been sent with the letters. After he had crossed 
to Italy and passed through the territory of Rhegium, 
and as he was hastening on to Dionysius at Caulonia, 
he met one of his acquaintances who was carrying 
an animal that had been recently sacrificed, and after 
accepting from him a portion of the flesh, went on 
his way with all speed. But after travelling part of 
the night, he was compelled by weariness to take a 
little sleep, and lay down, just as he was, in a wood 
by the side of the road. Then a wolf came to the 
spot, attracted by the scent, and seizing the flesh 
which had been fastened to the wallet in which the 
man had his letters, went off with it and the wallet 



57 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

0)9 Be BteyepOelf; rjaOero /cat ttoWol ixdrrjv irXavrj- 
OeU /cat 8ca)^a<; ovx evpev, e'yvw fir] iropeveaOat 
8t^a TOiV ypafjifMarcov irpo^ top Tvpavvov, aXX' 
diroSpaf; eKTroScov yeveaOat. 

XXVII. Alovvctlo<; jjuev ovv oyjrk Koi irap eri- 
pwv efieXke irvvOdvecrOai rov iv ^iKeXla iroXefiov, 
Alcopl Be 7rop6vo/JL€V(p J^a/jLapcvatoi re irpoaedevro 
Kol ro)v KaT d'^pov'^ ^vpafcovaicov dviarafievwv 
iireppei ttXtjOo^ ovk oXiyov. ol he fjuera Tl/xo- 
Kpdrov<; rd^ 'ETT^TroXa? (pvXdaaovTe<; Aeovrlvoc 
KoX K.a/jL7ravoi, Xoyov yjrevBi] '7rpoa7refi\jrapTo<i et? 
avTOv<i Tov Ai(ovo<; ax; iirl ra? TroXei? irpMTOV 97 
rpeTTOLTo ra? eKclvcov, dTToXiirovTe^; w)(^ovto rov 

2 Ti/jLOKpdrrjv rot<; olKeioL^ /3o7]6')]aovTe<;, o)? h* 
dTrrjyyeXrj ravra 7r/309 rov Aioyva irepl rd^ "AKpa<; 
arparoTrehevovra, vvkt6<; en tou? arpaTL(OTa<i 
dvaarrjaa<; irpo^ rov " Kvairov Trora/juov "^Kev, 
aTrexovra rrj^ TToXeco^ SeKa arahiov^. ivravda 
Se rr]v iropelav eiTLarr'jaa'; iacfiayLd^eTO irpo^ tov 
TTora/jLOv, dvareXXovTL tw ijXlw irpoaev^dfjievo^' 
dfia S' ol ixdvTeL^ irapd rcov Oecov vl/crjv ec^pa^ov 
avrw. Koi Oeaadpevoc rov Alcova Bid rrjv Ovalav 
iaTecpavco/iievov ol irapovre'; diro /jud'^ opfirfi eare- 

3 (f)ai'Ovvro 7rdvT6<;. rjaav Be Trei'TafCLaxiXicov ovk 
iXdrrovi Trpnayeyovore'; Kara rrjv oBov oiTrXia- 
/jiivot Be (pavXo)^ ck tov 7rpo(TTV)(6pTO<; dveTrXi]- 
povv TTj TTpoOvfJiia TTjv rr)? TrapaaKevr}<; evBeiav, 
cocrre KivqoravTO^ tov Atcoi/o? Bpofiq) x^pelv fierd 
X^pd^ ^^'' ^ofj(; dXXy]Xov<; irapaKaXovvTa^ iirl 
Trjv eXevOeplav, 



S8 



DION XXVI. 5-XXV11. 3 

too. When the man awoke and perceived what had 
happened, he wandered about a long time in search 
of what he had lost, but could not find it, and there- 
fore determined not to go to the tyrant without the 
letters, but to run away and disappear. 

XXVII. Dionysius, therefore, was destined to learn 
of the war in Sicily late and from other sources ; but 
meanwhile, as Dion proceeded on his march, he was 
joined by the Camarinaeans, and no small multitude 
of the rural Syracusans revolted and swelled his 
ranks. Moreover, the Leontines and Campanians 
who were guarding Epipolae ^ with Timocrates, in 
consequence of a false report which Dion sent to 
them that he would attack their cities first, deserted 
Timocrates and went off to assist their own peoples. 
When news of this was brought to Dion as he lay 
encamped near Acrae, he roused up his soldiers 
while it was still night and came to the river Ana- 
pus, which is ten furlongs distant from the city. 
There he halted and sacrificed by the river, ad- 
dressing his prayers to the rising sun, and on the 
instant the soothsayers declared that the gods 
promised him victory. When, too, the audience 
beheld Dion with a wreath on his head for the 
sacrifice, with one impulse they all crowned them- 
selves with wreaths. No fewer than five thousand 
men had joined him on the march, and though they 
were wretchedly armed with such weapons as came 
to hand, their enthusiasm made up for their lack of 
equipment, so that when Dion gave the word they 
advanced on the run, exhorting one another with 
joyful shouts to win their liberty. 

^ The plateau west of the city of Syracuse. See the note 
on Nicias, xvii. 1. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXVIII. Tcov 8* ev rrj iroXet ^vpaKovaiwv ol 
/juev yvcopLfjLOL /cal 'X,apL6vre<; iadfjra KaOapav 
€')(ovT€<; airrjvrodv iirX ra? 7rvXa<;, ol Be ttoWoI 
Tol<; rvpdvvou cf)iXoi<; iTrerlOevro koI avvrjpira- 
fyv Tou? Ka\ov/jievov<; TrpoaaycoyiBa';, dv6 pcowovf; 
dvoalov^ /cal Oeot^; e'^^pou?, ot irepLepoarovv iv 
rfj TToXet KarafiefiLy/xevoL roi? ^vpaKov(TLOi<; iroXv- 
7rpay/jiouovvT€<; /cal BiayyeXXovre^; tw rvpdvvw rd^ 

2 T€ Biavoia^ /cal ra? (f)covd<; e/cdarcov. ovtol p,ev 
ovv irpwrot Sl/ctjv ehiBocrav virb tmv irpoarvy- 
')(^av6vTwv d7TOTup,7ravL^ojjievor Tifio/cpdrrj^; Be 
avp^fil^ac TOL<; (fypovpovai rrjv aKpoiroXiv p,r] Bvvrj- 
0€i<; Ilttttov XajBoov Bie^eireae rr]<; TroXetw? /cal 
irdvra (f)6vycov iveiTXrjae (f)6^ov Kal rapa'^rjf;, eVl 
fxel^ov atpwv rd rov Aucovo^;, co? p.7) Bo/colt) fierpiov 

3 Ti BeL(Ta<; dirojSe^Xij/civaL Tr)v ttoXlv. iv tovtw 
Be Kal Alcov irpoaepxop^^vo^ tjBt] KaTacpavr)^; rjv, 
TTyocoTo? avTo^ a)7rXL(7/xei'0<; \ap,7rp(o<;, /cal irap' 
avTOV evOev p.ev 6 dBeX(j)o^ MeyaKXrjf;, evOev Be 
KdXXi7T7ro<; 6 ^ Adtpalo';, iarecpavfo/ieroi. rwv Be 
^evcov eKarov /Jiev eXirovTO (pvXa/c€<; irepl rbv 
Aicova, TOv<i S* aXXov^ rjyov ol Xo)(ayol Bia- 
K6Koa/j,r]/jievov(;, Oewixevwv tmv ^vpa/covaicov xal 
Bexop^evcov axTTrep lepdv nva Kal deoTrpeTTTJ Trofi- 
TT-qv iXev9epla<i Kal Br]p.OKpaTLa<i Bl' ircov oktco 
Kal rerrapdKovTa KaTiovarj^ el^i rrjv ttoXiv. 

XXIX. 'EtteI Be elarjXOev 6 Alcov Kara rd^; 
TefievLToBa<; TruXa?, rf] cdXirtyyi Karairavaa*; 
rov Oopv^ov, eKijpv^ev on Aiwv Kal lS,leyaKXr}<; 
7]KovTe<; eirl KaraXvaei t/}? rvpavvlBo^ eXev- 
Oepovai ^vpaKovaLov<i Kal tou? dXXov(; XtKeXLco- 
ra<; dirh rov Tvpdvvov, fiovX6fievo<^ Be Kal Bl 
6o 



DION XXVIII. i-xxix. I 

XX VI 1 1. As for the Sjracusans in the city, the 
men of note and cultivation, in fresh apparel, went 
to meet them at the gates, while the multitude set 
upon the tyrant's friends and seized those called 
tale-bearers, wicked men whom the gods hated, who 
went up and down in the city busily mingling with 
the Syracusans and reporting to the tyrant the sen- 
timents and utterances of every one. These, then, 
were the first to suffer retribution, being beaten to 
death by those who came upon them ; but Timo- 
crates, unable to join the garrison of the acropolis, 
took horse and dashed out of the city, and as he 
fled, filled everything with fear and confusion, ex- 
aggerating the strength of Dion, that he might not 
be thought to have abandoned the city through fear 
of any trivial danger. Meanwhile Dion drew near the 
city and was presently seen, leading the way himself 
in brilliant armour, with his brother Megacles on one 
side of him, and on the other, Callippus the Athenian, 
both crowned with garlands. A hundred of his 
mercenaries followed Dion as a body-guard, and his 
officers led the rest in good order, the Syracusans 
looking on and welcoming as it were a sacred religious 
procession for the return of liberty and democracy 
into the city, after an absence of forty-eight years. 

XXIX. After Dion had entered the city by the 
Temenitid gate, he stopped the noise of the people 
by a blast of the trumpet, and made proclamation 
that Dion and Megacles, who were come to over- 
throw the tyranny, declared the Syracusans and the 
rest of the Sicilians free from the tyrant. Then, 

6i 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eauTOV TrpocrayopevaaL Toij<; av6 pcoirov^ dvrjeL Sia 
T% ^A'^pa8ivrj<;, i/carepcoOev irapa rrjv oBov ro)v 
XvpaKovcTLcov lepela koX rpaire^a'^ xal KpaTrjpa^ 
laravrcov, koX KaO* 01)9 'yevoiro irpoxvTaifi re 
^aWovrcov koI TTpoaTpeiroiievwv wcnTep Oeov 

2 KaTev')(al<;. rjv h^ vtto ttjv aKpoiroXiv koX tcl 
'TTevrdirvXa, Alovvo-lov KaraaKevdaavTO^, rjXio- 
rpoTTLOV KaTa(pave<; Kal v-^tjXov. eVl rovro irpo- 
ySa? eBij/jLTjyoprjae Kal Trapcopfirjae rou? TroXtVa? 
dvre-)(eadai t^? i\ev6epia<i. 01 Be %at/joz^T€9 Kal 
(f)Lko^povovfievoc KareaT^](Tav d/M(f)OTepov<; avro- 
Kpdropa^ (jTpaTqyoi)';, Kal TrpoaelXovro, fiovXo- 
/jbivcov Kal BeofievcDV eKeivcov, avTol'^ auvdp)(ovra(; 
eiKoaiv, o)V rjfiiaei'^ rjaav eK rwv fierd Aicovo's diro 

3 rr}? (f)v<y)]<; avyKarepx^/^evcov. toI<^ Be fxdvTeaiv 
av6i<^ eBoKei ro fiev vtto 7r6Ba<; Xaffelv tov Aiwva 
By/uLTjyopovvTa rrjv (j)LXoTL/jLiav Kal to dvd6r)jj,a 
TOV Tvpdvvov Xa/jLTTpov elvai arj/jbecov ore 8' 
rjXiOTpoTTiov rjv e(j) ov /SejSrjKo)'; ypeOrj (TTpaTi]y6<;, 
wppwBovv /JLT) rpoTTrjV riva rrj^; rvxv'^ ^^ TTyoafet? 
ra^elav Xd/3coaiv. eK tovtov rdfy /jLev 'ETTiTToXa? 
eXcov Toi)? KaOeipjfievov^ ro)V itoXltmv eXvae, 

4 Tr;y Be aKpoiroXiv aTreret^^crei^. e^BSjurj S' rj/jiepa 97 
AiovvcTw; KareirXevaev eh ttjv aKpoiroXiv, Kal 
AlwvL Trpoaijyov dfia^at iravoirXia'i a? XvvdX(p 
KareXiire. ravTa<; Bieveifxe rot? TroXiraLf;, 70)v 

S* dXXoiv eKaaro^ eavrov, &)? Bvvarbv rjv, eKOcrfieL 
Kal Trapel'x^ep ottXlttjv irpoOv/xov. 

XXX. At.ovvaio<; Be irpCoTov IBia 7rpo<; Atctva 
7rpeafiei<; eireixirev d7ro7reLpco/jLevo<;' eireira KeXev- 
aavTO<i eKeii'ov BiaXeyeadai Koivfj ^vpaKovaioi^ 



62 



DION XXIX. i-xxx. I 

wishing to harangue the people himself, he went 
up through the Achradina/ while on either side of 
the street the Syracusans set out tables and sacri- 
ficial meats and mixing-bowls^ and all, as he came to 
them^ pelted him with flowers, and addressed him 
with vows and prayers as if he were a god. Now, 
there stood below the acropolis and the Pentapyla 
a tall and conspicuous sun-dial_, which Dionysius had 
set up. Mounted upon this, Dion harangued the 
citizens and exhorted them to assert their liberty. 
And they, in their joy and affection, made Dion and 
Megacles generals with absolute powers, and besides, 
at their wish and entreaty, chose twenty colleagues 
to hold office with them, half of whom were of those 
who had come back from exile with Dion. To the 
soothsayers, moreover, it seemed a most happy omen, 
that Dion, when he harangued the people, had put 
under his feet the ambitious monument of the tyrant ; 
but because it was a sun-dial upon which he stood 
when he was elected general, they feared that his 
enterprise might undergo some speedy change of 
fortune. After this, Dion captured Epipolae and set 
free the citizens who were imprisoned there ; then he 
walled off the acropolis. On the seventh day Diony- 
sius put in with his fleet and entered the acropolis, 
and waggons brought Dion the armour and weapons 
which he had left with Synalus. These he distri- 
buted among the citizens as far as they would go, and 
all the rest equipped themselves as best they could 
and zealously offered their services as men-at-arms. 

XXX. At first, Dionysius sent envoys privately to 
Dion and tried to make terms with him ; then, when 
Dion bade him confer publicly with the Syracusans, 

^ An extension of the city, covering tlie eastern part of 
the plateau of Epipolae. 

63 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

0)9 i\ev6epoi<; oixnv, eyevovro XoyoL Sia rayv 
TTpea^ecov irapa rov rupdvvov (pikdvdpwTTOL, (f)6- 
pojv v'TTia)(yovfjLevov fjuerpiort^ra koI paaroiivrjv 
arpareiMV, wv av avrol (TV/jLylrrjcpOL yevcovrai. 

2 ravra e')(\eva^ov ol XvpaKOvacoi. Atcot' S' dire- 
Kpivaro roi^ irpea^tcn fxr] BiaXeyeaOaL 7r/?6? 
avTOv<; Acovvaiov, el fir] rrjv dp^^rjv d<^i7]aLV 
d(j)€VTi Be avjJLTTpd^eLv aheiav avro^i, kclv aXXo ri 
rcov fierplcov Svvrjrai, p.6/jivr}/jb€P0<; t?}? OiKei,6T7)TO<i. 
ravra AcopvaLO<i eTr^vec, Kal rrdXiv eVe/xTre rrpea- 
^€i<; Kekevwv rjiceiv nvd^ eU rrjv aKporroKiv rcoi' 
^vpaKOVCTLCov, oi? ra fiep ireiOcov, rd Be rreidopevos 

3 BiaXe^erat irepl rcov Koivfj avp.(f)ep6vrcov. eirep- 
(j)Orjarav ovv dvBpe^ 7rpo<; avrbv ov<=: Alcov eBoKL- 
fiaae. Kal X0709 ttoXu? ck rrj^ dKpa<^ eh rovs 
^vpaKOvaLov<; Karyei Aiovvatov dc^rjcreiv ryjv 
rvpavviBa Kal fiaXkov eavrov Troifjcrea-OaL ^ %apii^ 
rj Alcovo<;. 

'Hz/ Be So\o9 r/ irpoaiTOirjai^ avrrj rov rvpdv- 
vov Kal (TKevwpia Kara rcop ^vpaKovcriwv. rov<; 
fiev yap ekOovra^ Trpo^ avrov €k rf]<; 7roX£&)9 
avyK\eiaa<; el^^, toi'9 Be pia6o(f)6pov<i 7r/?o9 op- 
Opov ip7r\7]aa<; aKpdrov Bpopw irpo^; ro Trepirel- 

4 p^tcTyLta rcbv XvpaKovaiwv ecfirJKe' yevo/jLevy]<; Be t?}9 
7rpocr/3o\7]<; dveXiriarov Kal rwv jBap^dpwv Opd- 
aec ttoXXm Kal Oopv^w Kadaipovvriov ro Biarei- 
')(L(TfMa Kal T0t9 ^vpaKOvaioi^ eTTLcfyepopeixov, ovBel'^ 
eroXpa pevwv ap^vvecrOai, ttXtjv rcov ^ei'cov rcov 
Alwvo^, ol rrpwrov alaOopevoL rov Oopv^ov 

5 e^e^orjOrjcrav. ovB^ ovroL Be rrj<^ ^otjOela^; rov 

^ -noi-ha^aOai a correction by Sinteiiis of the MSS. iroir,(7a 
adai, which Coraes omits and Bekker brackets. 

64 



DION XXX. 1-5 

on the ground that they were a free people, the envoys 
brought generous propositions from the tyrant, who 
promised such moderate taxes and easy miUtary ser- 
vice as the people themselves should agree to by 
vote. These offers were derided by the Syracusans, 
and Dion made answer to the envoys that Dionysius 
was not to confer with them unless he renounced his 
sovereignty ; but on his renouncing this, Dion would 
himself procure immunity for him, and any other 
reasonable privilege that was in his power, mindful 
of the close relationship between them. These con- 
ditions Dionysius approved, and again sent envoys, 
bidding some of the Syracusans to come to the 
acropolis, where, both parlies making concessions, 
he would confer with them concerning the common 
good. Accordingly, men were sent to him whom 
Dion approved. And frequent reports came to the 
Syracusans from the citadel that Dionysius would 
renounce the tyranny, and would do this to please 
himself rather than Dion. 

But this was a treacherous pretence on the part of 
the tyrant, and a piece of knavery directed against the 
Syracusans. For he kept in close custody the depu- 
tation that came to him from the city, and towards 
morning plied his mercenaries with strong wine and 
sent them on a dash against the siege-wall about the 
acropolis. The attack was unexpected, and the Bar- 
barians, with great boldness and loud tumult, began 
to tear down the cross-wall and attack the Syracusans, 
so that no one dared to stand on the defensive, except 
the mercenaries of Dion, who first noticed the dis- 
turbance and came to the rescue. And even these 



65 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rpoirov (TVve(pp6vovv ouS' elar)Kovov vtto fcpauyq<; 
fcal 7T\dvr]<^ Trhv cfyevyovTcov ^vpaKOvaiwv ava- 
TTecpup/jLevcov avTol^ koX Sie/cOeovrcov, rrrpiv ye Brj 
Alcjv, iirel \eyovTO<i ouSel^ /cartJKOvev, epyqy to 
irpa/criov vcpijyrjcracrOai, ^ovX6/j.evo<i i/x/SdWei, 

6 7rpcbT0<; et? tou? ^ap/Sdpov^;. fcal yiveraL. irepl 
avTov o^ela kol Setprj fidyn), yivwcTKoixevov ov^ 
r^rrov vtto tcov TToXe/JiLcov rj rcov (f)iXo)v copfirjaav 
yap dp,a 7rdvTe<; ifx(3or]aavTe<;. 6 8' rjv fiev ijSi] 
0apvT€po<; Sl rjXLKLav r; Kara tolovtov^ dywva^, 
oXkyj 8e Kol Ovfiw Toi/?^ 7rpoa(j)€po/jL6i^ov(; vcpiaTa- 
/j.€vo<i fcal dvafcoTTTcov riTpooaKeraL Xoy^V '^W 
)(€lpa, 7rpo<; Se rd dXXa /SeXrj xal ra? i/c %et/o69 
7rX7]yd<; pb6Xi,<; 6 Odipa^ ypKcae Std tT;? dcnriho^ 
hopacTL 7roXXol<; Kal Xoy^ai<; Tvirrofievof;' o)v 

7 KaTa/cXaadivTcov Kareireaev 6 Alcov. elra dvap- 
iraaOel^ vtto twp (Trparicorayv eK6iV0L<; fiev r)y€- 
fiova Tc/jLwi'iSrjv iTrearrjaev, avro^ Be rrjv ttoXlv 
LTTTTO) irepieXavvwv toi;? re XvpaKovaiov; eirave 
<^vyr)<^, Kal tcop ^evcov rov<i (^vXdrTOvra^ ttjv 
W.^paSivr)V dvaarijaa^ eTrrjye rot? jSapjSdpoL^ 
dKfirjra'^ eKiTeiTovti[xevoL<^ Kal irpoOvfjiov^ aTravBco- 

8 aiv Tjhr] TT^o? Tr]v irelpav. eXTTicravTe^ yap dfia 
rfi TrpcoTtj pvfiy ttjv ttoXlv diraaav i^ eTriSpofir]^; 
KaOe^etv, elra Trapd Bo^av €VTvyxdvovTe<; dvBpdai 
irXr)KTai<; Kal fiaxi'P'OL'i dveareXXovro tt/^o? rrjv 
aKpoTToXiv. en Be p.dXXov, co? iveBwKav, eTTiKei- 
/xevcov TCOV 'EiXXijvwv TpairofjievoL KareKXeLadrjaap 
et? TO reL^o<;, e^BopurjKOvra piev Kal reaaapa^ 
diTOKTelvri.vTe<^ Toiv pLerd Atwi^o?, eavrcov Be 
iToXXovi diro^aXovTe';. 

^ Tovs the article is suggested by Sintenis. 
66 



I 



DION XXX. 5-8 



knew not how to render aid, nor could they hear 
what was said to them, owing to the shouts and wild 
movements of the fugitive Syracusans, who mingled 
confusedly with them and broke through their ranks. 
But at last Dion, since no one could hear his orders, 
wishing to show by his example what should be 
done, charged foremost into the Barbarians. Then 
there arose about him a fierce and dreadful battle, 
since he was recognized by the enemy as well as by 
his friends, and all rushed towards him at the same 
time with loud shouts. He was now, by reason of 
his age, too unwieldy for such struggles, but he with- 
stood and cut down his assailants with vigour and 
courage until he was wounded in the hand with a 
lance ; besides, his breastplate hardly sufficed to resist 
the other missiles and hand-to-hand thrusts, and he 
was smitten through his shield by many spears and 
lances, and when these were broken off he fell to 
the ground. Then, after he had been snatched away 
by his soldiers, he put Timonides in command of 
these, while he himself, mounting a horse, rode about 
the city rallying the flying Syracusans, and bringing 
up a detachment of his mercenaries who were guard- 
ing Achradina, led them against the Barbarians, — 
fresh and eager reserves against a worn-out foe, and 
one that already despaired of his cause. For they 
had expected at their first onset to overrun and 
occupy the whole city, and now that they had un- 
expectedly encountered men who could smite and 
fight, they retired towards the acropolis. But as 
they gave ground, the Greeks pressed all the harder 
upon them, so that they turned their backs and were 
driven into the shelter of the citadel ; tiiey had slain 
seventy-four of Dion's men, and had lost many of 
their own number. 

6V 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXI. TevojJLevrjf; 5e \a/jL7rpd<; r^? VLKr)(; ol 
jiev XvpaKovaioi rou? ^evovf; efcarov fivai^ eare- 
(jidvcoaav, ol Se ^evoL Aicova ^pfo^o) are(^dv(p. 
KrjpVKC^ Be Trapa rod l^iovvaiov fcarefiaivov 972 
eVtcTToXa? 7r/30? Aicova irapd to)v oLKeicov yvvat- 
KMV KO/ii^ovTeS' /JLta 5' ^v e^(o6ev iirLjeypafJi- 
fieprj, " T&) TrarpL, Trap* 'lirirapivov'^^ tovto yap 

2 rjv ovofxa tw Al(ovo<; vlw. kultol (f>r)al Tt/xaiO? 
'Aperalov avrov diro rr}? /jL7jTpo(; ^ApeTT]<; Ka\e2- 
aOar Tt/KovlSp Be [xaXXov, co? oXofxai, irepi ye 
TOVTWV TTiarevTeov, dvBpX ^iXw /cat GvarpajLcorr) 
Ai(ovo<;. al [lev ovv dWai rol<^ XvpaKouaLoi<; 
dveyvcoadrjaav eiriaToXal TroXXa? iK€cr[a<i Kol 
BeijaeLf; e')(OV(jaL irapd tmv yvvaiKwv, rrjv Be irapa 
Tov 7rat8o9 elvai, BoKovcrav ovk ioovTcov (j)avepa)<; 
XvOrjvai ^laadfjievof; 6 Alcdv eXvaev. tjv Be irapa 
TOV Alovvo-lov, TOt? /uL€v ypdjifjiacn 7rpo<; rov 
Aiwva, Tot? Be irpdyfiaai tt/qo? toi'? ^vpaKOVcri- 
0f9 BiaXeyofievov, G'yniiJLa fiev e^ovaa 8er;o-ew9 Kal 
BLKaioXoyia^, avyKeLjjievr] Be ttpo^ Bia^oXijv rod 

3 Alcovo<;. {jTTOjJbvrjaei^; re yap rjaav wv virep t?}? 
TvpavvlBo'^ eiTpa^e 7rpoOvfico<;, Kal Kara rcav 
(pLXrdrcov uTreLXal crcofidrcov, dBeXcf)r]<; Kal reKVOV 
Kal yvvaiKo^, eVtcr/^jJ-v/rei? re Betval p,er 6Xo(f)vp 
/jLc!)v, Kal ro /idXiara Kivrjcrav avrov, d^iovvro<; 
fiT) KaOaipelv, dXXd TrapaXajuL^dveiv rrjv rvpav- 
vLBa, firjB^ eXevOepovv fjbiaovvra'^ dvOpcoirovfi Kal 
jjLvqcTLKaKovvra^;, aXX,' avrov dp^etv, irape)(ovra 
roc<; (f)iXoL<; Kal oIk€loi<; rrjv da<pdXeiav. 

XXXII. ^AvayivcoaKO/jL€vci)v Be rovrcov ov)(^, 
oirep ^v BiKatov, elarjei rov<^ ^vpaKOvaLov<; eK- 
TrXijrr^a-daL rrjv dirdOetav Kal rrjv /j,eyaXoyjfVX^av 
68 



DION XXXI. i-xxxii. I 

XXXI. The victory was a brilliant one, and the 
Syracusans rewarded Dion's mercenaries with a hun- 
dred minas, while the mercenaries honoured Dion 
with a wreath of gold. And now heralds came down 
from Dionysius bringing letters to Dion from the 
women of his family. There was also one addressed 
outside, "To his father, from Hipparinus" ; for this 
was the name of Dion's son. Timaeus, it is true, 
says he was called Aretaeus, from his mother Arete ; 
but on this point at least, in my opinion, Timonides 
is rather to be trusted, who was a friend and fellow- 
soldier of Dion's. Well, then, the rest of the letters 
were read aloud to the Syracusans, and contained 
many supplications and entreaties from the women ; 
but that which purported to be from Dion's son, the 
people would not allow to be opened in public. 
Dion, however, insisted upon it, and opened the 
letter. It was from Dionysius, who nominally ad- 
dressed himself to Dion, but really to the Syracu- 
sans; and it had the form of entreaty and justification, 
but was calculated to bring odium on Dion. For 
there were reminders of his zealous services in behalf 
of the tyranny, and threats against the persons of 
his dearest ones, his sister, children, and wife ; there 
were also dire injunctions coupled with lamenta- 
tions, and, what affected him most of all, a demand 
that he should not abolish, but assume, the tyranny ; 
that he should not give liberty to men who hated 
him and would never forget their wrongs, but take 
the power himself, and thereby assure his friends 
and kindred of their safety. 

XXXII. When all this had been read aloud, it did 
not occur to the Syracusans, as it should have done, 
to be astonished at the firmness and magnanimity of 

69 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rod Aia)vo<; virep to)v koXmv /cat BiKaLcov airi- 
crXvpi^ojJievov irpo^ ToiavTa<; olK€i6T7]Ta<i, aXV 
v7ro\jrLa<; kol (fio/Sov \aj36vT€^ ^PX'I^' ^'* P^y^Xv^ 
ovar]<; avdy/cr]<; ifcelvM <f>elBeadaL rov rvpdvvov, 
7r/309 eTepov<; rjSr} 7rpo(7TdTa<; aTTepXeirov Koi 
fMoXiara irvvOavopievoL KaTairXelv 'Hpa/cXeLSrjv 

2 dveiTTorjOi^aav. rjv 8e twv (pvydBayp 'HpafcXeiSr)^, 
aTpaTr)yLKO<; fxev dvdp(D'jTO<; ical yvd)pijjLo<; d(j) 
'^y€fjL0VLa<; tjv e(T')(^e irapd rol^ rvpdvvoi^;, ovk 
dpapoi^ Se Tr)v yv(ojjiT]v, dXXd Trpo? rrdvia Kov(f>o^, 
TjKcara Be PejSaio'i ev Koivcovia Trpayfidrcov dp^rjv 
iXovTcov Koi So^av. ovro^ ev HeXoTrovvrjcrq) irpo^ 
Aifova araacdaaf; eyvco Ka6* avrov lSL6aToXo<; 
nXelv €tt\ rov rvpavvov, eh re ^upaKovaa'^ dcfiLKo- 
jievo^ errrd rpirjpeav koI rpial irXoioi^ Alovvctiov 
fiev avOi^i evpe 'ir€pLrerec)(^i(7fjLevov, irrr^ppbevov^ 8e 

3 TOL/? XvpaKovalov^. evOv<; ovv virehvero rrjv 
rwv ttoXXmv ')(dpLV, e^cov p,ev re kol (fyvcrei ttl- 
davov Koi KivrjriKov o-^Xav depaireveaOai ^rjrovv- 
ro<;, vTroXapL^dvcov Be kol fierdycov paov avrov<;, 
o'l ro aepvov rov Aio)vo<; &>? /Sapv Kal BvcnroXl- 
revrov direarpe^ovro Bid r7]v yeyevq pievifv eK rov 
Kparelv dveaiv Kal Opaavrrjra, rrpo rov Bfjp,o<; 
elvai ro Br)p,aycoy€L<T6ai, OeXovre<;. 

XXXIII. Kat Trpcorov p-ev eh eicKXrjaiav dcf)* 
avr oyv <TvvBpap.6vre<i eiXovro rov 'HpaKXelBr^v 
vavap')(0v. iirel Be Alojv irapeXOcov yridro rrjv 
eKelv(p BiBopevrjv dp'^rjv d^aipeaLV elvai r7J<i rrpo- 
repov avrcp BeBofievrjfi, ovKerc yap avroKpdrcop 

70 



DION XXXII. i-xxxiii. I 

Dion, who was resisting in behalf of honour and 
justice such strong claims of relationship, but they 
found occasion for suspecting and fearing him, on 
the ground that he was under a strong necessity of 
sparing Dionysius, and at once turned their eyes 
towards other leaders. And particularly, when they 
learned that Heracleides was putting in to the har- 
bour, they were all excitement. Now, Heracleides 
was one of the exiles, a man of military capacity and 
well known for the commands which he had held 
under the tyrants, but irresolute, fickle, and least to 
be relied upon as partner in an enterprise involving 
power and glory. He had quarrelled with Dion in 
Peloponnesus, and had resolved to sail on his own 
account and with his own fleet against the tyrant ; 
but when he reached Syracuse, with seven triremes 
and three transports, he found Dionysius once more 
beleaguered, and the Syracusans elated with victory. 
At once, then, he sought to win the favour of the 
multitude, having a certain natural gift of persuading 
and moving a populace that seeks to be courted, and 
winning them over to his following all the more 
easily because they were repelled by the gravity of 
Dion. This they resented as severe and out of 
place in a public man, because their power had 
given them license and boldness, and they wished 
to be flattered by popular leaders before they were 
really a people. 

XXXni. So, to begin with, they held an assembly 
of their own calling, and chose Heracleides admiral. 
But Dion came forward and protested that in giving 
this office to Heracleides, they had done away with 
that which they had before given to him, for he 
would no longer be general with absolute powers 

71 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fieveit, ctt^ aXXo9 rjyyrai, tmv Kara OdXaaaav, 
aKovre^ ol ^vpaKovaioi nrdXiv dire^iic^laavTO 

2 Tov 'HpaKXeiBrjv. yevofievcov Be tovtwv /xera- 
Tre/x^/r a/A€Z^o? avrov 6 Alcov otKaSe, koI fjuKpa 
fi€/jL-^d/jL€vo(;, ft)? ov KaXa)(; ovSe o-vfKpepovrcof; virep 
S6^7)<i araaid^ovra vryoo? avrov ev Kaipw poTrrj^; 
6\Lyr)<i Beofievw tt/^o? dTrdyXeiav, av6i<; eKKXr^aiav 
avTo^ avvayayoiv vavap^^^ov direBei^e tov ']Apa- 
K\eiBr]v, Kol rod (TcofjLaro^ eireiae cjyvXaKrjv Bovvat, 

3 rov<; 7roXLra<;, oiairep auro<; elx^v. 6 Be rw fxev 
Xoyo) KOI rw o-^7;/xaTt rov Aicova Oepairevcov teal 
X^pi^v 6/iioXoy(ov e^^Lv iraprjKoXovdei Taireivof;, 971 
vTTTjperwv TO KeXevofxevov, Kpv(^a Be tov<s 7roXXov<i 
Kol v6(orepiard<; BiacpOelpcov Koi vttoklvcov, Oopv- 
^oi<; rov Aicova irepiefiaXXev, et? drraaav diropLav 

4 fcaOiard/mevov. elre yap d(j>LevaL KeXevoi Aiovv- 
aiov vTrocTTTOvBov €K ri]<; d/cpa<i, Bia^oXrjv eZ^e 
<j)eiBeadai Kal TrepLcrco^eiv e/cetvov, etre Xvirelv /jlt] 
l3ovX6ixevo<^ eirl rrj<i rroXiopKia^; rjavxd^ot, Bia- 
rrjpelv eBoKCi rov rroXefJiov, co? jxaXXov dp^oi Kal 
KarairXrjrroiro rov(; TroXtra?. 

XXXIV. '^Hz^ Be T^9 2a)(Xi9, dvdpcD7ro<; e/c irovrj- 
pia^ Kal OpaavrrfTO^ evBoKL/iMV rrapd roU ^vpa- 
KovaiOi<^, TTepiovaiav r)yov/jLevoL(; eXevOepia^ to 
fie^pt' roiovrcov dvelaOai rrjv rrapprjaiav. ovro<; 
eTTL^ovXevcov Alcovl irpcorov puev eKKXt^ala^ ovcrr]^; 
dvaara^ iroXXd rov^i ^vpaKovaiov^ eXoiBoprjaev, 
el pLY) (Tvvidaiv &)? e/jLTrXyKrov Kal /leduovarjf; 
dTTrjXXay/j.evoL rvpavviBo^ eyp-qyopora Kal v/jcpovra 
2 BeaTTorr/v elXi](^aaLV' eireira c^avepov rov Alcovo<; 
ex^pov dvaBeL^a<i etcvrov rore pLev €k t^? dyopa<; 
d7rr]X6e, rfj 8' varepala Y^yL/.i^o? a>cf>Or) Bid r^? 
72 



DION XXXIII. i-xxxiv. 2 

if another should have command of the navy. Then 
the Syracusans rekictantly revoked the appointment 
of Heracleides. When this had been done^ Dion 
summoned Heracleides to his house and gently re- 
proached him, on the ground that he was not acting 
well or wisely in quarrelling with him for honours 
at a crisis where a slight impulse might ruin their 
cause. Then he himself called a fresh assembly and 
appointed Heracleides admiral, and persuaded the 
citizens to give him a body-guard, like his own. In 
word and mien, now, Heracleides paid court to Dion, 
acknowledged his thanks to him, and attended sub- 
missively upon him, performing his commands ; but 
in secret he perverted and stirred up the multitude 
and the revolutionaries, and encompassed Dion with 
disturbances which reduced him to utter perplexity. 
For if he advised to let Dionysius leave the citadel 
under a truce, he would be charged with sparing and 
preserving him ; and if, wishing to give no offence, 
he simply continued the siege, it would be said 
that he was protracting the war, in order that he 
might the longer be in command and overawe the 
citizens. 

XXXIV. Now, there was a certain Sosis, a man 
whose baseness and impudence gave him renown in 
Syracuse, where it was thought that abundance of 
liberty could only be shown by such license of speech 
as his. This man, with hostile designs upon Dion, 
first rose in an assembly and roundly abused the 
Syracusans for not comprehending that they had 
merely exchanged a stupid and drunken tyrant for a 
watchful and sober master ; and having thus declared 
himself an open enemy of Dion, he left tlie assembly. 
Next, on the following day he was seen running 

73 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TToXeco? Oewv avaTrXeco^; ai/jLaTo<; Trjv /cecjyaXrjv Kal 
TO irpoawTTOv, 009 hrj TLva<; (j^evycov hiayKovTa^. 
i/jifiaXcov Se TOiodro<; eU rrjv ajopav eXeyev virb 
rwv ^evcov rod Almvo^; iirc^e^ovXevcrOaL, koL T7]v 

3 Ke^aXrjv eTreheiKwe rerpwfxivrjv Kal ttoA.Xol'? 
et;^e tov<; avvajavaKrovvTa<; Kal GwidTaixevov^; 
Kara rod Atwi^o?, &)? Seiva Kal rupavviKo, irpdr- 
T01/T09, el (p6voi<i Kal KivhvvoL<; rwv iroXirMv 
a<f)aipeiraL rrjv rrapprjaiav. ov fi7]v aXXd, Kaiirep 
cLKpLTOV Kal rapa')(oihov^ eKKXi]aia<i yevopievrj^;, 
rrapeXOcov 6 Alcov drreXoyelro Kal rov Xcoaiv 
a'Tre<f)aLV€ rcov Aiovvaiov Sopv(f)6p(ov epo^ dSeX(j)OP 
ovra Kal Bl' eKeivov ireireia fxevov araaidaai Kal 
avvrapd^ai rrjv iroXiv, ovS€/jLia<i AtovvaUo acorrj- 
pia<; ovar]<;, irXrjv rr}? eKeivcdv dTTLarLa<^ Kal Sia- 

4 <popa<; TT/Oo? avrov<;. dpia B' 01 puev larpol rod 
l.d)aLBo<i TO rpavpua KaTapiav6dvovre<; evptcrKov 
ef iTTLiToXij^; pLaXXov r/ Kara4)0pd<; yejevrjpipov. 
al piev yap vito ^l(j>ovf; rrXrjyal pidXiara to puicrov 
viro ^dpov<; Trii^ovat, ro Be rov %cocriBo<; Xeirrbv 
Tjv BloXov Kal 7ToXXd<; el'X^ev dpyd<i, &)? eiKo^, vrv 

5 dXyrjBovo^ dvievro^, elra avOt^ €7rdyovro<i. rjKov 
Be rive<^ rcjv yvcopLpicov ^vpov KOfj.L^ovre<; et9 rrjv 
eKKXiiaiav, Kal Bcr]yovpi€voc ^aBl^ovaiv avro2<; 
KaO^ 6B0V diravrrjcrai rov '^cocnv ypuaypevov Kal 
Xeyovra (f)€vyecv rov<; Alcovo^i ^evovf; &)? dprico'^ 
VTT eKeivwv rerpcoptevo^' evOv<; ovv BicoKovre^ 
dvOpcoirov pL€V ovBeva Xa^elv, vtto irerpav Be 
kolXtjv Keipievov IBelv ^vpov, 66ev €K€lvo<; a)(p6r) 
'irpoo-ep')(^6pLevo<;. 

XXXV. *iiv piev ovv i]Br] piO'xOrjpd rd irepl rov 



74 



DION XXXIV. 2-xxxv. I 

through the city naked, his head and face covered 
with blood, as though he were trying to escape 
pursuit. In this condition he dashed into the 
assembly and told the people there that he had 
been set upon by Dion's mercenaries, and showed 
them his head with its wounds. He found many to 
share his resentment and take sides with him against 
Dion, who, they said, was committing dire acts of 
tyranny, if by murder and peril of life he sought to 
rob the citizens of their free speech. However, 
although the assembly had become confused and 
tumultuous, Dion came forward and showed in his 
own defence that Sosis was a brother of one of the 
body-guards of Dionysius, and had been induced by 
him to raise confusion and faction among the citizens, 
since there was no safety for Dionysius except in 
their mutual distrust and dissension. At the same 
time, too, the physicians examined the wound of 
Sosis and discovered that it had been made by 
razure rather than by a downright blow. For the 
blows of a sword, by reason of its weight, make 
wounds that are deepest in the middle, but that of 
Sosis was shallow all along, and intermittent, as 
would be natural if he stopped his work on account 
of pain, and then began it again. Besides, certain 
well known persons brought a razor to the assembly, 
and stated that as they were walking along the 
street, Sosis met them, all bloody, and declaring 
that he was running away from Dion's mercenaries, 
by whom he had just been wounded ; at once, then, 
they ran after them, and found no one, but saw a 
razor lying under a hollow rock in the quarter from 
which Sosis had been seen to come. 

XXXV. Well, then, the case of Sosis was already 

75 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^(ocnv Trpofjyevo/jLevcov Be rovTOL<; rol^; eXe7;^oi9 
oIk6to}v KarajiapTvpovvTOiV 009 en vvkto^ i^eXOoi 
fj,6vo<; eywv to ^upov, oi re KaTr}<yopovvTi<i rod 
Aicovo'^ vn-€)(^cop7jaav 6 re Sr]/jLo<; KaTaylrr](piad/JL€vo<; 
Odvarov rod 2<wcrtSo9 BirjWdacrero rw Aicovi. 

ToL'9 Be piaOo(f)6pov<; ovBer rjrrov ev v7ro'\jriaL<^ 
el^ov, fcal /jLoXtara royv irXelarcov dy(t)i cop 7rp6<; 
rov rvpavvov rfBrj f^ivop^evwy Kara OdXarrav, 
eireLBr) (PlXiarof; rjKev ef ^\a'TTV<yia<; e^wv iroWaf; 
rpiijp€t<; Aiovvala) ^orjOrjcrwv, /cal royv ^evoiv 
ovrcov OTrXirwv ovBefiiav en 'y^prjcnv evo/ni^ov elvac 
7rpo9 rbv ttoXc/iov, aXXa KaKeivov^ e(^' eavroL<; 
eaeaOai vav^drai<^ ovai Kal ro Kpdro<s e/c roiv 
veoiv KTcofievoL^. en Be fxaXXov avrov<i iTrrjpev 
evrv^ia n<; yevo/jievrj Kara OdXaaaav, ev y vlky}- 
aavre<; rov ^LXiarov a)/iia)<; Kal ^ap^apiKct)<; avrw 
7rpo(Tr]ve)(6r}o-av. "K(f)opo<i fiev ovv (prjaiv 009 
d\io-K0jjL6vr)^ T7}9 veo)^ eavTov dveXoi, Tl/jL(ovlB7]<; 
Be 7rparT0/jLei'aL<; e'f "yox^? '^^^^ Trpd^ecri ravrai<; 9' 
fierd Ai(ovo<i 7rapayevo/ievo<; Kal ypdcfxDv rrpof; 
^irevaLTT'Trov rov <^CX6ao^ov laropel ^covra Xj]- 
^Orjvai rrj<; rpLrjpov^ ei9 rr]V yrjv eKTreaovarj'^ rbv 
^iXiarov Kal Trpcorov puev d7roBvaavra<; avrcv 
rov dcopaKa toi'9 'S.vpaKovaiov^ Kal yvfxvov einBeL- 
^a/ievov(; rb aoijia irpoTrrjXaKL^etv 6vto<; rjBrj 
yepovro^i' erreura rrjv Ke(f)a\r}V aTrorefielv Kal Tot9 
iraial irapaBovvat rb aoifjua, KeXeuaavra<; eXKeiv 
Bid rrjf; ^AxpaBivP]<; Kal KarajBaXelv eh rd<i Aaro- 
fiia<^. en Be fiaXXov e^v^pi^wv 6 TifiaLOfi eK rov 
aKeXov^ (jiTjal rod ')(^co\ov rd rracBdpia rbv veKpbv 
e^a-\lrd[jLeva rov <t>iXi(jrov avpeiv Bed rf]<; TroXeco^;, 
')(Xeva^6/jLevov virb ro)v XvpaKOvalcov irdvrwv, 

76 



DION XXXV. 1-5 

desperate ; but when, in addition to these proofs, 
his servants testified that while it was still night he had 
left the house alone and carrying the razor, Dion's 
accusers withdrew, and the people, after condemning 
Sosis to death, were reconciled with Dion. 

However, they were none the less suspicious of 
his mercenaries, and especially so, now that most 
of the struggles against the tyrant were carried on 
at sea, since Philistus had come from lapygia with a 
large number of triremes to help Dionysius; and since 
the mercenaries were men-at-arms, they thought them 
of no further use for the war, nay, they felt that even 
these troops were dependent for protection upon the 
citizens themselves, who were seamen, and derived 
their power from their fleet. And they were still 
more elated by a successful engagement at sea, in 
which they defeated Philistus, and then treated him 
in a barbarous and savage fashion. Ephorus, it is true, 
says that when his ship was captured, Philistus slew 
himself; but Timonides, who was engaged with Dion 
in all the events of this war from the very first, in 
writing to Speusippus the philosopher, relates that 
Philistus was taken alive after his trireme had run 
aground, and that the Syracusans, to begin with, 
stripped off his breast-plate and exposed his body, 
naked, to insult and abuse, although he was 
now an old man ; then, that they cut off his head, 
and gave his body to the boys of the city, with 
orders to drag it through Achradina and throw it 
into the stone quarries. And Timaeus, enlarging 
upon these indignities, says that the boys tied a rope 
to the lame leg of the dead Philistus and dragged 
his body through the city, w^hile all the Syracusans 
mocked and jeered as they saw drawn about by the 

77 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

opoiVTCDV Tou aKekov^ eXKOfJuevov top elirovra /jltj 
Selv iic TVpavviho<^ cpevyeiv AiovvaLov Xttttw ra^el 
'^p(t)fjL€vop, aWa Tov aicekov^i iXKOfievov. Kalrov 
TOVTO ^i\iaTO<i, &)? v(^^ krepov Xex^^v, ov^ ^(f 
avTov, TTpo? Atovvaiov i^ijyyeK/cev. 

XXXVI. 'AWa TLfjiaio<i ovk uSlkov Xa^oov 
'irp6<^acnv rrjv virep r?}? TupavviSo^; tou ^iXiarov 
airovhrfv /cat TTiCFTiv eyu-TrtTrXarat twv Kar avrov 
^Xaacferj/jLLcov, c5 rov^ fJL6P aSiKrjOepTa^; Tore avy- 
^yvcoaTov eariv tVo)? olXP'' '^^1'^ ^^'^ dvaiaOrjTOV 
op7^9 XcCXeiTov^ 'yeveaOau, tov<; S^ varepov avy- 
ypd(f}0VTa^ tol ireTrpayfxeva koI tm /ll€v /Slw firj 
Xv7nrj6evTa<^ avrov, rw 3e Xoyw ;^/9Ci)yLteVoi;?, 77 ho^a 
Trapairelrat, /xr) jjueO' v/3pew(; pLrjSe fiera /ScojjloXo- 
%ta9 6v6i8i^€tv ra<; av/ji(f)0pd<;, mv ouhep direx^i 
KoX TOV dpKTTOv dvBpcov Sk tv^V^ fjier aa ^j^lv . 

2 ov ixrjv ovB^ "K(f)opo^ vyiaivec rov ^iXiarov ijKco- 
fiid^cov, 09, Kaiirep o)v Seivoraro^; dhiKOL<^ irpdy- 
fxacri Kol 7rovr)poL<^ rjOeaiv eva')(/jH'Ova<^ alria^ 
irepi^aXelv /cat X6yov<i €Xopra<i Koafiov i^evpelv, 
avr6<; avrov ov hvvarai irdvra fjLr]xava)/j.€V0<; 
e^eXeaOai t7j<; ypa(f>r](;, co? ov (^LXorvpavvoraro^ 
dvdpdiTTWv ykvoiro koX paXicrra irdvrcov del 
^7jXd)aa<^ Kal Oavfidaa^; rpvc^rfv Koi Svvap.LV Kal 
ttXovtov^ Kal yd/jiov^ rov<; rcov rvpdvvcov. dXXa 
yap ^tXlarov fiev 6 p.rjre ra? irpd^ei^; eiraLvthv 
pyt'ire rd^ rvx^^ oveihi^wv ep^p^eXeararo^. 

XXXVII, Mera he rrjv ^PiXlarov reXevrrjv 
AtovvaLO^ eirep^rre tt/jo? Aiayva rrjv p,ev aKpoizoXiv 
eKeivw rrapahihov^ Kal rd orrXa Kal rov<^ pnado- 
(j)6pov<; Kal rrevre p^rjvaw evrekrj rovroi<i /jLicr66v, 
avro<; 8' d^iwv vTroaTrovco^ et? ^IraXiav direXOelv 

78 



DION XXXV. 5-XXXVI1. I 

leg the man who had said to Dionysius that he must 
not run away from his tyranny on a swift horse, but 
wait until he was dragged from it by the leg. And 
yet Philistus has stated explicitly that this was said 
to Dionysius by another^ and not by himself. 

XXXVI. But Timaeus, finding a fair excuse for 
his animosity in the zeal and fidelity which Philistus 
showed in behalf of the tyranny, ghits himself with 
the slanders against him. Now, those who were 
wronged by Philistus while he liv^ed may perhaps be 
pardoned for carrying their resentment to the length 
of maltreating his unconscious body ; but those who 
in later times write histories of that period, and who 
were not harmed by his life, but avail themselves 
of his writings, owe it to his reputation not to 
reproach him, in insolent and scurrilous language, 
for calamities in which fortune may involve even the 
best of men. However, Ephorus also is unsound in 
heaping praises upon Philistus ; for, although he is 
most skilful in furnishing unjust deeds and base 
natures with specious motives, and in discovering 
decorous names for them, still, even he, with all his 
artifice, cannot extricate himself from the charge of 
having been the greatest lover of tyrants alive, and 
more than any one else always an emulous admirer 
of luxury, power, wealth, and marriage alliances of 
tyrants. Verily, he who neither praises the conduct 
of Philistus, nor gloats insultingly over his misfor- 
tunes, takes the fittest course. 

XXX VII. After the death of Philistu.s, Dionysius 
sent to Dion offering to surrender to him the acro- 
polis, his munitions of war, and his mercenaries, 
with five months' full pay for these, and demanding 
for himself the privilege of retiring unmolested into 

79 



PLUTARCH S LIVES 

KCLKel KaroLKMv KapirovaOai t?)? %vpaKouaLa<; rov 
KaXovfxevov Tvapra, TroWrjv koX aya6r]v y^oopav 

2 avrjKovaav airo OaXdrrr)^ eU rrjv fjieaoyeiov. ov 
TTpoaBe^a/jLevov Be rov ^lcovo<;, aWa helaOai rcov 
^vpa/covaLcov Ke\evaavio<^, ol fjuev XvpaKovacoL 
^covra Xrjy^eaOai top Acovvaiov iXiriaavre^i airrj- 
\aaav tou? irpea/SeL^;, e/€€ivo<; Se rr]V /juev aKpav 
^ AiroWoKpoLTeL, rw irpea^vrepo) roiv TralBcov, 
irapehwKev, avTO<; he irvevfjia rrjprjcra'^ e7ri<popov 
Kol ra TCfjLLcoTaTa rcov (rco/Jbdrcov koI twv '^^^prj/id- 
Twv ev6eiJi€vo<^ eh ra<; vav^ XaOcbv rov vavap')(ov 
'HpaKXelSijv e^iirXevaev. 

3 'O Be /caK(x)<; clkovwv koX dopv^ovfxevo^ vtto twv 
ttoXltmv "iTTTTCOvd Tivu Twv Brj/uLajcoyMV KaOlt]at 
irpoKokeZaOaL rov Brjfxov iirl 7^9 dvaBacrpLOV, co? 
i\evdepia<; dp')(r]v ovaav rrjv laori^ra, Bovkeia^ Be 
T7JV ireviav roL<; d/crrj/jioa-t. (TVVTjyopcov Be tovtw 
KoX rov Aicova Karaaraaid^cov evavTLovp.evov 
eireiae roix; Svpa/covaLOv; ravra yln](f)Laaa6ac 
KOL rcov ^eucov rov fxtaOov diToarepelv kol crrpa- 
Tr)<yov<i erepov<; eXecrOat, t% eKeivov ^apurrjro^ 

4 aTTaWayevTaf;. ol B\ Majrep i/c fiaKpa^; dppco- 
(TTia<^ T% TVpavviBo^i ev6v<^ e7rL')(^eipovvre<; e^avi- 
araaOaL, kol irpdrreiv ra rcov avrovo fxav fxevwv 
irapa Kaipov, iacfidWovro p,ev avrol ral'^ irpd- 
^ecjLV, epLLcrovv Be tov Aicova ^ov\6 i^ievov toairep 
larpov ev aKpi^el koI accx^povovar} Biairr] Kara- 
(T'X^elv rr]v iroXiv. 

XXXVIII. ^^KKXr](Tui^ovai 8' avTol<; eirX veai<; 
dp)(^aL<;, Oepov<; fieaovvTo<;, e^aicrioi ppovraX Kal 
Bioarj/jLiai Trovrjpal crvve^atvov e^' r}/j,€pa<; BeKa- 
Trevre avve)((o<;, dviardaai rov Bijfiov vtto Beiat' 
80 



DION XXXVII. i-xxxviii. I 

Italy, and of enjoying during his residence there the 
revenues of Gyarta, a large and rich tract in the 
territory of Syracuse, extending from the sea to the 
interior of the island. Dion, however, would not 
accept these terms, but bade him apply to the Syra- 
cusans, and these, hoping to take Dionysius alive, 
drove away his ambassadors. Upon this, the tyrant 
handed over the citadel to Apollocrates, his eldest 
son, while he himself, after watching for a favourable 
wind and putting on board his ships the persons and 
property that he held most dear, eluded the vigilance 
of Heracleides the admiral, and sailed off. 

Heracleides was now stormily denounced by the 
citizens, whereupon he induced Hippo, one of their 
leaders, to make proposals to the people for a distri- 
bution of land, urging that liberty was based on 
equality, and slavery on the poverty of those 
who had naught. Supporting Hippo, and heading a 
faction which overwhelmed the opposition of Dion, 
Heracleides persuaded the Syracusans to vote this 
measure, to deprive the mercenaries of their pay, 
and to elect other generals, thus ridding themselves 
of the severities of Dion. So the people, attempting, 
as it were, to stand at once upon their feet after 
their long sickness of tyranny, and to act the part 
of independence out of season, stumbled in their 
undertakings, and yet hated Dion, who, like a 
physician, wished to subject the city to a strict 
and temperate regimen. 

XXXVni. As they met in assembly to assign new 
commands, the time being midsummer, extraordinary 
peals of thunder and evil portents from the heavens 
occurred for fifteen days together, and dispersed the 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Bai/jiovLa<; KcoXvo/jievov erepov<; aTTohel^ai arparrj- 

2 70U?. eVel Se (f)v\d^avT€<i evhiav araOepav ol 
Br)fiajcD<yol avvereXovv ra<; dp')(^acp6aia<;, /3o09 
dfia^ev^i ovK, di]d7]<; ovS' diretpo^ 6')(\cov, aXXox; Si 
TTft)? Tore TT/OO? Tov iXavvovra du/xwOeU koI (pvyoov 
dirb TOV ^vyov, Spofio) tt/jo? to Oearpov wpfirjae' 
KOi TOV fjL€V Brjfiov ev6u<^ dveaTTjae fcal Sieafce- 
hacrev ovhevl koctixw (pevyovra, r?}? S' dWr]<; 
TToXeo)? eirehpafxe aKipTOJV kol TapaTTcov oaov 
v(7T€pov ol TToXe/iLOL /caTecT^ov. ov fiyjv dWd 
TavTa ')(aip6LV idaavTe^ ol Xvpa/covaiot irevTe 
fcal eUoai aTpaTr]yov<; i^eipOTOvrjaav, mv eh j]v 

3 'ilpaK\€iBr](;' Kol tou? ^evou<; V7ro7r6jiM7rovT6<^ 
Kpv(f)a TOV Aicovo^ dcpLaTaaav koX /xeTefcdXovv 
TTjOo? avTOVi, iirayyeWo/JievoL kol t^? iroXiTeia^ 
Icro/jLoipiap. ol Be TavTa jjuev ov irpocreBe^avTO, 
TOV Be Aicova Trio-ro)? Kal irpodv/ico'; jieTa twv 
ottXcov dvaXa^6vT€<; Kal crv/JL(f)pd^avT€<i virrjyov e/c 
tt}? TToXeo)?, dBiKovvTe<; fjuev ovBeva, ttoXXcl Be 
Tov^ evTvy^f^di'ovTa^i eh d^apLaTLav Kal fiox^V 

4 piav 6veiBi^ovTe<i. ol Be tt}? oXiyoTrfTO's avTcov 
Kal TOV fir) iTpoe'jn-)(ei,pelv Kara(f)povi]a-avT€<;, Kal 
yevofxevoi iroXv rrXelov^ eKeivwv, icpcop/jLijaav &)? 
paBico<i eTTLKpaTrjaovTe^ iv ttj iroXec Kal 7rdvTa<; 
avTOv<; KaTaKTevovvTe^. 

XXXIX. 'Ei^ TOVT(p Be yeyovco<; dvdyKi]<; Kal 
TV')(r](; 6 Alcov rj fjid')(ea6ai Toh 7roXLTai<; rj /jLeTci 
T(i)v ^6V(ov diroOavelv, iroXXd jnev iKeTCvev opeycov 
Ta9 ^€?oa9 rot? %vpaKovaioi<i Kal ttjv dxpoiroXiv 

82 



DION xxxviiT. i-xxxix. I 

people, whose superstitious fears prevented them 
from appointing other generals. And when, after 
waiting for settled fair weather, the popular leaders 
were proceeding to hold the elections, a draught-ox, 
who was quite accustomed to crowds, but now for 
some reason or other got angry at his driver and 
broke away from the yoke, made a dash for the 
theatre, and at once dispersed and scattered the 
people in disorderly flight ; then he ran, plunging and 
throwing everything into confusion, over as much of 
the rest of the city as the enemy afterwards occupied. 
However, the Syracusans paid no heed to all this, but 
elected twenty-five generals, one of whom was Hera- 
cleides ; they also sent secretly and without his 
knowledge to Dion's mercenaries, and tried to get 
them to leave his service and come over to their 
side, promising them even an equality of civic rights. 
They, however, would not listen to these proposals, 
but showing fidelity and zeal, took their weapons in 
their hands, put Dion in their midst, encompassed 
him about, and tried to conduct him out of the city, 
doing violence to no one, but roundly reviling those 
whom they encountered for their base ingratitude. 
Then the citizens, seeing that the mercenaries were 
few in number and did not offer to attack, despised 
them, and having become far more numerous than 
they, set upon them, thinking to overpower them 
easily before they got out of the city, and slay 
them all. 

XXXIX. And now Dion, seeing that fortune com- 
pelled him either to fight against his fellow citizens 
or perish with his mercenaries, fervently besought 
the Syracusans, stretching out his hands to them. 



83 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrepLTrXecDv iroXe/jLicov ovaav vTrepcpatvo/jievcov ra 
rei'X^r] koI ra yevofJLeva KaOopcovrcov iiriheiKvi)- 

2 fievo<i' o)? 8' r)v aTrapairrjTO^ i) tmv ttoWcov (f)opa 
Kal KaTel')(€v coairep ev ireXdjei to tmv Sr)/xajo)- 
y6i)V iTvevfxa Tr]V ttoXlv, e/jb/SoXijf; fiev airoG^eoQai 
TOt? ^6Voi<; TTpoaera^ev, oaov 8' eiruhpajJiovTcov 
ixera fiurj^; Kal toX<; ottXoi^ riva^afievcDv ovSeU 
efieive rcov Xvpa/covaicov, aXX^ o))(^ovto (j)6vyovT6<i 
ava Ta<^ ayvia<^, ov8evo<^ iTnhicoicovTO^' ev6v<^ yap 
airearpe'^ev 6 Alcoi/ rot'? ^€Pov<; /cat Trporjyav eh 
Aeoi>TLVov<;, 

3 Oi 8' ap'^ovre.'^ t(x)V XvpaKovcricov KarayeXaarot 
y€yovoTe<^ vtto t(7)v yvvaiicwv, kol ttjv ala-^vvrjv 
avaXa^elv ^rjrovvTe^, av6i<^ oirXlaavre'^ rov^ 
TToXtraf; iSico/cov rov Alcova. Kal KareXa^ov fiev 
iirl Biafidaec nvo^ irorafioir Kal TrpoaiinTevaav 
ay^L[jia')(ovvre^' &)9 3' ecopcov ovKeri irpdco^ ovSe 
irarpLKO}^ viro/nevovra Td<i djuLaprlaf; aurcov, dXXd 
Bvfjbcp Tov<; ^evov<; eTrLaTpe(povTa Kal iraparaTro- 
/jL€vov, ala')(iova ^vyrjv t^? 7rpoT€pa<; (j)vy6vTe<i 
V7re')(^d>pr]aav eh Tr]v ttoXiv, ov ttoXXcov diroOav- 

OVTCOV. 

XL. Aioiva Be Keovrlvoi Xapurpah eBe)(^ovTo 
TL/bbah, Kal TO?)? ^evov<^ dveXdixjSavov ixiaOoh Kal 
TToXiTeiaL'^' 7rpo<; Be roi)? XvpaKouaLov<; eirpe- 
(T^evov d^Lovpre^ ra hiKaia rot? ^evoL^ TTOtelv. ol 
he irpea^ei^ eirepi'^lrav KaTrjyopjjaopra^ Aicovo^i 
2 Twi^ Be av/jbfjLd')(^cov dirdvTwv eh JXeovrivov^ dOpoi- 
aOevrwu Kal yevofievcov Xoywv ev avroh, eBo^av 
dBuKelv ol ^vpaKOvcrtor roL<; Be Kpidelaiv vtto 
TOiv avp,/j,d)(^a)P ovk ive/jLeivav rpvcpcovre^; ijB'i] Kal 



S4 



DION XXXIX. I-XL, 2 

and pointing out to them the acropolis, whicli was 
full of enemies peering over the walls and watching 
what was going on below ; but since no entreaties 
could stay the onset of the multitudes, and the city, 
like a ship at sea, was at the mercy of the blasts of its 
demagogues, he ordered his mercenaries not to make 
a charge, but simply to run towards their assailants 
with loud cries and brandishing of weapons ; which 
being done, not a Syracusan stood his ground, but 
all promptly took to flight along the streets, where 
none pursued them. For Dion immediately ordered 
his men to wheel about, and led them forth to 
Leontini. 

But the leaders of the Syracusans, now that they 
were become a laughing-stock for the women, sought 
to redeem their disgrace, armed the citizens again, 
and pursued after Dion. They came upon him as 
he was crossing a river, and their horsemen rode up 
for a skirmish ; but when they saw that he no longer 
bore with their faults in a mild and paternal spirit, 
but was angrily wheeling his mercenaries about and 
putting them in battle array, they broke into a more 
disgraceful flight than before, and retired into the 
city, with the loss of a few men. 

XL. The Leontines received Dion with splendid 
honours, took his mercenaries into their service, and 
gave them civic rights ; they also sent an embassy 
to the Syracusans with a demand that they should 
do the mercenaries justice. The Syracusans, how- 
ever, sent envoys to denounce Dion. But when all 
the confederates had assembled at Leontini and dis- 
cussed the matter, it was decided that the Syracusans 
were in the wrong. By this decision of their con- 
federates, however, the Syracusans would not abide, 

85 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/ii€ydko<l)povovvT€<; eVl toS /jl7)86Vo<; uKovecv, dWa 
'X^pYjaOai BovXevovai, fcal (pofiov/jbevoi^ rov Sy]fiov 
aTpaTy]yol<;. 

XLI. 'E/c Tovrov KarairXeovaiv ei? Tr]v ttoXlv 
irapa Aiovvalov rpirjpetfi Nvylnov dyovaac top 
^eaiTo\iT7)v, alrov koI ')(pi]/jLaTa KO/xl^opra toI<; 
7ro\iopKOV/jL€voL<^. y6V0/x6V7]<; Se vav/ia)(^La^ iviKcov 
fjL6v oi Xvpa/covatot kol reaaapa^; t€)V rvpavvi/ccop 
vecov €\a/3ov, v/3pio-avT6<; Se rrj vL/crj, koI Sl 
dvap^tav to ')(^alpov 6t9 ttotou? /cat avvovaia^ 
pbavLKa<^ TpeyjravTe^, ovtco tCov xPV^^^f^^^ rj/xeXr)- 
aav (oaTe t^v aKpoiroXiv e)(6iv So/covpt€<; ijSr) Koi 

2 T^z^ ttoXlv irpoaaTre^aXov. 6 yap Nvyjno<; opoiv 
ovhev vyiOLVov ev Tjj iroXei ixepo<;, dXXa tov fiev 
6')(\ov avX7]ixaai koI ixe6aL<; el<; vvKTa paOelav 
d(f) rjiiepa<^ icaTe^op^evov, tov<; Be aTpaTr}yov<; 
iiTLTepTro/xevovi; re tovtw tw 7rav7jyvpi(7p,w koI 
TTpoadyuv dvdyK7)v jxeOvovaiv dvOpcoiroL'^ okvovv- 
Ta<;, dpiaTU tw Kaipip \^pr]Gdp,evo'^ eiTe^dpj](je rw 
TeL'XiafiaTf koI KpaTtjaa^ koX SiaOpuxfras i(f)t]K€ 
TOv<; l3apl3dpov<;, KeXevcra^ ')^prja6aL T0t<; Trpoa- 

3 Tvy^dvovaLv &)? jSovXovTat /cal hvvavTai. Ta)(^e(i)<; 
fiev ovv ol XvpuKovaioL to kukov yaOovTO, /3paSe- 
o)? Se Kal ;)^aXe7rft)9 avve^orjOovv eKireirXiiypbevoL. 
Tr6p07]aL^ yap rjv to, ytvopeva t?}? TroXew?, tcov 
fiev dvSpcop (^ovevofxevcdv, rwi^ he Tei'X^cov kutu' 
aKaTTTO/jbevcov, yvvaiKwv he Kal iraihcdv dyofievcov 
et? TT^j/ aKpoiToXiv p.eT ol/jLcoyrj^;, aTreyvcoKOTcov he 
Ta TTpdyfiaTa twv GTpaTrjywv Kal ')(^pria6ai p,r] 
hvvajievwv toI'^ TroXiTat.^ irpo^ rou? 7roX€/iiLOv<; 
dva7re(j)vpixevov<; Kal a-v/jbjjLejjiLyjjLevov'i avTol<; 
iravTa'XpOev, 

86 



DION XL. 2-XLI. 3 

being now insolent and full of pride because they 
were subject to no one, but had generals who were 
in slavish fear of the people. 

XLI. After this, there put in at the city triremes 
from Dionysius, under the command of Nypsius the 
Neapolitan, who brought food and money for the 
beleaguered garrison of the acropolis. In a naval 
battle that ensued the Syracusans were indeed vic- 
torious, and captured four of the tyrant's ships, but 
they were made wanton by their victory, and in 
their utter lack of discipline turned their rejoicing 
into drinking-bouts and mad carousals, and were so 
neglectful of their real interests that, when they 
thought themselves already in possession of the 
acropolis, they actually lost both it and their city 
besides. For Nypsius, seeing no saving remnant in 
the city, but the multitude given over to music 
and revelry from dawn till midnight, and their 
generals delighted with this festivity and reluctant 
to use compulsion with men in their cups, made the 
best use of his opportunity and attacked their siege- 
works, and having mastered these and broken them 
down, he let his Barbarians loose upon the city, 
bidding them treat those whom they encountered 
as they could and would. Quickly, then, were the 
Syracusans aware of the mischief, but slowly and 
with difficulty did they rally to oppose it, so utterly 
distracted were they. For it was a sack of the city 
that was now going on, its men being slain, its walls 
torn down, and its women and children dragged 
shrieking to the acropolis, while its generals gave up 
all for lost and were unable to employ the citizens 
against the enemy, who were everywhere inextric- 
ably mingled with them. 

VOL. VL j^ 8y 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XLIL OuTCt) Be TMV Kara rrjv irokiv lyovrwv 
KOL rod KLvBvvov 7r/30? rr)V ^AxpaBivrjv TrXrjaid- 
^ovTO^, et? ov fjiovov rjv Koi Xolitov airepeiaaaOaL 
Tr]v iXiTiSa Travre*; jxev icppovovv, eXeye Be ouSet?, 
ala^vvofievoL rrjp d')(^apiaTLav Kal rrjv d^ovXiav 
rrjv 7r/0O9 Aiajva. TrXrfV ye Brj t?}? dvdyKT)^ 
eK^La^o/jL6V7]<; irapd tcov av/ju/xd^cov Kal rcov Itt- 
7T€(ov yiveTai ^(ovr) KaXelv Aicova Kal yueraTre/A- 
ireaOai tou? YleXoTrovvrjalovi 6k Aeovrlpcov. co? 
Be TrpcoTOV rjKovaOr] Kal dTreroX/XTjOrj rovro, 
Kpavyt] Kal %a/J« ^at BaKpva roi)? ^vpaKovaiov^ 
Karel^ev evyoiievov<; eTrKpavr/vaL rbv dvBpa Kal 
TToOovvja^ ri-jv oyjnv avrov Kal /j.€/jLvr]fi€Pov^ t?}? 
irapd rd Beivd pco/j,r]<; Kal 7rpodv/jLia<i, &)? ou fiovov 
auTO? r)v dv€K7rXr)Kro<;, dXXd KUKeivov^ Trapelxe 
OappouvTa<; Kal dBeco^ rot? iroXefiLOt'; avfKpepoixe- 
vovq. evOv'; ovv iKirefiTTovat tt^o? avrov diro 
fiev ro)V avfjLfxd')((ov ^Ap'X^covlBrjv Kal TeXealBrjv, 
diro Be rwv Imrewv irevre rov^ irepl 'EXXdviKov. 
ovroL BieXdaavTe<; rrjv oBov iVrTrot? dirb pvrfjpo'^ 
TjKov eh Aeovrivov^ r^? r)/jiepa<i ijBrj Karacf)epo- 
fjLevr]<^. dTTOirrjBrjaavre'; Be rcjv 'lttttcov xal rw 
AicovL Trpcoro) TTpoaireaovre^ BeBaKpvixevoi ra? 
av/i<popd(; rcov IvpaKOvaioyv ecppa^ov. tjBt] Be Kal 
rwv Aeovrivwv nve^ drrrjvrwv Kal ro)V YleXoirov- 
V7}ai(ov rjOpoi^ovro irpo^ rov Aicova ttoXXol, rfj 
airovBfj Kal rrj Berjaec rcov dvBpwv ii7rovoovvre<; 
elvai ri Kaivorepov, ev6v<; ovv r/yelro Trpo^ rrjv 
iKKXrjaiav avroh, Kal avvBpa/juovrcov irpoOv/jLO)^ ol 
irepl rov ^Ap^coviBtjv Kal rov 'RXXdvtKOv elaeX- 
06vr6<i e^^yyeiXdv re l3pa)(^6a)<^ ro fieyeOo^ royv 
KaKMVy Kal 7rap6KdXovv rou^ ^evov<; iTrafjiVvat' 
83 



DION XLii. 1-4 

XLII. While the city was in this plight and the 
Achradina in imminent perils all knew who was the 
only man left upon whom they could fasten their 
hopes, but no one spoke his name, because they were 
ashamed of their ingratitude and folly towards Dion. 
However, now that necessity constrained them, some 
of the allies and horsemen cried out that Dion and 
his Peloponnesians should be summoned from Leon- 
tini. As soon as this venture was made and the 
name heard, the Syracusans fell to shouting and 
weeping for joy ; they prayed that Dion might 
appear upon the scene, and yearned for the sight 
of him, and called to mind his ardour and vigour in 
the presence of danger, remembering that he was 
not only undaunted himself, but made them also 
bold and fearless in engaging their enemies. Im- 
mediately, therefore, they sent a delegation to him, 
Archonides and Telesides from the allies, and Hel- 
lanicus with four others from the horsemen. These, 
sending their horses over the road at full gallop, came 
to Leontini just as the sun was setting. Then, leaping 
from their horses and throwing themselves at the 
feet of Dion first of all, with streaming eyes they 
told him the calamities of the Syracusans. Presently, 
too, some of the Leontines came up and many of 
the Peloponnesians gathered about Dion, conjectur- 
ing from the haste and suppliant address of the men 
that something quite extraordinary was the matter. 
At once, then, Dion led his visitors to the place of 
assembly, the people eagerly gathered there, Ar- 
chonides and Hellanicus with their companions came 
before them, reported to them briefly the great 
disaster, and called upon the mercenaries to put 
away their feelings of resentment and come to the 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tot? %vpaKOV(rioi<;, rb fivrjaiKaKelv a^ei^ra?, co? 
fiei^ova Slktjv ^eBcoKorwv avrwv rj Xa^ecv av ol 
KaKOi<; rreirovdore^; r]^lw(Tav. 

XLIII. Uavo-afievcDV Be tovtcov a-iyrj fxev el-)(€ 
TToWr) TO 6 ear pop' avaaravro^ Be rov Al(ovo<; 
KoX XeyeLV ap^ajxevov ttoWcl tmv 8aKpv(ov eKirl- 
TTTOura rrjv (pcovrjv eirea^^ev ol Be ^evoi irapeKoXovv 
dappelv KoX (TVvrjX^ovTO. fiiKpov ovv dvaXaPonv 
eV Tov irdOov^ eavrov 6 Atcov, ''"Ai^Spe?/' e</)77, 
" TleXoTTOVvyjaioi, kol (Tu/xyLta^^oi, PovXeuaoiievov^ 

2 uyLta? evravOa irepX v/jlmv avrcov awijyayov. e/xol 
Be Trepl i/juavTov ^ovXeveaOac KdXa)<; ouk e^ei 
^vpaKovaoiv aTroWv/ievcov, aW' el acoaac firj 
Bvval/jirjv, direi/JLt tw TTvpl kol t5> Trrco/jLari rrj<; 
TTarpiBo'^ evra(f)r]cro/jievo^. t'/zet? Be, ^ovXo/ievoi, 
/lev €TL KOL vvv ^OTjOelv Tol<i d^ouXoTarois rjiilv 
Koi BvaTV')(eaTdTOL<i, vfierepov epyov ovaav 6p- 
Oovre rr)v ^vpaKOvaiwv itoXlv el Be ixefJu^ofievoL 
"^vpaKOVCTLOLf; virepo'^ecrOe, Trj<i ye irporepov dperrjt; 
KOL irpoOvjiia^ irepl e/xe %«/Oii^ d^iav KOfii^oiaOe 
irapa rcov Oecjv, fjue/ivrj/nevoi Alcovo^;, q)<; ov6^ ufxaf; 
dBtKov/jLevov<; irporepov ovO' varepov rov^ iroXira<i 
Buarv')(^ovvra<; ey/caraXLTTovro^;" 

3 "Ert 5' avrov Xeyovro^ ol fiev ^evoi fiera Kpav- 
yrjf; dvenTi^Brjaav dyeiv kol /SorjOelv Kara rdy^of; 
KeXevovre^, ol Be Trpea^ei^; rcov ^vpaKovaiwv irepL- 
PaXovre^ rja-Trdaavro TroXXd fiev e/celvo), iroXXa 
Be T0t9 ftVo^9 dyada irapd tcov Oecov ev^^o/jievoi^ 
90 






DION xLii. 4-XL111. 3 



aid of the Syracusans, since those who had wronged 
them had suffered a heavier punishment than those 
who had been wronged would have thought it right 
to exact. 

XLII I. When the messengers had made an end 
of speaking, there was a profound silence in the 
theatre ; then Dion rose and began to speak, but 
copious tears checked his utterance ; his mercenaries, 
however, sympathized with him and bade him take 
heart. Accordingly, after he had recovered a little 
from his grief, he said : " Men of Peloponnesus and 
allies, I have brought you together here to deliberate 
upon your own course of action. As for me, it is not 
meet that I should consult my own interests now that 
Syracuse is perishing, but if I cannot save her, I shall 
return to seek a grave amid the blazing ruins of my 
native city. But you, if you are willing even now, 
after all that has passed, to come to our helj), who 
are the most foolish and the most unfortunate of 
men, pray restore the city of Syracuse and the work 
of your own hands.^ If, however, in your displeasure 
at the Syracusans, you shall leave them to their 
fate, at least for your former bravery and zeal in 
my behalf may you obtain a worthy reward from 
the gods, and may you think of Dion as one who 
abandoned neither you when you were wronged, 
nor, afterwards, his fellow citizens when they were 
in distress." 

While he was still speaking, the mercenaries sprang 
to their feet with shouts and bade him lead them 
speedily to the city's relief, while the Syracusan 
envoys embraced them passionately, invoking many 
blessings from the gods upon Dion, and many upon 

* Syracuse was colonized from Corinth, in Peloponnesus. 

91 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fCaraardvTO^ Be rov 0opv/3ov iraprjyyeiXev 6 Alcou 
euOv<; aiTLovTa^i irapacTKevd^eaOaL kol SeiTrvtjaav- 
ra<; rjKeiv fjiera tcov ottXcov eh avrbv exelvov top 
roTTOV, eyv(OK(o<; Sta vvKro<; /BorjOelv. 

XLI V. ^Ev Be ral^ ^vpaKovaai<; rcov Atopvalov 
a-rparrjycjv, dxpi p^ev rjV r)p.epa, iroWa kukcl ttju 
TToXiv ipyaaapbivcov, yevop,ivr]<; Be vvkto<^ dva^w- 
pYjcrdvTcov eh r7]V aKpoiroXiv Kai TLva<i e'f eavrwv 
6\iyov<i diTO^akovTcov, dva9appr]aavre<; ol Brfp^a- 
ycoyol Tcjp ^vpaKovGiwv, kol tov<; TroXepiov^ 
€X7r[cravT€<; drpep^rjaeLV eirl roh BiaTreTrpayp.evoLf!, 
irapeKaXovv tov<; iroXlra^ avOi^ eav AlcDva, kolv 
irpoair) pera tcjp ^epcop, p,rj Be)(^eaOaL prjBe irapa- 
'X^copelp rr}<; dperrj^; eKeivoif; ca^ Kpeirroaip, dXXd 
(T(t)^€ip Tr)P TToXip fcal ri-jP eXevOepiap avTov<: Bi 

2 eavTcop. irdXip ovp eTrepLiroPTO tt/jo? top AuMpa, 
irapa pev tcjp arpari^ycop diroTpeTTOpref;, irapa Be 
ruyp linreayp koi tmp ypcopip^cop iroXircop eirLairev- 
Bopre<i TTjp TTopeiav. kol Bid tovto (3paBe(jo<^ dpui 
Kal Kara airovBrjp iropevopepo^i TTpoaijei. tT/? Be 
PVKTO<; 7rpoeXdovar}<; ol p.ep p,tcrovpre<i top Alcopa 
KUTelxoP Ttt? 7ruXa(; &)? diTOfcXeiaopTe<^ avrop, 6 Be 
NuA/^fo?, eV T^9 d/cpa^ avdi^ iroXXw rrpoOvpoTe- 
pov^ yeyopoTa^i xal TrXeiopa^ icpceh tol/? p^iado^o- 
pov^, TO pep TrpoTeixi'O'P'Ci Trap euOv<; KaTeaKavTe, 

3 TTjP Be iroXip KUTeTpex^ fcal BtyjpTra^ep. yp Be 
(f)6po<; p,ep ovKeTL piovop dvBpojv, dXXd koi yvpat- 
KWP Kal TraiBcop, dpTrayal B' oXlyai, (f)06po<i Be 
TrdpTcop TToXu?. direypcDKOTo'^ yap ijBrj to. irpdy- 
piara tov Aiopvctlov Kal TOv<i %vpaKovaiov^ Beipa)<; 
pbepiaiiKOTo^;, wairep ipTacpidaac ttjp TvpappiBa 
TTJ TToXec TTLTTTovaap epovXeTO. Kal tov ALcopo<i 

92 



XLIII. 3-XLIV. 3 

lis mercenaries. And when the tumult was allayedj 
Dion ordered his men to go to their quarters and 
make themselves ready, and, after taking supper, to 
come with their arms to that very place, for he was 
determined to go to the rescue by night. 

XLIV. But the soldiers of Dionysius at Syracuse, 
as long as it was day, did much mischief to the 
city ; when night came, however, they retired to the 
acropolis, having lost some few of their number. 
Upon this, the popular leaders of the Syracusans 
plucked up courage, and in the hope that the enemy 
would rest content with what they had done, ex- 
horted the citizens once more to ignore Dion, and 
if he should come up with his mercenaries, not to 
admit them, nor yield precedence to them as superior 
in point of bravery, but to save their city and their 
liberty by their own efforts. Accordingly, fresh mes- 
sengers were sent to Dion, some from the generals 
forbidding his advance, but others from the horsemen 
and more reputable citizens urging him to hasten it. 
For this reason he came marching on now slowly, 
and now at top speed. As the night advanced the 
enemies of Dion took possession of the gates in 
order to shut him out, but Nypsius, sending his 
mercenaries once more from the citadel in greater 
numbers and with more impetuosity than before, 
tore down at once the entire siege -wall, and overran 
and sacked the city. And now there was a slaughter 
not only of men, but also of women and children ; 
there was little haling away of prisoners, but a great 
destruction of all alike. For since Dionysius now 
despaired of his cause and fiercely hated the Syra- 
cusans, he wished to make their city as it were a 
tomb for his falling tyranny. So his soldiers, fore- 

93 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrpoKaraXa/jL^dvovre^ Trjv ^orjOeiav eirl top ofu- 
Tarop Sea TTupo? ttclvtwv oXeOpov Koi a^avLafiov 
€^a)p7j(Tav, ra /lev iyyv^ dirb 'x^eipcov Baal kol 
XapLTrdaLV v7ro7n/jL7rpdvT€<;, eh Be ra irpoaw Blu- 
4 (77r6LpovTe<; aTTo ro^cov 7rvpo^6Xov<;. <f)evyavT(ov Be 
t6!)v Svpa/covcfLcov oi /xev iv rah oBoh €(f)ovevovro 
KaraXap.^av6/JL€V0L, to Be eh ra? olKla<; KaraBvo- 
fievov avOif; viro rod rrvpo^ i^eTriTrrey ttoXXmv i]Bi] 
(fyXeyo/jievfov Kal Kara<pepop,ev(i)v eVt rov^; BiaOe- 
ovra<i. 

XLV. Tovro ro irdOo^ p^dXiara rrjv rroXiv 
dvecp^e Alcovi irdvrcov (Tvp,(f)a>vrjadvra)v. exf^e 
/lev yap ovKeri anrovBfj iropevop.evo'^, cos* ^jKovaev 
eh rr]v dxpoTToXiv KaraKeKXelaOai roi)^ iroXe- 
fiiovf;. iTpolovari<; Be rr]<; ij/iepa? irpwrov iTrrreh 
dirrjvrrjaav avrw rrjv Bevrepav KardXyj-yfrip drray- 
yeXXopre<;' eireira koi rwv virevavriovpLevoiv eviOL 

2 Traprjaav eTrelyeaOai Beopbevoi. avvreivovro^ Be 
rov KaKov p,aXXov 'lipaKXeiBr)<; rov dBeX(f>6v e^e- 
TTe/jLyjrev, elra (deoBor^jv rov delov, l/cerevcov dpyj- 
yeiv, ft)9 p,r}Bevo<; dvrexovro^ roh 7roXefjLLoi<;, 
avrov Be rerpwpevov, rrj^ Be TToXeco^ puKpov dire- 
')(ov(T7](i dvarerpdcpOaL fcal KaraTreirprjaOaL. roiov- 
rcov dyye\p,dra)v ru> Aiwvi it poarrecF ovrwv en /jlcv 
e^tJKOvra araBiov; rcov ttvXcov aTrelxe' (ppdaa^ Be 
rov KivBvvov roh ^evoL^ Kal irapaKeXevcydp.evo'^ 
ovKeri ^dBr)V rjyev, dXXa Bpopuw ro crrpdreviMa 
rrpo^ rtjv iroXcv, dXXcov eir dXXoi<; dvria^ovrcov 

3 Kal Beofievcov iirecyeaOai. ')(^pT]adpevo<; Be dav- 
p^aaro) rd'^et Kal irpoOvpia rcov ^evcov elae^aXe 
Bid rcov ttvXmv eh rrjv 'EKar6p,7TeBov Xeyopivrjv 
Kal rovs fiev i\a(f)pov<i ev6v^ d^rjKev eXOelv irpo^ 

94 



kk 



DION xLiv. 3-xLv. 3 



stalling the succour which Dion was bringing, re- 
sorted to the speediest destruction and annihilation 
of everything by burning, setting fire to what was 
near them with the brands and torches in their 
hands, and scattering fiery arrows from their bows 
among the remoter parts. As the Syracusans fled, 
some were overtaken and slain in the streets, and 
those who sought cover in their houses were driven 
out again by the fire, many buildings being now a- 
blaze and falling upon those who were running about. 
XLV. Owing to this disaster more than to any 
thing else, the city was thrown open to Dion by 
unanimous consent. For he was no longer marching 
in haste, since he had heard that the enemy had 
shut themselves up in the acropolis. But as the day 
advanced, first, horsemen met him with tidings of 
the second capture of the city ; next, even some of 
his opponents came with entreaties that he would 
hasten his march. Moreover, as the mischief grew 
worse, Heracleides sent out his brother, and then 
Theodotes his uncle, begging Dion to help them, 
since no one now resisted the enemy, he himself was 
wounded, and the city was almost demolished and 
consumed by fire. When these amazing messages 
reached Dion, he was still sixty furlongs distant 
from the city gates ; but after telling his merce- 
naries of the city's peril and exhorting them, he 
led his army towards the city, no longer in marching 
step, but on the run, while one messenger after 
another met him and begged him to hasten. His 
mercenaries advancing with astonishing speed and 
ardour, he burst through the gates into what was 
called the Hecatompedon, and at once sent his light- 
armed troops to charge upon the enemy, in order 

95 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

roifi; 7ro\€/JLLOv<;, 009 ISovcri Oaparjcrat. Tot<; 'Zvpa- 
KOV(TLot,(i iyyevoLTO, tov<; S* OTrXira^ avro^ avve- 
TaTT€ Kal T(ov ttoXltcov T0U9 €7nppiovTa<; xal 
avvLarafJiivovf;, opOiov^ \6')(ov<; ttolcjv Kal Biaipwv 
ra? r^yeixovia^, otto)? 'jTo\\a')(^o96v apa 7rpoa<l>e- 
poiTo ^o^epcorepov. 

XLVI. *E7ret Be ravra 7rapa<TK€vacrdp,€P0^ xal 
Tol^ 6eol<; 7rpo(T€v^dp,€vo<; uxpdrj Blo, t^? TToXeo)? 
dyci)V iirl tou? TroXe/Atou?, Kpavyrj kol x^P^ ^^^ 
iroXv<i d\a\aypo<i ev^cu^ 6p,ov /cat 7rapaK\T]a€cn 
p.€ptypevo<; eyivero irapd rcov ^vpaKovaiwv, tov 
pep Aioyva (7(OT7]pa kol deov diroKaXovvrcov, roi"? 

2 Be ^evov<; dBe\(f)ov<; kuI TroXtra?. ouSet? Be <pl\- 
auT09 0L'Tft)9^ rjv Kal (f)L\6yjrvxo<i irapd tov Tore 
Kaipov 09 ov iJbdXKov virep povov Alcovof; J7 rwv 
dXXwv dirdvTwv dywvLwv ecfiaivero, Trpcorov irpo^ 
rov KivBvvov 7ropevop,evov Bl" a'iparo'i Kal 7rvpo<; 
Kal veKpcov ttoXXmv Kecpevcou ev Tal<; rrXareiaL^. 

'Hy pev ovv Kal rd irapd rcov TroXepiayv (pofiepd 
TravraTracnv dirrjypLcopevwv Kal irapareraypevwy 
irapd TO Teuxi'O'pcL %aXe7r^i^ ^X^^ ^"^^ BvcreK/Sia- 
(TTov TTjv TrpoaoBov' 6 8' eK TOV 7n'po<i KivBvvo^ 
eTdpaTTe pdXXov tov<; ^evov<i Kal Bvaepyov eiroieL 

3 Tr]V TTopelav. kvkXw ydp vtto t% (f)Xoy6<i irepi- 
eXapirovTo Td<; olK^a^ irepivepopev^i'^' Kal Biairv- 
poL<; €7n^aLV0VT€<i ip€L7rL0L<i Kal KaTa(f>epop€voL<; 
diroppriypaGL peydXoi<; vTroTpexovTC^ 67rio-<^aXft)9. 
Kal ttqXvv opov Kairvw Biajropevopevot KOviopTov, 
eireipcdvTo avvex^iv Kal pr] Biaairdv Trjv Ta^iv. 
G)9 Be TTpoaepi^av tol<; iroXepiois, ev X^/Jcrt pev 

* (piXavTos ovTws Coraes, after Reiske {ovrws <plKavros 
Bekker) : <pi\avTos. 

96 



r* 



DION xLv. 3-XLVI. 3 



that the Syracusans might take courage at the sight ; 
he also marshalled his men-at-arms in person, to- 
gether with those of the citizens who kept running 
up and forming with them, dividing his commands 
and forming companies in column, that he might 
make a more formidable attack from many points 
at once. 

XLV' I. When he had made these preparations and 
had prayed to the gods, and was seen leading his 
forces through the city against the enemy, shouts of 
joy and loud battle-cries mingled with prayers and 
supplications were raised by the Syracusans, w^ho 
called Dion their saviour and god, and his merce- 
naries their brethren and fellow citizens. And no 
one was so fond of self or fond of life in that emer- 
gency as not to show himself more anxious about 
Dion alone than about all the rest, as he marched at 
their head to meet the danger, through blood and 
fire and the mass of dead bodies lying in the 
streets. 

It was true, indeed, that the enemy presented a 
formidable appearance, for they had become alto- 
gether savage, and had drawn themselves up along 
the demolished siege-wall, which made the approach 
to them difficult and hard to force ; but the peril 
from the fire disturbed the mercenaries of Dion 
more, and made their progress arduous. For they 
were surrounded on all sides by glowing flames 
which were spreading among the houses ; they trod 
upon blazing ruins and ran at the risk of their lives 
under falling fragments of great size ; they made 
their way through clouds of dust and smoke ; and 
yet they tried to keep together and not break their 
ranks. Moreover, when they joined battle with the 

97 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oXiycov irpof; 6\iyov<; eyipero jJid'xy) Bia rrjv arevo- 
ryra kol rrjV avwfiaXiav rov tottov, Kpavyfj he 
Kol TTpoOvjiia rS)v XvpaKovalcov eirippaxTdvTwv 

4 ifiidaOrjaav ol irepl top l^vyjnov. KaX to fiev 
irXelarov avTcop eh rrjp uKpoTroXip iyyv<: ovaap 
dpa(f)evyop eVco^ero' tov<; S* d'Trd\eL(f)6evTa<^ efo) 
KOL Bi,a(T7rapepra<; dpijpovp ol ^epoi Bl(okopt€<;. 
diroXavaiP he t?}? viicr}^ ep tw irapavriKa /cal 
X^pdp Kal 7r€pL^o\d<; epyw rrfkiKOVTW irpeTTOvcra^; 
ov 7rap6(T')(^ep 6 KUipo^, eirl tck; oiKia^; rpairofiepcap 
T03P ^upaKOvaicop /cal to irvp /j,6Xi.<; ep rfj puktI 
Karaa-ffeadpTcop. 

XLVII, 'Hfiepa 5' &)? ^p, rcop fjuep dWwp ovBe\<; 
vrre/jLetpe BrjfiaycjyMP, dWa KaTayp6pTe<; eavrcov 
€(j)vyop, 'UpaKXelBrj^; Be Kal ©goSott;? avrol ko- 
fjLL(TapTe<; eavTOv<; rS> Alcopc irapiBcoKap, uBiKeip 
6fjLo\oyovpre(; Kal Beofiepoi ^eXriopo^ eKetpov tv- 
\elp rj yeyopaaiP avrol irepl eKelpop' Trpeneip Be 
Alcjpi TTjP dWrjp dtTaaap dperrjp davyKpirop 
e^oPTi Kal TT/OO? opyrjp KpeirroPL ^aprjpai rcop 
rjypcofioprjKorojp, ot irepl ov Trporepop eaTaaiacrap 
TTpo^i avTOP pvp riKovcTLP rjTrdaOaL T/79 dperfjf; 

•2 6/JLo\oyovPTe<;. ravra tmp irepl top 'WpaKXeiBrjp 
Beo/iepoyp ol fiep ^i\oi irapeKeXevopro rro Alcopl 
firf (f)€iBecrOai KaKMP Kal /SaaKdpwp dpOpcoirayp, 
dXXd Kal Toh a-TpaTi(t)Tai<i ')(apiaaa6aL top 'Hpa- 
KXelBrjp Kal rov TroXirevfjiaTOf; e^eXelp Srj/jLOKO- 
TTiaPy eiTifiape^; p6a7]fj,a, TvpappiBo^ ovk eXarTOv. 
6 Be Alcop irapafivOovfJiepo^ avTov^ eXeyep 0)9 T0i9 

98 



p* 



DION xLvi. 3-XLV11. 2 



enemy, only a few on each side could fight at close 
quarters, so narrow and uneven was the place ; but 
the Syracusans encouraged them with eager shouts, 
and Nypsius and his men were overpowered. Most 
of them fled back into the acropolis, which was near, 
and so saved themselves ; but those who were left 
outside and scattered hither and thither, were pur- 
sued and slain by the mercenaries. No immediate 
enjoyment of their victory, however, and none of the 
glad congratulations befitting so great an achieve- 
ment were possible for the Syracusans in that emer- 
gency ; they turned their attention to their burning 
houses, and only by toiling all night did they succeed 
in putting out the fire. 

XL VII. When it was day, not one of the other 
popular leaders would remain in the city, but passed 
judgement on themselves by taking to flight; Hera- 
cleides and Theodotes, however, came of their own 
accord and surrendered themselves to Dion, acknow- 
ledging that they had done wrong, and begging him 
to treat them better than they had treated him ; it 
was meet, they said, that Dion, who was their superior 
in every other virtue, should also show himself a 
better master of his anger tlian his ungrateful foes, 
who were now come confessing that in the very 
quality to which they had formerly disputed his 
claim, namely, virtue, they were his inferiors. Though 
Heracleides and Theodotes thus besought Dion, his 
friends exhorted him not to spare such base and 
envious men, but to give Heracleides over to the 
mercy of his soldiers, and to rid the commonwealth 
of the hunt for mob-favour, which, no less than 
tyranny, was a raging distemper. But Dion tried to 
soften their resentment, saying that while other 

99 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/JL6V dWoifi (TrpaTrjyoi<; 7rpo<; onXa fcal iroXefiov r) 
TrXelcTTr) rfjf; aaKrjaeo)<i ecrriv, avrw he ttoXvv 
ypovov €v ^ AKaSrjfMeia fieiieKen^rai Ovjxov irepL- 
elvat KOI (j)06vov koX (f)iXov€LKia<; Tracr???* a)v eVt- 
Sei^L^; eariv ov)(^ tj 7rpo<; (j)cXov<i kol ^/qt^o-tou? 
/jl€tpi6t7]<;, dXX* ec T£9 dStKOviJievo<; ev7rapaiTr]T0<^ 

3 etrf KOi TT/aao? TOt(; d/jLaprdvovar ^ovXeaOat S' 
^H-paKXelSov fiT} ToaovTov Bvvd/i€L xal (ppovt^aei 971 
Kparcov oaov 'X^prjaroTT^TL kol BiKaLOcrvvy (^avrjvar 

TO yap dX7)d(x)<; iSeXnov iv rovroL^' at he rod 
nroXe/jLOV KaropOcoaei.^, el kol dvd pdiirwv firjSeva, 
Tijv ye TVXV^ BiafKpLa/Srjrovaav exovcriv. el S* 
'lipaKXeLBr](; aTriaro^ Koi KaKO<; Bid (pOopov, ou 
TOL KOL Aicova Belv Ovfxw BiacfyOelpaL rrjv dpeTrjv' 
TO yap dvTLTip^wpelaOai tou TrpoaBtKelv vbpi(a 
BiKaioTepov wpicrdai, (pvcrei yivofjievov diro fiidf; 

4 daOeveia^. dvOpdiirov Be KaKiav, el Kal ^dXeirov 
ecjTiv, ovx ovT(o<; dypiov elvai iravTairaaL Kal 
BvaKoXov coaTe /jbrj /jLeTa/3dXXetv x^piTi vtKTjOelaav 

VTTO TMV TToXXdKL^ €V TTOIOVVTWV. 

XLVIIL ToLovTOL^ XPI^^'^V'^^^'^ Xoyt,(T/jLol<; 6 
Alcov d<pf]Ke TOU? Trepl top 'HpaKXeiBrjv. Tpairo- 
fxepo^ Be 7rpo<; to 8taT6t%to-/xa, toop p.ep ^vpa- 
Kovaiwp exaaTOP e/ceXevaep eva KoyfraPTa dTavpop 
£^71/9 KaTapdXXeLP, tou? Be ^epov; fVto-TT^cra? Bid 
pvkt6<;, dpairavop^epcop twp ^vpaKovaioyp, eXadep 
dTToaTavpcoaa^i Trjp dxpoTToXip, wcrTe pe6^ rj/jiepap 
TO Ta%09 Kal TTjp epyaaiap deacrap^ipov^ 6pLoiw<; 
2 Oavpd^eip tov<; TroXtra? Kal tou? TroXepbiov<;. 6d- 
yjra^; Be tov<; TeOprjKOTaf; tmp ^upaKova-ioiP Koi 
Xvadfiepo^ tov<; eaXcoKOTa^;, Biaxi^Xicop ouk eXar- 



100 



DION XLVII. 2-XLVIII. 2 

generals trained themselves mostly for arms and war, 
he himself had studied for a long time in the Academy 
liow to conquer anger, envy, and all contentious- 
ness; and it was no manifestation of such self-mastery, 
lie said, when one was kind to friends and benefactors, 
but when one who had been wronged was merciful 
and mild to^^ ards the erring ; besides, he wished men 
to see that he was superior to Heracleides, not so 
much in power and wisdom, as in goodness and 
justice; for therein lay real superiority; whereas 
successes in war, even though they had to be shared 
with no man, must at least be shared with fortune. 
Moreover, if envy led Heracleides to be faithless and 
base, surely anger must not drive Dion to sully his 
virtue ; for although taking vengeance for a wrong 
was in the eyes of the law more just than the doing 
of the wrong unprovoked, by nature it sprang from 
one and the same weakness. Furthermore, baseness 
in a man, even though it be a grievous thing, was 
not so altogether savage and obstinate that it could 
not be conquered by frequent benefactions and 
altered by a sense of gratitude. 

XLVIII. After using such arguments as these, 
Dion set Heracleides and Theodotes free. Then 
turning his attention to the siege-wall, he bade each 
one of the Syracusans to cut a stake and lay it down 
near the works, and setting his mercenaries to the 
task all night, while the Syracusans were resting, 
he succeeded in fencing off the acropolis, so that 
when day came the citizens and the enemy alike 
were amazed to see with what speed the work had 
been accomplished He also buried the dead Syra- 
cusans, ransomed those who had been taken prisoners, 
although they were fully two thousand in number, 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rova^ 6vTa<;, eKK\r)aiav (Tvvrjya'ye. kol 7rape\6cov 
'H/?a/cX,6tS779 elarjyrjaaro yvco/jirjv avroKpdropa 
aTparrjyov eXicrdai Alcova Kara yrjv kuI OdXacr- 
arav. diroBe^afievcov Be tcov dplcnayv koI %e£/3o- 
Tovelv KcXevovTcop eOopvffijcrev 6 vavTiKo<; 6)(\o<; 
KOL ^dvavcro^, d^$6fJLevo<i eKTTLTrTOVTi t?}? vavap- 
^ta? ToS 'HpaKXelBr), /cat vofxi^cov avrov, el kol 
raXXa /jLr]Bepo(; d^i6<; eart, StjjjLOTiKcorepov ye irdv- 
rcof; elvai rod Al(oi>o<; kol fxaXXov viro X^^P^ rolf; 

3 TToXXol^. 6 Be Alcov tovto jxev €(f)7JKev avTol<; xal 
ri]v Kara OdXarrav dp^V^ direBai/ce tw 'Hpa- 
kXeiBj}, 7rpo<; Se t>^9 yrj^ /cal tcov olklmv tov dva- 
Baa/jLov wpfjiyj/jLevoL^ evavnwOe)/^ koX rd wporepov 
"y^TjcjiiaOevTa nrepl tovtcov d/cvpcoaa^ eXvirrjaev. 
oOev evOv^ erepav dp^vv Xa/Scov 6 'Hyoa^XetS?;? 
Tou? o'vveKTTXevcravTa<; jjber avrov aTpaTici)Ta<; 
Kol vav-ra^i ev ^ea(jr\vri Ka6r]p,evo<; eBrnjbaydiyei 
Kcu irapdi^vve Kara rov Aicovo<; (w? rvpavvelv pueX- 
Xovro^;' avr6<; Be 7rpo<; Aiovvaiov eiroielro avvOrj- 

4 /:a9 Kpvcf)a Bid ^dpaico<^ rov ^Trapridrov. Kal 
rovro ro)v yvoypcpLCordrcov ^vpaKovaLwv vwovor)- 
advrcov, ardai^ yv ev rw arparoireBw Kal Bl avrrjv 
diTOpia Kal a7rdvL<; ev ral<; XvpaKOV(Tai<^, Mare 
iravrdrracnv dfjurj^ctveLV rov Alcova Kal KaK(o<; 
dKoveiv vrro rwv (fiiXwv ovrco Bva p^rax^ipiarov 
dvdpfOTTOV Kal Bie^Qappievov vtto^Oovov Kal ttovij- 
pia<; av^rjtjavra KaO" avrov rov 'UpaKXeiBrjv. 

XLIX. ^dpaKo^ Be 'irpo<; Nea iroXei rri<; 'Aa:- 
payavrivr}<; arparoireBevovro^, e^ayaycov rov^ 
^vpaKovaiov^; e/3ovXero p.ev ev erepw Kaipw Biayco- 
viaaaOai rrpos avrov, 'YipaKXeiBov Be Kal rwv 



I02 



DION XLVIII. 2-XLlX. I 

and then held an assembly. Here Heracleides came 
forward with a motion that Dion should be chosen 
general with absolute powers by land and sea. The 
aristocracy approved of this motion and urged the 
appointment; but the mob of sailors and day- 
labourers tumultuously opposed it, being vexed that 
Heracleides should lose his office of admiral, and 
considering him, even though good for nothing in 
other ways, at least altogether more a man of the 
people than Dion and more under the control of the 
multitude. This point Dion yielded to them, and 
restored the command by sea to Heracleides ; but 
when they insisted upon the redistribution of land 
and houses, he opposed them and repealed their 
former decrees on this head, thereby winning their 
displeasure. Wherefore Heracleides at once renewed 
his machinations, and, when he was stationed at 
Messana, artfully tried to exasperate against Dion 
the soldiers and sailors who had sailed thither with 
him, declaring that Dion intended to make himself 
tyrant ; but he himself was all the while making 
secret compacts with Dionysius through the agency 
of Pharax the Spartan. When this was suspected 
by the better class of Syracusans, there was dissen- 
sion in the army, and therefore perplexity and want 
of provisions in Syracuse, so that Dion was altogether 
at a loss what to do, and was blamed by his friends 
for having strengthened against himself a man so 
perverse and so corrupted by envy and baseness as 
Heracleides was. 

XLIX. Now, Pharax was encamped at Neapolis, 
in the territory of Agrigentum, and thither Dion led 
forth the Syracusans. Dion wished to settle the 
issue between them at a later opportunity, but 

103 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vavTwv Kara^oa)VT(ov w? ov /SovXerai fiaxv f^p^vai 
Tov TToXe/JLOV ^iwv, aXh! ael iievovTO<^ apy^sLv, 

2 avayKa(T6e\<; avve^ake koI '^rrijOrj. 'y€vo/jL€vt]<s Be 
rrjf; Tpo7rr]<> ov ^apeia'sy aWa fidWov v(f>^ eavroiv 
Kol TOV (TTaaidt^eiv Tapa')(6evTwv, avOi^ 6 Alcov 
irapecTKevd^ero /jLo.'x^eaOac kol crvveraTre ireiOwv 
KoX irapaOappvvcov. t?}? Be vvkto<; dp')(^o/jL€vrj<i 
dyyeWerai 7rpb<; avrov 'UpaKXeiBrjv dpavra tov 
(TToXov nrkelv iirl l.vpaKovaMV, eyvcoKOTa tt)v 
ttoXlv KaToXa^elv Ka/cecpov diroKKelaat fxeTo, tov 

3 (TTpaTev/jLaTo^;. evOv^; ovv dvdXa/Scov tov<; Bvva- 

TCOTUTOV^i KOi TT poOvjlOTaTOV^ ITTTrdaaTO Bid T^9 

vvKTO^' Kol irepl TpiTrjv cjpav t^9 rj/jLepa^ tt/so? 
rat? TTvXaif; tjv, aTaBiovf; KaTrjvv/co)^ eTTTaKocriov^. 
'ilpaKX€LBr]<; Be tul^; vavaiv, &>? dfitWco/jLevo'; 980 
vaTep7j(T€V, diroirXevaa^ Kal 7rXavoo/jL€vo<i ev toI'; 
mpd^eatv daKoirco^; i7nTvy)(^dvei, T(uavXw T(p 
^irapTidTr), (f)daK0VTi, irXelv €(j>^ rjyefJiovLa Sikc- 
XiwToyv eK AaKeBaL/jiOvo<;, ox? irpoTepov iroTe 

4 ruXtTTTTO?. d(Tp,evo<; ovv dvaXa^cov tovtov tov 
dvBpa Kal TrepLayjrd/ieL'O'; coairep dXe^L^dpfiaKOv 
TOV Aiwvo^; erreBeiicvvTO toU av/i/nd^oi^;' koI 
Kijpv/ca TrefMTrcov et? Td<^ ^vpaKovaa<; eKeXeve Be- 
^(^eadaL tov SirapTidTrjv dp^^oPTa toii? TroXtra?. 
diroKpiva/jievov Be tov Alcovo^ co? elaiv dp^ovTe^i 
iKavol TOL<; ^vpaKovaioi<;, el Be irdvTW^ BeoL koX 
XTTapTidTov TOt? TTpdyfiacTiv, auTO? ovto<; elvai, 

5 KUTa 7roL^](Tiv yeyovco^; ^7TapTidTrj<;, Trjv /xev dp-^rjv 
6 TaL(TvXo<^ diTeyvo), 7rXevaa<; Be irpo^ tov Aiwya 



DION xLix. 1-5 

Heracleides and his sailors kept crying out against 
him, saying that his vfish was not to decide the war 
by a battle, but to have it last forever, that he might 
remain in power. He was therefore forced into an 
engagement, and was worsted. Since, however, the 
defeat of his men was not severe, but due more to 
their own seditious disorders than to the enemy, 
Dion again prepared for battle and drew up his 
forces, persuading and encouraging them. But in 
the evening word was brought to him that Hera- 
cleides with his fleet was sailing for Syracuse, deter- 
mined to occupy the city and shut Dion and his 
army out of it. Immediately, therefore, he took with 
him his most influential and zealous supporters and 
rode all night, and about nine o'clock next day was 
at the gates of the city, having covered seven hun- 
dred furlongs. But Heracleides, who, in spite of 
all his efforts, arrived too late with his ships, put 
out to sea again, and being without definite plans, 
fell in with Gaesylus the Spartan, who insisted that 
he was sailing from Sparta to take command of the 
Sicilians, as Gylippus had formerly done.^ Hera- 
cleides, accordingly, gladly took up this man, at- 
tached him to himself like an amulet, as it were, 
against the influence of Dion, and showed him to 
his confederates ; then, secretly sending a herald to 
Syracuse, he ordered the citizens to receive their 
Spartan commander. Dion, however, made answer 
that the Syracusans had commanders enough, and 
that if their situation absolutely required a Spartan 
also, he himself was the man, since he had been 
made a citizen of Sparta. Thereupon Gaesylus gave 
up his pretensions to the command, and sailing to 

1 See the Nicias, chapters xix. ff. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Bi7]X\a^€ rov 'Hpa/cXeiBrjv opKov^ Sovra koX vicr- 
ret? ra? fjLeyL(XTa<;, ah avr6<; 6 Taiav\o<; wfjLoae 
TLfMa)p6<; eaeaOac Alcopl koI KoXacrrr}^ 'HpaKXelBov 
KaKOTT pay jxovo vvto<;. 

L. 'E/c rovTov KareXvaav jxev ol ^vpaKovaioL 
TO vavTiKov, ovSev yap r)v epyov avrov, fieyciXai 
Be hairdvai roh irXeovcn, kuI ardaew^ d^opfial 
Tot9 dpxovar rrjv Be d/cpav iiroXLopfcovv i^otKo- 
Bofi'^aavre'; to TrepiTeiy^LO-jjLa. jjiTjBevo^ he toIs 
7ro\LopKov/jL€voi<; ^orjOovvTo^iy eVtXiTTOi/TO? Be ai- 
Tov, Twv Be /jLtaOocpopcov yivofjbevwv irovrjpcov, 
diroyvov^; 6 u/o? tov ALovvaiov to, irpdyjxaTa kuI 
a-neLadpievo^ 7rpb<; tov Aicova ttjv jxev d/cpav e/ceLvw 
fieTa T(i)V ottXcjv Kal r^? d\Xr)<; KaTacTKevrj^ irape- 

2 B(iiKev, avTO^ Be ttjv firjTepa Kal Td<i dBe\<f)d^ 
dvaXa^cov Kal rrevTe 7r\7]pri)adp€vo<; Tpc^peif; e^i- 
TrXet 7Tpo<; tov iraTepa, tov Aicovo<; da(f)aXa)(; pev 
€K7rep-7rovTO<;, ovB€vo<; Be twv ev XvpaKovaat<; 
diroXeiiTOVTO^ eKeivrjv ttjv 6\!/iv, uXXd Kal tou9 p^rj 
irap6vTa<s eirLpowpLevcov, otl ttjv rjpepav TavTijv 
Kal TOV 7]Xlov eXev6epat<i dvla^ovTa Tal^i Xvpa- 

3 K0vcraL<; ovk e<f)op(jii(TLv. oirov yap ctl vvv twv 
Xeyop^evMV KaTa t?}? Ti/;^77<; irapaBeiypudTwv epL^a- 
vearaTov eaTi Kal p.€yiaTOP rj Acovvaiov (^vyy], 
TLva xph BoKelv avTcov eKeivwv ttjv TOTe ')(^apdv 
yeveaOat Kal irrjXiKOV cj^povrjo-at to 1)9 ttjv pLeyiaTrjv 
TMV TTcoTTore TvpavvlBcov KadeX6vTa<^ iXa)(^LaTai<; 
dcpopp^U; 

LI. ^EK7rX€vaavT0<i Be tov W7roXXoKpdTov<;, 
Kal TOV Ata)i/09 et9 ttjv aKpoiroXiv ^aBi^ovTO<;, ovk 
eKapTep^)aav al yvvalKe^ ovB^ dvep.etvav elaeXdelv 



;o^ 



DION xLix. 5-Lr? 

Kon, effected a reconciliation between him and 
Heracleides, who took oaths and made the most 
solemn pledges, in support of which Gaesylus him- 
self swore that he would avenge Dion and punish 
Heracleides if he worked any more mischief. 

L. After this the Syracusans discharged their fleet, 
since it was of no use, while it involved great outlays 
for the crews, and caused dissension among their com- 
manders ; they also laid siege to the citadel after they 
had finished building the wall that enclosed it. No 
one came to the help of the besieged, provisions 
failed them, and the mercenaries became mutinous, 
so that the son of Dionysius gave up his cause for lost 
and made terms with Dion. The citadel he handed 
over to him together with the arms and other equip- 
ment there, while he himself, taking his mother and 
sisters and manning five triremes, sailed away to his 
father. Dion allowed him to depart in safety, and 
no one who was then in Syracuse missed that sight, 
nay, they called upon the absent ones also, pitying 
them because they could not behold this day and the 
rising of the sun upon a free Syracuse. For since, 
among the illustrations men give of the mutations 
of fortune, the expulsion of Dionysius is still to this 
day the strongest and plainest, what joy must we 
suppose those men themselves then felt, and how 
great a pride, who, with the fewest resources, over- 
threw the greatest tyranny that ever was ! 

LI. After Apollocrates had sailed away, and when 
Dion was on his way to the acropolis, the women 
could not restrain themselves nor await his entrance, 

107 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTov, dW* iirl ra? dvpa<; e^ehpajxov, rj fiev 
^Kpiaroixaxn top vlov dyovcra rou Alcovof;, 7) 3' 
*Apirrj KaroTTLv eiireTO haKpvovaa, koX Siutto- 
povaa 7ra>9 daTrdarjraL kol TrpoaeiTTTj lov dpSpa 

2 KOivayvia^ avrfj tt/oo? erepov yeyevrj/jieurj^;. da- 
iraaa/jievov 3' avrov Tvpcorov rrjv dheX<^i]v, elra 
TO TraiSiOP, 77 ^ ApLarofJbd^T] it poaayayovaa rrjp 
^Apirrjp, "'H.tv)(^ov/jL6p, ay Atcor," €<j)r), " aov (f>€V- 
yopro^' rjKwp he koX plkmp d<^r)p-qKa<s rjfiwp dirdp- 
rayp 70.9 KaTrj(f)€La<i, ttXtjp fioprj^i Taur?;?, f)p iirelSov 
7] hv(TTV')(r]<^ iyoD gov ^mpto^ erepo) avpeXOelv 
fiiaaOelcrap. ore ovp ae Kvpcop rjfiMP 1) rvxv 
7r€7roLr}K€, ttw? avry Si,aira<; iKCiPrjp rrjp dpdyKrjp; 
TTorepop 00? Oelop rj /cat w? dpSpa ae daTrdaeraL ;" 

3 TOiavra tt}? ^ApcaTop.d)(^r](; Xeyovarj^; Alcdp eVSa- 
Kpv(Ta<; Trpocrtjydyero (piXoaropyco'!; ttjp yvpoLKa' 
KoX irapahov^ avrfj top vlop eKeXevaep et? Tr]v 
oIklup TTjp avTov fiahl^eip, oirov kol avTo<; Bir]- 
TOLTO, TTJP aKpap eVi T0L<i XvpaKOvaloi<i iroirjad- 

fX€PO^. 

LII. OvT(D he Tcop irpayjidrwp avra) 'iTpoice')((D- 
priKOTWP ovSep diroXavaai irporepop rj^iwae t% 
Trapouai-j^ et'Ti'^ta? rj to koI (f)LXoi<; x^piTa<i koX 
aviip^d^oi^ hwped<;, fidXiaTa he to?? eV dcTTCi 
avprjOeai /cal ^€Poi<; diropelfiai Tipa (f)LXapf)p(07ria<; 
KoX Ti/JLr]<; /jLepiha, ttj /jLeyaXoyjrvx^ci, ttjp hvpa/iip 
2 v7repPaX\6fjLepo<;. eavTOP he Xtrw? Kal aoxfipopox; 
CK TOiP TVXOPTCOP hifpKei, Oavfid^o/iepo^ otl, /irj 
fiopop '^iKeXia<; re Kal Kapxv^opo^, dXXd xal t% 98 
'EXXdha 0X779 diro^XeTTOvcrts vrpo? avrop evyjfie- 
povPTa, Kal firjhep ovtcj jieya tcop Tore pofiL^op- 



108 



r 



DION LI. I-LII. 2 



but ran out to the gates, Aristomache leading Dion's 
son, while Arete followed after them in tears, and at 
a loss how to greet and address her husband now 
that she had lived with another man. After Dion 
had greeted his sister first, and then his little son, 
Aristomache led Arete to him, and said : " We were 
unhappy, Dion, while thou wast in exile ; but now 
that thou art come and art victorious, thou hast taken 
away our sorrow from all of us, except from this 
woman alone, whom I was so unfortunate as to see 
forced to wed another while thou wast still alive. 
Since, then, fortune has made thee our lord and 
master, how wilt thou judge of the compulsion laid 
upon her ? Is it as her uncle or as her husband that 
she is to greet thee?" So spake Aristomache, and 
Dion, bursting into tears, embraced his wife fondly, 
gave her his son, and bade her go to his own house ; 
and there he himself also dwelt, after he had put 
the citadel in charge of the Syracusans. 

LI I. And now that his enterprise had been so 
successful, he thought it not right to enjoy his 
present good fortune before distributing thanks to 
his friends, rewards to his allies, and particularly to 
his Athenian associates and to his mercenaries some 
mark of kindness and honour, his generosity leading 
him beyond his resources. But as for himself, he 
lived with simplicity and moderation on what he 
had, and men wondered at him because, while his 
successes drew upon him the eyes not only of Sicily 
and Carthage, but also of all Hellas, and while he 
was regarded by the people of that time as the 

109 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tft)i/, firjS* eiri^aveaTepaf; irepX aSXov -qyepiova 
Tokixi]^ KOi TV')(y]<^ ^yeyovevai BoKovcrrj^;, ovrco 
7TapeL)(€v iavTov eaOrfn koI Oepaireia kol TpaTri^t) 
fierpiov, (fiGirep ev ^AKaSrjfieia (TvaaiTcov fiera 
H\dTCDVO<;, ovK ev ^€vayoL<s fcal pnaOo^opoL^ Scac- 
r(op,€vo<;, oU at Kad' eKaa-Trjv rj/JLepav TrXija/jLOval 
Kol oLTToXavaec^ irapapvOia tmv ttovcov koX tcop 

3 Kivhvvwv elaiv. aXX eKeivw jxev TlXdjcov eypa<^ev 
C09 TT/oo? €va vvv T?79 ol/covfievrjf; tovtov diravTe^ 
dTTo/SXiTTovenv, avro<^ he eKelvo^i, (jo<i eoiKev, d(f>ecopa 
Trpo^ ev '^copLov fJiLd<^ iroXeio^, rrjv ^AKaBijp^eiav, 
KOL Toij'; avToOi KOL OeaTCL^ KOi hiKaard^i iyivo)- 
(TK€V ovre irpd^Lv ovre toX/jluv ovre vlktjv nvd 
Oav/jLd^ovTa<;, dXXd p^ovov el KO(Tfiico<; Kal (ra)<J)p6- 
V(D<; rfi TVXV XPV'^^^ '^^^^ irape'X^^t perpcov eavrov 

4 ev irpdypaai p,eydXoi<i dirocTKOTTovvra'^. tov p,ev- 
TOL irepl Ta9 o/jLtXia^ oyKOv Kal tov tt/oo? tov hrjpov 
dTevov<; e(f)iXov6L/c€L prjhev vcpeXelv pr]B€ ')(^aXdarat, 
KULTOL TMV TTpaypdTcov uvTw y^dptTo<i evSecjv 6v- 
T(ov, Kol TlXdTcovo<; iiTLTipo)VTO<if CO? elprjKap,ev, 
Kol ypd(f)0VT0^ OTL 7] avddSeta €pr]p,ia crvvoiKo<i 
idTLV. dXXd (l)vaei re ^aiveTai 7rpo<; to indavov 
Bv<TK€pd(7Tq) Ke^prjp,evo^, dvTiairdv Te tov<; ^vpa- 
Kovaiovf; dyav dveipievov^ kol SiaTedpvppevov; 
7rpo6vp,ovpevo<;. 

LIII. 'O yap 'H/3«A-XetS/y9 avOi(; eireKeiTO' Kal 
fTpMTov fiev €19 avvedpcov irapaKaXovpevo'^ ovk 
i^ovXeTO jSaSi^eLv l8id)Tr]<; yap wv psTa t(ov 
dXX(ov €KKX7)(Tid^eiv ttoXitcov. eireiTa KaTrjyopei 



DION LII. 2-LIII. I 

greatest of living men, and was thought to be blessed 
with courage and good fortune beyond any other 
commander, he was nevertheless so modest in his 
dress, his attendance, and his table, just as though 
he were messing with Plato in the Academy, and 
not living among captains of mercenaries and paid 
soldiers, who find in their daily feastings, and other 
enjoyments, a solace for their toils and perils. Plato, 
indeed, wrote to him ^ that the eyes of all the world 
were now fixed upon him alone, but Dion himself, 
as it would seem, kept his eyes fixed upon one spot 
in one city, namely, the Academy, and considered 
that his spectators and judges there admired neither 
great exploits nor boldness nor victories, but watched 
to see only whether he made a discreet and decorous 
use of his good fortune, and showed himself modest 
in his high estate. Nevertheless, he made it a point 
not to remit or relax at all the gravity of his manners 
or his haughtiness in dealing with the people, al- 
though his situation called for a gracious demeanour, 
and although Plato, as I have said,^ wrote and warned 
him that self-will was "a companion of solitude." 
But he seems to have been of a temper naturally 
averse to graciousness, and, besides, he was ambitious 
to curb the Syracusans, who were given to excessive 
license and luxury. 

LIII. For Heracleides once more set himself in 
opposition to him. To begin with, when he was 
invited by Dion to attend the council, he refused to 
come, saying that as a man in private station he 
would meet in assembly with the other citizens. 

^ Epist. iv. p. 320 : fiare robs i^ airoiarjs rrjs olKov/xeyrjs els 
eva r6irou aTTo^Ktweiv, Koi iv Tovrcf [xaKiara vphs ae. 
^ In chapter viii. 3. 

II I 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rov Al(ovo<; on rrjv afcpav ov KareaKa-^e koL t& 
BtjfJLM rhv Atovv(TLov rd^ov wpfirj/jievo) \vcrai Kal 
TOP veKpov eK^aKelv ovtc eireTpey^e, fieTaire/jLTreTai, 
Be €K Koplvdov avp,^ov\ov<; Kal <Tvvdp^ovTa<^, 

2 CLTTa^LMV T0U9 TTOXlTa^. TO) B' OPTl /j,€r€7rep7reTO 

T0U9 ^opLvdiov^ o Alo)v, fjv CTrevoet TToXireiav 
paov iXTTL^cov KaraarTjrreiv i/cetvcov irapayevo- 
/jievcov. eTrevoei Be rrjv puev dfcparov BrnxoKpajiaVt 
CO? ov iroXiTeiav, dWa iravTOTrdiXiov ovaav iroXt- 
TeLcov, Kara top HXdrcopa, KcoXveip, AaKcoviKOP 
Be Ti fcal K.pr}TLK0P a)(^r]fia fjLL^dp,epo^ etc Brjpov 
Kal fiaatXelafi, dpia-TOKpariav e)(^op rrjp eiriaTa- 
Tovaap Kal fipafievovaap rd p^eyto-ra, KaOiardpai 
Kal Koapelp, opcop Kal toO? Kopipdiou^; oXiyap' 
')(^LK core pop re iroXiTevopepov; Kal fit] TroXXd tcop 
KOLPMP €P Tftj Brjp,(p irpdrropra^. 

3 'n? ovp pdXKTTa TTyOo? Tavra top ' H paKXeiBrjv 
epaPTidyaeaOat ivpoaeBoKa, Kal TaXXa Tapa^d)6t)f; 
Kal evpeTd6eT0<; Kal aTaaiaaTLKO^i rjp, 01)9 irdXai 
^ovXop,epov<; avTOP €KQ)Xvep dpeXelp, tovtol*; eire- 
Tpeyjre Tore* Kal 7rapeX06pT€<; et? ttjp OLKiav 

4 diTOKTLPPVOvaip avTOP. iXvirrjcre Be a(f)6Bpa tou? 
XvpaKovaLOV<; dirodapcop. 6po)<; Be tou Aiwpo^ 
Ta(f)d<; T€ Xap7rpd<; irapacTKevdaaPTOf; Kal fieTa 
Tov aTpaTevpaTO<; eiropepov irpoTrep^yjrapTOf; top 
psKpop, euTa BiaXexdepTO^ avTol^, avi eypwaap &)? 
ov BvpaTOP rjp Tapaaaop^epyp iravaaadac Tr}P 
ttoXlp 'HpaKXeiBov Kal Alcopo^; dpa TroXiTevo- 
pepcop* 

112 



DION Liii. 1-4 

Next, he publicly denounced Dion for not demolish 
ing the citadel, and for checking the people when 
they set out to open the tomb of Dionysius and cast 
out his dead body, and for sending to Corinth for 
counsellors and colleagues in the government, there- 
by showing contempt for his fellow citizens. And 
in fact Dion did send for assistance to the Corinthians, 
hoping the more easily to establish the civil polity 
which he had in mind if they were at his side. And 
he had it in mind to put a curb upon unmixed de- 
mocracy in Syracuse, regarding it as not a civil 
polity, but rather, in the words of Plato,i a " bazaar 
of polities"; also to establish and set in order a 
mixture of democracy and royalty, somewhat after 
the Spartan and Cretan fashion, wherein an aristo- 
cracy should preside, and administer the most im- 
portant affairs ; for he saw that the Corinthians had 
a polity which leaned towards oligarchy, and that 
they transacted little public business in their assembly 
of the people. 

Accordingly, since he expected that these measures 
would find their chief opponent in Heracleides, .and 
since the man was in every way turbulent, fickle, and 
seditious, he now yielded to those who had long 
wished to kill him, but whom he had hitherto re- 
strained ; so they made their way into the house of 
Heracleides and slew him. His death was keenly 
resented by the Syracusans ; but nevertheless, when 
Dion gave him a splendid funeral, followed the body 
to its grave with his army, and then discoursed to 
them upon the matter, they came to see that it was 
impossible for the city to be free from tumults while 
Heracleides and Dion together conducted its affairs. 

^ Republic, viii. p. 557 d. 

113 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

LIV. *Hv Be T^9 6TaLpo<i rov Atwz/o? ef \\0r)' 
pcov, KaXXtTTTTO?, ov (jitjcnv 6 YlXdrcov ovk vltto 
iratheia^, afOC €K /jLva-raycoytcov Kal Tf]<; TrepLTpe- 
'Xpvar)'; eraipeia<i yvcoptp^ov avro) yeveaOai Kal 
(Tvpi]0rj, fjLeraa')(^ci)V Be t^? aTpareLa^ Kal ri/mo)- 
fjuevo^, odCTTe Kal (TweLaeXOelv et? ra<; XvpaKOV(Ta<; 
TTpcorof; TO)v eraupcov airavTCDV, eaT6(f)av(op.evo^ Kal 

2 \ap,irpo^ ev rol^ ayw(Ti Kal Bidarjp,o<;. iirel Be, 
Twv TrpcoTcov Kal /BeXrio-rcov (piXcov rov Alcovo<; 
dvTfkwpevcov VTTO rov TroXefiov, Kal reOvrjKoro^ 
'HpaKXeiBov, rov re Btj/jlov icopa rwv XvpaKovaicov 
eprjfiov rjyepopof; ovra Kal rov<; drparicora^ rov^; 
fiera Aioyvo^ 7rpoaexopra<; avrw pLoXtara, pLtapo)- 
rarof; dvOpcoTTfov yevopbevo^ Kal rravrdiraaiv iXirl- 
aa<; ^iKeXtav aOXov e^eiv r7j<; ^evoKrovia<;, &>? Be 
(f>a(TCP epioL, Kal rdXavra rrpoaXa^oov e'lKOGi rov 
(f)6vov piadop irapd rcop rroXepuiwp, Bie^Oeipe Kal 
rrapecTKeva^e riva<; rwp ^evcop iirl rop ^iwva, 
KaKorjOeardrr^p dpxv^ Kal iravovpyordrr^p rroir)- 

3 adpepo^. del ydp ripa^ (f)a)pd<; rwp arparicorMP 
'irpo<; eKeiPOP r) XeXey/jiepa<; dXrjOco's dpatpepcop A 
irerrXaapLeva^ v(f)^ avrov, roLavrrjv e^ovaiav eXn^e 
Bia rrjp TTLariP war iprvy^dpeip Kpvcpa Kal Bia- 
Xeyecdai pterd iTapprjaia<; ol<; l3ovXot,ro Kara rov 
Atwro?, avrov KeXevopro<;, Xpa prjBe eh XapOdirj 

4 rcop V7rovX(i)<; Kal BvapL6P(o<; exoprcov. Ik Be rov- 
rcov avpe^aipe tou? puep iropi^pov^ Kal poaovpra^ 
evpLCKCiP ra'xy Kal (Tvpiardvai rop KaXX^vrTroz/, 
el Be ri^ drrMcrdpePOi; tou? X6yov<i avrov Kal rrjp 
irelpap e^eiTroL irpo^ rop Alcopa, pL7j rapurreaOaL 



114 



DION Liv. 1-4 

LIV. Now, there was a certain comrade of Dion's 
named Callippus, an Athenian, who, as Plato says,^ 
had become intimately acquainted with him, not as 
a fellow pupil in philosophy, but in consequt.nce 
of initiation into the mysteries and the recurrent 
comradeship which this brought. He took part 
in Dion's expedition and was held in honour by 
him, so that he even entered Syracuse with him 
at the head of all his comrades, with a garland 
on his head, after winning glorious distinction in 
battle. But now that the chief and noblest friends 
of Dion had been consumed away by the war, and 
Heracleides was dead, he saw that the people of 
Syracuse were without a leader, and that he him- 
self was very much in favour with Dion's soldiers. 
Therefore, showing himself the vilest of men, and 
altogether expecting that he would have Sicily 
as a reward for murdering his friend, and, as 
some say, having received twenty talents from the 
enemy to pay him for doing the murder, he bribed 
some of Dion's mercenaries into a conspiracy against 
him, beginning his work in a most malicious and 
rascally manner. For he was always reporting to 
Dion various speeches of his soldiers against him, 
either actually uttered or fabricated by himself, and 
in this way won his confidence, and was authorized 
to meet secretly with whom he would and talk freely 
Avitli them against Dion, in order that no lurking 
malcontents might remain undiscovered. By this 
means Callippus succeeded in quickly discovering 
and banding together the evil-minded and discon- 
tented citizens, and, whenever any one who had 
repulsed his overtures told Dion about them, Dion 
1 ^pist. vi. p. 333. 

^^5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

^rjBe %a\€7rati^6tv cKelvov, w? a Trpoa-erarre rov 
KaWiTTirov irepaivovrof;. 

LV. '^vvL(TrafjLevT](; Be t?}? eTrt/SovXrj^ <\idapLa 
ylveraL rw ^iwvi fie^ya kol reparcoBef;. irvy^ave 
fiev yap o-yjre t?}? T^fiepa^ Ka6e^6p,evo<; iv iraardBi 
rrj<; oiKia'^ fiovo*; ot)v vryoo? eavrw rrjv Bidvotav 
i^aL(f>vrj<i Be yjr6(j)OV yevop^evov irpo^ Oarepo) Trepan 
T^9 o-Tod<;, diro/SXeyjrafi ere ^coto? 6vto<; elBe 
yvvaxKa p.eyd\r)v, <TTo\y p,ev koI TrpocrcoTrw pLrjBev 
*Epivvvo<; rpayiKrj<; irapaWdrrovaav, aaipovaav 

2 Be KaXXvvTpfi) tlvI rrjv ol/ciav. eKirXayel^ Be 
Beivot)<i zeal 'TT€pi^o^o<^ yevopevo'^ pLereirepiy^aro 
TOL'9 (piXov^i KOL Birjyelro rrjv oy^Lv avrol^ Kal 
7rapap,ev€iv eBelro koX avvvvKrepeveiv, iravrd- 
Traaiv €KcrTaTLfcco<; e')((ov Kal BeBoLKoo^ p.rj irdXiv 
et9 6^jnv avrw p,ov(o6evTt to Tepa<; dipiKyjTat. 
TovTO p.€V ovv avdi^; ov avveireae. p,e6^ r)p,epa^ 5' 
6\iya<; 6 vlo^ avrov cr^ehov dvTi7rai<; mv, etc tlvo^ 
XvTTr)<; Kal 6pyrj<i p,LKpdv Kal TraiBiKrjv dp^T]v 
Xapovar}^;, eppL'^ev eavrov diro rov reyov; iirl 
TTjv KecfiaXrjv Kal Bie(f)Odprj. 

LVI. 'Ez^ roiovTOi^ Be rov Ai(ovo<; oVto?, 6 
KaWtTTTTO? eVi p,dXXov et-x^ero Tr)^ e7n^ovXrj<^, 
Kal Xoyov eh tou? XvpaKovaCov^; e^eBcoKev co? 6 
Al(ov, dirai^ yeyovdt^, eyvwKe top Aiovvaiov 
KaXelv ^ ATToXXoKpdrrjv Kal iroLeladai BvdBo')(^ov, 
dBeX^iBovv pev ovra rrj^ eavrov yvvaLKo<^, dvya- 
rpiBovv Be T>}9 dBeX(f)y]<i. ■tjBr} Be Kal rov Aicova 
Kal rd<; yvvalKa^ virovoia roiv 7rparrop,evcov el^^, 

2 Kal pLrivvaeL<; eyiyvovro 7ravra')(66ev. dXX,' o pev 
AlwVy CO? eoiKev, errl rol^ Kara rov 'HpaKXelBrjv 
d')(66p,evo<s, Kal rov ^ovov eKelvov, w? riva rov 
ii6 



DION Liv. 4-LV1. 2 

was not disturbed nor vexed, but assumed that 
Callippus was merely carrying out his injunctions. 

LV, As the plot was ripening, Dion saw an ap- 
parition of great size and portentous aspect. He 
was sitting late in the day in the vestibule of his 
house, alone and lost in thought, when suddenly a 
noise was heard at the other end of the colonnade, 
and turning his gaze in that direction he saw (for it 
was not yet dark) a woman of lofty stature, in garb 
and countenance exactly like a tragic Fury, sweeping 
the house w^ith a sort of broom. He was terribly 
shocked, and, becoming apprehensive, summoned 
his friends, told them what he had seen, and begged 
them to remain and spend the night with him, being 
altogether beside himself, and fearing that if he 
were left alone the portent would appear to him 
again. This, indeed, did not occur a second time. 
But a few days afterwards his son, who was hardly 
a boy any more, in a fit of angry displeasure caused 
by some trivial and childish grievance, threw himself 
headlong from the roof and was killed. 

LVI. While Dion was thus heavily afflicted, Cal- 
lippus was all the more intent upon his plot, and 
spread a report among the Syracusans that Dion, 
being now childless, had made up his mind to send 
for Apollocrates, the son of Dionysius, and make him 
his successor, since he was his wife's nephew and his 
sister's grandson. And presently both Dion and his 
wife and sister began to suspect what was going on, 
and information of the plot came to them from every 
quarter. But Dion, as it would seem, being in distress 
at the fate of Heracleides, and suffering continual 
vexation and depression at thought of the man's 



117 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Piov Kal Twv irpd^ewv avrw K7]\LBa TTepLKeijJbevqv, 
Svcrx^pctivoyv ael koI /Sapwofievo^i, elirev on 
TToXXaKL^ rjhr] OvrjCTKeiv eTOi/jLo^; iari Kal 7rape)(^6LV 
TO) fiouXo/MVO) (TCpaTTeLV avTov, el ^fjv Serjoret /jlt) 
fiovov Tou? i^Opov<;, aXXa koX tou? \pi\ov<; <f)v- 
Xarrofxevov. 

3 Ta9 Be yvvoLKa^ opwv 6 KaXXtTTTro? i^era- 
^ovaas cLKpi^w^ to irpdy/ia, /cal ^o/5//^et9, yXOe 
7r/J09 avTCL^ apvovjjievo^ Kal haKpvcov Kal iriarLV 
Tjv fiovXavrat BiSovai ^ouXofjuevof;. at 5' rj^iovv 
avTov ofioaai rov jxeyav opKov. r}v he tolovto<;' 
Kaja^af; eh to tcov %e(TfJL0<^6pwv Tefievo^ 6 BcBov<; 
TTjv TTLaTLV, lepMV Ttvcov y€vo/jLev(ov, irepi^dWeTai 
Trjv TTopcjivpLBa T^9 Oeov, Ka\ Xaffoov BaBa Kaio- 

4 fievrjv dirop^vvdi. TavTa iroirjaa'; 6 Ys.dXXiinT o<i 
TTOLVTa, Kal Tov opKOV olt: o piOd a'i y ovTto KaTcyeXaae 
Twv OeMV oxjTe Trepipieiva^ ttjv eoprrjv 77? w/xocre 
deov, Bpa TOV cbovov ev roh KopeLOi<i, ovBev laccx; 
TO irepl TTjv r)p,epav r?)? deov iroirjadpievo^, &><? 
dael3oup.6vr)<; 7rdvra}<^, el Kal KaT dXXov ^(^povov 
ea^aTTe tov p,vaT7)v avri]^ 6 p,va-Tay coy o^;. 

LVII. "OvTcov Be TrXeiovwv ev Trj kolvcovlo, t/)? 
7rpd^ea)<;, KaOe^op^evov ^icovo^ ev olKt]p,aTL KXiva^ 
TLvd<i e^ovTC pueTa tmv (plXwv, ol puev efw Tr^v 98^ 
OLKiav 7repie(rT7](Tav, ol Be tt/oo? TaL<; 6vpaL<i tov 
OLKOv Kal Tah Ovpian' rjaav. avTol B^ ol irpoa- 
<j)epeiv ra? ')(eLpa<i p,eXXovTe<i ZaKvvOioi, TrapPjXOop 



118 



DION LVI. 2-LVII. I 

murder, which he regarded as a stain upon his life 
and actions, declared that he was ready now to die 
many deaths and to suffer any one who wished to 
slay him, if it was going to be necessary for him to 
live on his guard, not only against his enemies, but 
also against his friends. 

But Callippus, seeing that the women were inves- 
tigating the matter carefully, and taking alarm, came 
to them with denials and in tears and offering to give 
them whatever pledge of fidelity they desired. So 
they required him to swear the great oath. This 
was done in the following manner. The one who 
gives this pledge goes down into the sanctuary of 
Demeter and Persephone, where, after certain sacred 
rites have been performed, he puts on the purple 
vestment of the goddess, takes a blazing torch in 
his hand, and recites the oath. All this Callippus 
did, and recited the oath; but he made such a 
mockery of the gods as to wait for the festival of 
the goddess by whom he had sworn, the Coreia, and 
then to do the murder.^ And yet it is possible that 
he took no account of the day, since he knew that 
tlie goddess would have been utterly outraged even 
if at another time her mystic were slain by his 
mystagogue.2 

LVI I. Many had conspired to do the deed, and as 
Dion was sitting with his friends in an apartment 
containing couches for entertainment, some of the 
conspirators invested the house outside, while others 
stood at the doors and windows of the apartment. 
The actual assassins, who were Zacynthians, came in 

1 353 B.C. 

■■' Implying that Callippus had himself initiated Dion into 
the mysteries of Demeter. 

VOL. VI. F no 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

dvev ^L<^MV ev roL<; 'X^brojaiv. d/ia 8' ol /xev efo) 
Td<; dvpa<; iTno-iraadfievoi Karel'^^ov, ol Be rw 
Alcovl Trpocnreaovre^ Kardyxeiv eir€Lpo)VTO koI 

2 (Twrpl^eLv avrov. <h<; S* ovSep eirepaLvov, yTOVv 
^i^o<^' ovSeh 3' iroXfia rd<; Ovpa<; dvol^aL, arv- 
X^ol yap rjaav evSov ol fxerd rod Alcdvo^;, wv 
6KaaT0<; o16/jl€vo<;, dv eKelvov Trporjrai, SLaaoocreiv 
eavTov, ovK iroX/j^a ^orjOelv. 8iarpiffrj<; Be <ye- 
vop,ev7]<^ Avicwv 6 ^vpafcovaio^; opeyeu rivl rwv 
TiaKvvOicdv Bid t?)? OvpiBo^; eyx^ipl^iov, w KaBd- 
Trep lepelov top Alcova KpaToviievw irdXai koI 

3 BeBiTTOfievov aTrecrcpa^av. evOv^ Be koI ttjv 
dBeX^rjv fxerd t^? yvvaiKO^ iyKvp.ovo<; ovar)<; €l<; 
rr)v elpKTTjv ive/3a\ov. fcal (Tvvefi-q rrj yvvaiKi 
rXrjfjLovecTTara Xo^eu^etcrT; Tefcetv ev rw Becrpiw- 
TTjpiQ) iraiBdpiov dppev oirep kol Opeyjrac p,dXXov 
irapefidXovTO ireiaaaai rov^ <^vXaKa<;, yjBi] rod 
KaXXtTTTTOu Oopv^ov/jievov rot? irpdyfiaaiv. 

LVIII. 'Ei^ ^PXV /^^^ y^P d7roKTeiva<; rbv 
Aicova Xa/jL7rpo<; r)v koX Karel^^ Ta? ^vpaKOvaa<^' 
Koi irpo's rrfv ^AOrjvaicov eypac^e iroXiv, rjv pud- 
Xiara /lerd tov<; Oeov^ cjcpeiXev alBelaOai koX 
BeBievai rrfXiKOvrov pLvaov^ d-\\rdpievo<i. dXlC 
eoLKev dXr]6o)<i XiyecOai ro rhv ttoXlv eKelvrjv 
<\>epeiv dvBpa<; dperfj re tou? dyaSov^ dplarov; 
/cat KUKLa Tou? <pavX9v<; TTovrjpoTdrov';, KaOdwep 
avTwv Kol rj %ai/3a KdXXiarov pueXi kol Kcoveiov 
2 Q)Kvp,opcoraTOv uvaBiBwaLV. ov p^rjv ttoXvv xpoi'ov 
6 KaXXiTTTTO? eyfcXrj/jLa t?)? ti^X^*? f^(^l twz^ Oewv 
Trepnjv, &)? Trepiopcovroyv ef dae^rjpLaTO^ dvOpwirov 
T7)Xlkovtov KrQ)/jLevov r)y€pLOPLa<i koI Trpdy/iara' 
rax^ B^ d^iav Blktjv eBcoKCV. opfMrjaa'; pLev yap 



DION LVII. I-LVlil. 2 

unarmed and without their cloaks. Then at tlie 
same time those outside closed the doors and held 
them fast, while those inside fell upon Dion and 
tried to strangle and crush him. They made no 
lieadway, however, and called for a sword ; but no 
one ventured to open the door. For Dion's com- 
panions inside were many in number ; but each of 
them thought that by abandoning Dion to his fate 
he would save his own life, and so no one ventured 
to help him. After some delay, Lycon the Syracusan 
handed through the window to one of the Zacyn- 
thians a shortsword, and with this they cut Dion's 
throat as if he had been a victim at the altar ; he 
had long since been overpowered and was quivering 
before the stroke. At once, too, they cast his sister 
into prison, together with his wife, who was big with 
child. His wife had a most wretched confinement, 
and gave birth in the prison to a male child, which 
the women ventured to rear, with the consent of 
their guards, and all the more because Callippus was 
already involved in great trouble. 

LVIII. At the outset, indeed, after he had killed 
Dion, Callippus was a glorious personage, and had 
Syracuse in his power. He actually wrote s. letter to 
the city of Athens, which, next to the gods, he ought 
to have held in awe and fear after setting his hands 
to so great a pollution. But it appears to be truly said 
of that city that the good men whom she breeds are of 
the highest excellence, and the bad men of the most 
despicable baseness, just as her soil produces sweetest 
honey and deadliest hemlock. However, Callippus 
did not long remain a scandal to fortune and the 
gods, as though they had no eyes for a man who won 
leadership and power by so great impiety, but speedily 
paid a fitting penalty. For on setting out to take 

121 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kardvrjv Xa^elv, €v6v<; aire^oKe tcl^ '^vpaKovaa'^' 
ore Kai (paatv avrov elirecv on ttoXlv airoXcoXeKcof; 

3 TvpoKvrjaTLv €i\r}(^ev. i7ridefi€vo<; Se Me(Ta7]vloi<; 
Koi TOL"? 'Tr\ei<JTOV<i (TTpaTLcoraf; a7ro\ecra<;, iv oT? 
rjaav ol Aucova KaraKzeivavre^, ov8e/xLd(; Be iro- 
Xea)9 avTOV iv XifceXia TrpoaSexop-evT]^, aWa 
fiiaovvjwv airavTOiv Kal Trpo^aXXofiepcov, 'Pyjyiov 
Karecryev. ifcel Be XvTrpo)'; Trpdrrwv koi Ka/ca)<; 
Bt,aTpe(f)Q)v Toy? fjLiado(f)6pov<;, vtto Aeirrivov /cal 
IloXvTrepyovTOfi dvrjpeOr], 'x^prja-ajjbevwv ^L(^LBi(p 
KaTCL Tvyy]v o5 KoiX Aicova irXrjyijvaL (paacv, 
eyvcoaOr} Be rw fieyWeL {ppa')(y yap r^v, (oairep 
ra AaKfovLKo) koi ry Karaaicevf} t% reyvr]';, 

4 elpyaafievov yXa<pvpcx)(; /cal 7repiTT(o<;. roLavrijv 
fxev ovv TiCTLV KaXXLTTTTOf; eBcoKe. 

Trjv B^ ^Aptaro/jLaxVJ^ '^^^^ '^V^ ^ApeTr)v, co? 
a<f)el0r}(Tav €K tt)? €ipKTrj<i; dvaXa^cov 'J/cer?;? 6 
l^vpaKovaiof;, €i<; twv Ai,covo<; (j)iXo)v yeyopco^;, 
eBoKei TTiarcb^ Kal KaXco<^ Trepieireiv. elra avfi- 
Treicr^el? vtto tCov Alcovo^ i')(^6p(ov koi irapa- 
crKevd<Ta<; ttXolov avral<;, a)<; eh Il€Xo7r6vv^]aov 
cnrocrTaXrjo-opevaifi, ifceXevcre Kara ttXovp utto- 

5 (T(jid^avra<; e/c/SaXecv eh rrjv OdXaffaav. ol Be 
^(oaa^ en KajairovTLaOrjvaL Xeyovai, Kal to 
iratBiov fier avroiv. irepirfKOe Be koi tovtov 
d^ia TTOLVT} rwv reToX/jL7]/i€PCt)v. avT6<^ re yap 
VTTO TipioXeovTo<; d\ov<; direOave, Kal Ovyarepa^ 
Bvo TT peer aire KTeivap avrov Alcopl rificopovvrt^; ol 
SvpaKovaioc, irepl ayp ep rut TifjLo\eovTO<; yStoi) 
Ka6^ eKaara yeypaTrrai. 



I 



DION Lviii. 2-5 



Catana, he at once lost Syracuse ; at which time, as 
they say, he remarked that he had lost a city and 
got a cheese-grater.i Then he attacked Messana 
and lost most of his soldiers, among whom were the 
murderers of Dion ; and since no city in Sicily would 
receive him, but all hated and spurned him, he took 
possession of Rhegium. But there, being in strait- 
ened circumstances and unable to support his mer- 
cenaries properly, he was put to death by Leptines 
and Polyperchon, who, as fortune would have it, used 
the shortsword with which Dion also was said to have 
been smitten. And it was known by its size, which 
was short, after the Spartan fashion, and by the 
style of its workmanship, being delicately and cun- 
ningly wrought. Such, then, was the penalty which 
Callippus paid. 

As for Andromache and Arete, when they were 
released from prison, they were taken up by Hicetas 
the Syracusan, who had been one of Dion's friends, 
and who was thought to be faithfully and honourably 
disposed towards them. Afterwards, having been 
persuaded by the enemies of Dion, he got a ship 
ready for them, pretending that they were to be sent 
into Peloponnesus, and ordered the sailors, during 
the voyage, to cut their throats and cast them into 
the sea. Others, however, say that they were thrown 
overboard alive, and the little boy with them. But 
Hicetas also met with a punishment worthy of his 
crimes. For he himself was captured by Timoleon 
and put to death, and the Syracusans, to avenge 
Dion, slew his two daughters also ; of which things 
I have written at length in my Life of Timoleon.'^ 

^ Apparently the meaning, in Sicilian Greek, of the word 
Catana. Callippus maintained himself in Syracuse only 
thirteen months. '^ Chapters xxxii. and xxxiii, 

123 



BRUTUS 



BPOYT02 

T. MdpKOV Se ^povTOv iTp6yovo<^ rjv ^lovvio<; 984 
BpovTo<;, ov avearvjaav iv KaTnTcoXla) ')(^a\Kovp 
ol TToXac ^Fco/iatoi, iiecrov tmv fiaatXewv, eaira- 
(Tfievov ^L(f)0(;, a)9 ^e^aLorara KaraXvaavra Tap- 
KvvLov<;. aXX €K€2vo<; fiev, cocnrep to, '^v')(^pr)\aTa 
rcov ^KpMU, (TK\y]pov eK (^vaeco<; koI ov fjuaXaKov 
€')((DV viTO \6you TO tJ^o? a%/Oi TT a tho(jiOVia'^ i^co- 

2 KeiXe TO) Oufiq) rw Kara rcov rvpdvvcov, ovrocrl 
S', virep ov <ypd(})6Tat ravra, TraiBeLa koI Xoyo) 
hia (piXoaocpLa^ KaTa/jiL^a<; ro rjOo^, fcal rrjv ^vaiv 
i/jL^pLOf} Koi irpaelav ovaav iirejeipa^; rat? irpaK- 
TLKal^ 6pfJLaL<;, efi/jLeXearara SoKel Kpadrjvai, 7rpo<; 
TO KaXov, wcTTe /cal tou? d'jTe')(dcLVoiJLei'ov<=; avTa> 
Sia TTjv iirl Kauaapa (TwayfJioaiav, el fiiv rt 
yevvalov rj 7rpd^i<; TjvejKe, Bpovrw TTpoadirreiv, 
ra Svax^pio'Tepa Be rcov jeyovorcDV rpeTreiv eh 
Kdaaiop, ol/celov fiev ovra Bpovrov /cal (piXov, 
dirXovv he rw rpoirw koI KaOapov ou^ o/ioto)?. 

3 Xep/SiXLa Se 77 /jLrjrrjp dve^epero y€vo<; eh ^AdXav^ 
XepfiiXiov, 09 MaiXiov "EiropLOV rvpavviha Kara- 
(TKeva^o/jLeuov /cat rapdrrovro^ top Sfj/iov ey^^ei- 
pLBiov Xafi^iv VTTO /uidXr)<; TrporjXOev eh dyopav 
Kul TTapacTTCL'^ T& dvBpl TrXrjaLOV, oo? ev7vy')(dv6LV 

^ 'Aa\av Cobet : *'A\ov. 
126 




BRUTUS 



T. Marcus Brutus was a descendant of that Junius 
Brutus whose bronze statue, with a drawn sword in 
its hand, was erected by the ancient Romans on the 
Capitol among those of their kings, in token that he 
was most resolute in dethroning the Tarquins. But 
that Brutus, like the tempered steel of swords, had 
a disposition which was hard by nature and not 
softened by letters, so that his wrath against the 
tyrants drove him upon the dreadful act of slaying 
his sons ; ^ whereas this Brutus, of whom I now 
write, modified his disposition by means of the 
training and culture which philosophy gives, and 
stimulated a nature which was sedate and mild by 
active enterprises, and thus seems to have been most 
harmoniously attempered for the practice of virtue. 
As a consequence, even those who hated him on 
account of his conspiracy against Caesar ascribed 
whatever was noble in the undertaking to Brutus, 
but laid the more distressing features of what was 
done to the charge of Cassius, who was a kinsman 
of Brutus, indeed, and his friend, but not so simple 
and sincere in his character. Servilia, the mother of 
Brutus, traced her lineage back to Servilius Ahala, 
who, when Spurius Maelius was seditiously plotting 
to usurp absolute power, took a dagger under his 
arm, went into the forum, drew nigh the man, as if 
* See the Puhlicola, chapter vi. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tt fieWoDv Kol BtaXiyeaOac, irpoavevaavra ira- 
ra^a? aireKreLve. 

4 ToOro fiev ovv ofMoXoyov/ievov ia-rr to 8e 
irarpwov yevo<; ol hia rov Kaiaapo<; (j)6vov e^^pav 
Tiva Kal hvapAi'SLav airoheiKvviJLevoi Trpo^ Bpovrov 
oij ^aaiv eh rov eK^aXovra TapKvvLov<; avrjKeiv 
ovhev yap CKeivq) XeKpOrjvai yevo<; aveKovTL rov<; 
vlov<;, dWa Brj/jLOTrjv tovtov, oIkovo/xov vlov 
ovra ^povrov, aprt koI irpcorjv et? ap')(^ovTa 

6 irpoeXOelv. Iloa€iBci)VLo<; S* o <l)t\6ao(f)o<; rou<; 
jiev ivrj\LKOU<; (prjalv dirdXeaOaL rov ^povTOV 
7raZ8a<? co? laroprjrat, rpirov 5e Xei^OrjvaL vtJTrtov, 
d(j)^ ov TO yevo'i oypfirjadar koI twv ye KaO^ 
avTOV €K T779 OLKcaf; yeyovorwv eTrt^avMV dvBpwv 
dva^epeiv eviov<; irpo^ tov dvSptdpTa tou BpovTov 
Trjv o/JLOioTTjTa tt}? IBea^. irepl fiev ovv rovreop 
ToaavTa. 

II. Xep^tXia^i Be tt)? BpovTOv /jLrjrpo^ a8eX<^o? 
^v K.drcov 6 ^tX6ao(Po<i, ov fidXiara 'Pfo/xaicov 
e^rjXayaev ovto<; Oelov ovra koL irevOepov varepov 
yevofievov. tcov Be 'RXX7]viKa)v <f>LXoa6(^(ov ov- 
Bevo<; jiev, d)^ aTrXw? elirelv, dvrjKoo^i rjv ovBe 
dXX6TpL0<;, Bi,a<pep6vTco<; S' ecnrovBdKei tt/jo? toi/? 

2 diro UXdTa)vo<;. koI ttjv veav koI /leaijv Xeyo- 
fievTjv ^ AKaBijfjLeLav ov irdvv irpodiepbevo^ i^TjpTrjro 
T?}? 7raXacd<i, Kal BteTeXei davfid^cov fiev ^Avtl- 
o')(pv rov ^ AcrKaXoyvirrjv, <^iXov Be Kal avfi/3ioi)T7jv 
TOV dBeX<f}0V avrov TreiroLrip.evo'^" ^piarov, dvBpa 
ry ficv iv XoyoL^; e^ei ttoXXmv ^LXo(T6<f>wv Xetiro- 
fjuevov, evra^ia Be Kal Trpaorrjri, roL<; irpoDroi^ 

3 ivdfiLXXov, 6 B' "E/XTTuXo? ov Kal avTO<i iv Tat? 



128 



BRUTUS I. 3-II. 3 

intending to confer privately with him, and when he 
inclined his head to listen, stabbed him to death. ^ 

This, at all events, is generally admitted ; but as 
to the lineage of Brutus by his father's side, those 
who display great hatred and malevolence towards 
him because of the murder of Caesar deny that it 
goes back to that Brutus who expelled the Tarquins, 
since no offspring was left to him when he had slain 
his sons. The ancestor of Brutus, they say, was a 
plebeian, son of a steward by the name of Brutus, 
and had only recently risen to office. Poseidonius 
the philosopher, however, says that the two sons of 
Brutus who were of age perished according to the 
story, but that a third son was left, an infant, from 
whom the family descended. He says, moreover, that 
there were certainly illustrious men of this house in 
his own day, some of whom called attention to their 
likeness in form and features to the statue of Brutus. 
Thus much, then, on this head. 

II. Servilia, the mother of Brutus, was a sister of 
Cato the philosopher, and Brutus had a higher esteem 
for him than for any other Roman, Cato being his 
uncle and afterwards becoming his father-in-law. 
There was practically no Greek philosopher with 
whom Brutus was unacquainted or unfamiliar, but he 
devoted himself particularly to the disciples of Plato. 
To tliQ New and Middle Academy, as they are called, 
he was not very partial, but clung to the Old. He 
was therefore always an admirer of Antiochus of 
Ascalon, whose brother Aristus he had made his 
friend and housemate, a man who in learning was 
inferior to many philosophers, but who in good sense 
and gentleness vied with the foremost. Empylus 
also, who is often mentioned by Brutus himself in 

1 In 439 B.C. Cf. Livy, ir. 13 f. 

129 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€iTL(no\al^ KoX ol (plXoi fii/jLvrjvrai TroWa/vt? cd<; 
(rvfi^t,ovvTO<; avTW, p^rcop rjv koI KaraXeXoLwe 
fXLKpov flip, ov (fyavXov Be crvyypa/jufj.a irepX Trj<; 
KatVa/Jo? avaipeaewf;, o B/doOto? eiri'^k^ pair Tat. 

'Pco/jba'iarl fiev ovv i^cr/crjTO 7rpo<; ra<; Bi€^6hov<; 
Koi T0U9 aya)va<; iKavw^ 6 BpoDro?, 'EXXT^ytcrTi 98{ 
he Trjv dTTO(f)0€<yfjLaTiK7)v /cal AaxayviKrjv eTrirr)- 
Bevcov Ppa')(v\o'yiav ev rat? eirLorToXalf; ipia^ov 

4 7rapdar)fji6<; iariv. olov rjhr) /cadeanjfcw^: et? rbv 
TToXefiov ypd(f)€i HepyafirjvoLf;' " ^Akovq) vfia<; 
AoXo/SeXXa hehwKevai y^pi'^fiara' a el fiev e/c6vTe<; 
eBore, o/uLoXoyelre dBcKelv el Be dK0VTe<;, diro- 
Bei^are tco e'/xot eK6vre<; Bovvai^ irdXiv l.a/MOL';' 
** A^ jSovXal vfjLOJV oXiycopoi, at {jirovpyiav jSpa- 

5 Belai, Tt TOVTODV reXo^ evvoetaOe;*' kuI erepav 
" HdvdLOt TTjv ifjLTjv evepyecTLav vTrepiBovre^i rd^pov 
d7rovoLa<; ia'x^iJKacri rrjv TrarpiBa, IlaTap€L<; Be 
TTLarevaavTe^i eavrov^ ifiol ovBev eXXeiirovaL 
BioiKovvTe<; rd xaO' eKaara Ti]<; eXevOepia<;. 
i^ov ovv KoX v/jllv rj ttjv Uarapecov Kpiaiv rj ttjv 
"SavOicov TVXV^ eXeaOaL.'^ rb fiev ovv rwv wapa- 
crrjjjLwv yeuo^ eTnaroXlcov rotovrov ecrriv. 

IIL "EiTL Be fieipd/ciov cov l^drcovc rw deiw 
avva7reBij/j,7]aev el<; Kinrpov eirl TLroXe/nalov diro- 
araXevTC, TLroXe/jLalov Be Bta<^6eipavT0'i eavrov o 
Kdrcov auTo? iv 'PoBfo BiarpL^rjv e%ft)z^ dvayKaiav 
erv^e fiev i]Brj rivd tcov (fylXcov KavlBcov cttI ttjv 
T(ov 'X^pr^fidroiv cfyvXaKrjv dTreo-raXKox;, BeLaa*; S' 
efcelvov o)? ovk dcpe^ofievov KXo7rrj<;, eypa-y^e rat 
BpouTO) irXelv ttjv Ta^icrrrjv eh Kuirpov eK Yiafi- 
<f>vXLa<;' CKel yap eavrov dvaXafi/Sdvcov eK tivo<; 
2 daOeveia'i Btijyev. 6 Be Kal fidXa. aKwv eirXevae, 
130 



BRUIUS II. 3-m. 2 

his letters, and also by his friends, as a housemate 
of his, was a rhetorician, and has left a brief but 
excellent account of the assassination of Caesar, 
entitled "Brutus." 

In Latin, now, Brutus was sufficiently trained for 
narrative or pleading ; but in Greek he affected the 
brevity of tlie apophthegm and the Spartan, of which 
he sometimes gives a striking example in his letters 
For instance, when he had already embarked upon 
the war, he wrote to the Pergamenians : " I hear 
that ye have given money to Dolabella ; if ye gave 
it willingly confess that ye have wronged me ; if 
unwillingly, prove it by giving willingly to me." 
Again, to the Samians : " Your counsels are paltry, 
your subsidies slow ; what, think ye, will be the end 
of this ? " And in another letter : "The Xanthians 
ignored my benefactions, and have made their country 
a grave for their madness ; but the Patareans en- 
trusted themselves to me, and now enjoy their 
freedom in all its fulness. It is in your power also 
to choose the decision of the Patareans or the fate 
of the Xanthians." Such, then, is the style of his 
remarkable letters. 

III. While he was still a youth, he made a journey 
to Cyprus with his uncle Cato, who was sent out 
against Ptolemy.^ And when Ptolemy made away 
with himself, Cato, who was himself obliged to tarry 
a while in Rhodes, had already dispatched one of 
his friends, Canidius, to take charge of the king's 
treasures ; but fearing that he would not refrain 
from theft, he wrote to Brutus bidding him sail with 
all speed to Cyprus from Pamphylia, where he was 
recruiting his health after a severe sickness. Brutus 
set sail, but very much against his will, both because 
* Cf. Cato the Younger, chapters xxxiv., xxxvi. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rov T€ ^avihiov alBov/ievo^; co? ari/jLcof; aireppLfi- 
fievov viro rov Kdrcovof;, kol oXo)? rtjv roLavrrjv 
iiri/jLiXetav koI hioiKr^aiv, are 8t) veo^; kol «r;^o- 
Xao-T?;9, ovK iXevOipiov ovS* eavrov 7rotov/jLevo<;. 
ov /JLTjv dWa Kal irepX ravra avvTelva^ eavrov 
VTTO rov K.dra)vo<i eTrrjvedr], kol tt}? ovaia^ ^^^P' 
'yvpLadeiar}^ dvaka^cav rd irXelara rwv ')(^pr)fidr(Dv 
619 'Pco/jLTjv eirXevaev. 

IV. 'ETrel he rd jrpdyfJLara Siearr) UofiTrrjtov 
Kal K.aLaapo<; e^eveyKa/bLevayv rd orrXa Kal t% 
r)y€/jLOVLa<; rapa^delar)';, e7rL8o^o<; jiiev r)V alprjae- 
aOaL rd Kaiaapo^:' 6 ydp rrarr]p avrov Bid rov 
Yiofiirrjlov ereOv^Kei rrporepov d^ioov Be rd Koivd 
rcjv IBicov erriirpocfOev rroLelaOai Kal rrjv Uofi- 
Trrjtov vofu^cov viroOeaiv ^eXriova irpo^ rov iroXe- 
fjLOV elvac rrj<; rod Kalaapof;^ eKeivw irpoaeOero. 

2 KairoL irporepov diravryo-af; ovBe TrpoaetTre rov 
Ilo/jL7r7]'iov, dyo<{ rjyov/jbevo^ fieya 7rarp6<i (povel 
BuaXeyeadar rore 8' to? dp')(ovri rrj<; irarpLBo^i 
VTTord^a'i eavrov €t9 KcXiKiav eirXevae irpea^ev- 
T^9 fierd ^Tjariov rov Xa^ovro^; rrjv €7rap)(^Lav. 

3 0)9 S' eKel TTpdrretv ovBev tjv fjueya Kal avv^ecrav 
6t9 ravro rjBrj Uo/jLTTijio^; Kal Kalaap dyoDvi^ofzevoi 
irepl r(t)v oXayv, r}Kev eh MaKeBovlav ideXovrij^; 
rov KivBvvov fjLeOe^cov ore Kai (jiaac IIofi7n]Lov 
rjaOevra Kal Oavfidaavra Trpocnovra avrov KaOe- 
^Ofievov i^avacrrrjvai Kal irepifiaXelv a)9 Kpeirrova 
irdvrcov opcovrcov. ev Be rfj CTpaieia t^9 '^fiepa'i 

^ r^s Tov Kalaapos Lentz : tov Kalaapos. 
T32 



BRUTUS III. 2-iv. 3 

he had regard for Canidius, whom he thought to 
have been ignominiously discarded by Cato, and be- 
cause on general grounds he considered such pains- 
taking attention to administrative affairs to be illiberal 
and unworthy of himself as a young man addicted to 
letters. However^ he applied himself to this task 
also, and won Cato's praise, and after converting the 
king's property into money, took most of the treasure 
and set sail for Rome. 

IV. Here, when the state was rent by factions, 
Pompey and Caesar appealing to arms and the su- 
preme power being confounded, Brutus was expected 
to choose the side of Caesar, since his father had 
been put to death a while before at the instiga- 
tion of Pompey ; ^ but thinking it his duty to put 
the public good above his own, and holding that 
Pompey's grounds for going to war were better than 
Caesar's, he attached himself to Pompey. And yet 
before this he would not even speak to Pompey when 
he met him, considering it a great abomination to 
converse with the murderer of his father ; now, how- 
ever, looking upon him as his country's ruler, he put 
himself under his orders, and set sail for Cilicia as 
legate with Sestius, to whom the province had been 
allotted. But since there was nothing of importance 
for him to do there, and since Pompey and Caesar 
were now about to meet in a supreme struggle, he 
came of his own accord into Macedonia to share the 
danger. It was then, they say, that Pompey was 
so filled with delight and admiration that he rose 
from his seat as Brutus approached, and in the sight 
of all embraced him as a superior. During the cam- 
paign, for whatever part of the day he was not with 

See the Pompey y chapter xvi. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oaa fir) Uo/jLTnjtcp avvrjv irepl \6yov<; koI ^l^Xlu 

Bierpi^ev, ov fiovov rbv dXkov ^poz^oi^, aWa kuI 

4 TTpb T/}? fi€yd\r}<; fid^^^r)*;. rjv fiev aK/jurj 6epov<; kuI 

Kav/ia TToXv TTyoo? eXooSecTL ')(^o)pLOL^ icrrparoTreBev- 

KOTCOV, TO) Be BpOUTft) OV TO, ^y^ €0)9 "^KOV ol TrjV 

o-Kr]vr)v /co/Jbi^ovT€<;, iKirovrjOel^ Be irepl ravra, 
fiearjfx^piaf; fioXif; dXei'^diMevo^ /cat (f>aycDv oXiya, 
rodv dXkcov Tj KaOevBovTwv rj 7r/)0? eiTivoia xal 
<f)povTLBi Tov fjueWovrof; ovrcov, at'To? a%/3i t?}9 
ecT'TTepa^; eypa^e o-vvrdrrcov iirirofjLrjv HoXv^lou, 

V. Aiyerai Be kol K.acaap ov/c dfieXelv tov 
dvBpo^, dXXd KoX IT poeiirelv to2<; v<f> kavrov r)ye- 
fioatv ev TTj iJid')(r] fir) Kreiveiv Bpovrov, dXXd 
<f)eiBea6ai, kol 7rapa(T)(^6vTa fiev eKovaio)^ dyeiv^ 
el Be diTOfidypiTO irpo<^ ttjv avXXrjxjnv, edv koI fit) 
fiid^eaOar kol ravra woielv rfj fi7)rpl rod Bpov- 

2 rov ^p/SiXla ')(^api^6fievo<=;. eyvonKei ydp, 009 eoiKe, 986 
peavla<; wv en rrjv Xep/3iXiav imfiavelaav avra>, 

Kal KaO^ 01)9 fidXiara %/5oi^ou9 o e/?&)9 €7re(f)Xeye 
yevofievov rov Bpovrov eireTretaTo ttw? ef kavrov 
yeyovevat. Xeyerai Be rwv rrepl KartXivav rrpay- 
fidrcov fieydXwv ifiTreTrrcoKorcov els rrjv avyKXrjrov, 
a fiLKpov iBerjaev dvarpe'^at, rrjv itoXlv, eardvac 
fiev ofiov K^drcova xal K.ai(7apa BLacpepofievovs 
irepi yvcofirjs, ev rovrw Be ypafi/iariBLov fiiKpov 
rrpoaBoOevros e^eoOev Kalcrapi, rov fiev dvayLvco- 
<TK€iv (TLCOTry, K-drcova Be fiodv ct)9 BeLvd rroiel 
Kalaap ivrev^eis Kal ypdfifiara irapd rcov ttoXc- 

3 fiicov TTpoaBexofievos. dopv^rjadvrcov Be iroXXcjv, 

134 



BRUTUS IV. ^-v^ 

'ompey, he busied himself with books and literature, 
not only the rest of the time, but even before the 
great battle.^ It was the height of summer, the 
heat was great (since they had encamped in marshy 
regions), and they that carried the tent of Brutus 
were slow in coming. But though he was thus all 
worn out, and though it was almost noon before he 
anointed himself and took a little food, nevertheless, 
while the rest were either sleeping or occupied with 
anxious thoughts about the future, he himself was 
busy until evening in making and writing out a 
compend of Polybius. 

V. It is said, moreover, that Caesar also was con- 
cerned for his safety, and ordered his officers not to 
kill Brutus in the battle, but to spare him, and take 
him prisoner if he gave himself up voluntarily, and 
if he persisted in fighting against capture, to let him 
alone and do him no violence ; and that Caesar did 
this out of regard for Servilia, the mother of Brutus. 
For while he was still a young man, as it seems, 
Caesar had been intimate with Servilia, who was 
madly in love with him, and he had some grounds 
for believing that Brutus, who was born at about the 
time when her passion was in full blaze, was his own 
son. It is said also that when the great conspiracy 
of Catiline, which came near overthrowing the city, 
had come to the ears of the senate, Cato and Caesar, 
who were of different opinions about the matter, 
were standing side by side, and just then a little 
note was handed to Caesar from outside, which he 
read quietly. But Cato cried out that Caesar was 
outrageously receiving letters of instruction from the 
enemy. At this, a great tumult arose, and Caesar 

1 At Pharsalus in Thessaly, in August of 48 B.C. 



t>LUTARCHS LIVES 

teal rov Kaiaapo^ to BeXrapiov, ox; el^e, tw 
KdroyvL irpocrSovro^, dvayvopra Sep/StXta? t?)? 
d8eX(^7}9 dfcoXaaTov eTTLaroXLOv eKelvo ptev pl^a' 
7r/?09 rov Kalaapa kol elirelv " Kparec, /xe^f <x€," 
TTpo? 8e Tr)v yvMprjv koI top Xoyov avOt,<; i^ ^PXV"^ 
TpaTTeaOai. ovtcj pLev rjv 6 7r/30? Kalaapa ^ep- 
piXia^; epa)9 7r€pL^6r}T0<;. 

VI. TevopievT)^ he Trj<; Kara ^dpaaXov r]TTr}<; 
KoX Tlop7rr)tov puev iirl OdXaaaav Si€K7recr6ifT0<;, 
TtoXiopKovpLevov Se rod x^paKo^i, eXaOev 6 B/3o{)to9 
Kara 7TvXa<; tt/jo? tottov eXcohr] Kal pearov vBaTwv 
KoX KaXdpLov (j>6pov(Ta<; e^eXOoiv kol Bid vvkto<; 

2 diroacoOelf; et? Adpiaaav. eKslOev Be ypd'^avTo<; 
avTOV l^alaap rfaOrj re aco^op^evq), Kal KeXevcra^ 
7rp6<; avrov iXOelv ov povov d(j)rJKe T7}9 alTia<;, 
dXXd Kal ripL(op.evop iv toU pidXiara irepl avrov 
el^^v. ovBevo^i 8' oirrf (pevyoi UopLTrrjlof; eiirelv 
€')(ovro<;, dXX^ diropla^; ovarj^;, oBov nva <jvv rw 
^povr(p /BaBl^oyv p.6vo^ dTreireLpdro rrj<i yva)pL7j<;. 
Kal Bo^avro^ €k rtvcov BuaXoyLapLaw dpiara rrepl 
r7]<; TlopTTijlov reKpaipeaOai ^vyrj<;, dj)6l<; rdXXa 

3 rr]v in Alyvirrov avvereivev. dXXd Uoprrrjiov 
pev, oicrrrep eiKaae ByooOro?, Alyvirrw rrpoafia- 
Xovra TO rreirpmpbevov eBe^aro^ Kaicrapa Be Kai 
7rpo<; Kd(7<nov eiTpavve ^povro<;. Kal Btj kol r& 
r(OV Al^vcov /SaaiXel jrporjyopwv pev rjrrdro rov 
p,eyedov<; tmv Karrjyoptwv, Beopevo^ Be Kal irapai- 
rovpevo<; rrepl rovrov^ 7ro\Xr]v avro) Bieawae rrjs 

4 dp')(ri<;. Xeyerac Be Kalaap, ore irpcorov rjKovaev 

* Trepl rovTov transposed by Bekker, after Vogelin, to the 
following sentence, between avTov and Xe'i-ovTos ias soon as 
he heard him speaking in his behalf). 

136 



BRUTUS V. 3-vi. 4 

gave the missive, just as it was, to Cato. Cato found, 
when he read it, that it was a wanton bit of writing 
from his sister Serviha, and throwing it to Caesar 
with the words " Take it, thou sot," turned again to 
the business under discussion. ^ So notorious was 
ServiUa's passion for Caesar. 

VI. After the defeat at Pharsalus, when Pompey 
had made his escape to the sea and his camp was 
besieged, Brutus went out unnoticed by a gate lead- 
ing to a place that was marshy and full of water and 
reeds, and made his wa}^ safely by night to Larissa. 
From thence he wrote to Caesar, who was delighted 
at his safe escape, and bade him come to him, and 
not only pardoned him, but actually made him a 
highly honoured companion. Now, since no one 
could tell whither Pompey was fleeing, and all were 
in great per})lexity, Caesar took a long walk with 
Brutus alone, and sounded him on the subject. 
Certain considerations advanced by Brutus made his 
opinion concerning Pompey's flight seem the best, 
and Caesar therefore renounced all other courses 
and hastened towards Egypt. But as for Pompey, 
he put in at tLgypt, as Brutus conjectured, and there 
met his doom ; as for Caesar, however, Brutus tried 
to soften him towards Cassius also. He also served 
as advocate for the king of Africa,^ and though he 
lost the case, owing to the magnitude of the accu- 
sations against his client, still, by supplications and 
entreaties in his behalf he saved much of his king- 
dom for him. And it is said that Caesar, when he 

^ Cf. Cato the Younger, xxiv. 1 f. 

2 Probably an error, either of Plutarch's, or of the MSS. 
In 47 B.C. Brutus pleaded unsuccessfully before Caesar the 
cause of Deiotarus, king of Galatia. Coraes would read 
roAaTftJi' for A.i^v(tiv, 

137 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

uifTov \e707vT09, eLTrelv -irpo'^ tov<; <pi\ov<;' ** OSro? 
6 veavias ovk olBa /lev fiovXerac, Trap S' fiov- 
\€Tai o-(f)6Bpa jBovXeraiy to yap ifi^piOh avrov 
Kal fir) paSto)? firjSe 7ravT0<i virrjKoov rov heofxevov 
irpo^ ')(^dpiv, cOOC i/c \oyia/j.ov Kal irpoaipeaew<i 
TMV KoXoiv TTpaKTLKov, OTTOi Tpe^freLev, l(T^vpal<i 

5 exprjTO ral^i 6p/jiaL<; Kal reXea-tovpyoU. vrpo? Be 
ra? a8iKOV<; herjcrei^ aKoXaKCvro^ rjv, Kal rrjv viro 
Twr ai/aicr^uz^TO)? XiTrapovvrcov rjrrav, rjv evioi 
hvdwjrelaOai KaXovaiv, al(T')(larr)v avhpl /leyaXw 
Trotov/jL6vo<^ €L(oOet Xeyeiv 009 ol firjBev apvelad ai 
Swdfievoi hoKovGLV avrw /jur) KaX(o<; rrjv Mpav 
htaTeOelaOaL. 

6 yiiXXuyv he Sca^aLveiv eh Ai^urjv Kalaap iirl 
Kdrcova fcal ^KrjTrlcova Bpouro) ttjv ivTo^i ^'AXireayp 
TaXarlav iireTpey^ev et'Tu^ta tlvI t?}? iirapx^CL^' 
T<Z9 yap aXXa<; v/3p€i Kal irXeove^ia rcov Treiria' 
revp,evwv wairep al^p.aXooTov'^ Biacpopovvrcov, eKei- 
voi^ Kal TOdv TTpodOev dTU')(^rj/jLdT(ov TravXa Kal 

7 Trapa/jLvOia ByOoOro? ijv. Kal rrjv X^P^^ ^^^ 
Kataapa Travrcov dpyjirrevy to? avro) fiera Tr)V 
eirdpohov irepiiopTi rrjp ^IraXiap r^Biarop Oeafia 
Ta<; VTTO ByDouTft) TToXei^i yepkaOaiy koI Bpovrov 
avTOP, av^ovra ttjp eKeiPOV TLfirjp Kal avpovra 
Kexapt-crp^ipco^;. 

VII. 'ETrel Be irXeioPcop arparrjyLCjp ovacop rrjp 
p,eyLaTOV e^pvcrap d^Lw/xa, KaXovixevrjv Be iroXt- 
TLKrjv, iiriBo^o^ rjv r) 3povro<; e^eip rj Kao-(7to?, ol 987 
/jL€p auTOu? Xeyovaip ef alnwv irporepcop rjo'V^V 
BLa<j)€po/jLepov(; en fidXXop vrrep tovtov BiaaTacn- 
aaaiy Kanrep oLKeiov^ opra^' ^lovpia ydp, dBeX(f>fj 

138 



BRUTUS VI. 4-vii. I 

first heard Brutus speak in public, said to his friends; 
*' I know not what this young man wants, but all 
that he wants he wants very much." ^ For the weight 
of his character, and the fact that no one found it 
easy to make him listen to appeals for favour, but 
that he accomplished his ends by reasoning and the 
adoption of noble principles, made his efforts, whither- 
soever directed, powerful and efficacious. No flattery 
could induce him to grant an unjust petition, and 
that inability to withstand shameless importunity, 
which some call timidity, he regarded as most dis- 
graceful in a great man, and he was wont to say that 
those who were unable to refuse anything, in his 
opinion, must have been corrupted in their youth. 

When Caesar was about to cross over into Africa 
against Cato and Scipio, he put Brutus in charge of 
Cisalpine Gaul, to the great good- fortune of the 
province; for while the other provinces, owing to the 
insolence and rapacity of their governors, were plun- 
dered as though they had been conquered in war, 
to the people of his province Brutus meant relief 
and consolation even for their former misfortunes. 
And he attached the gratitude of all to Caesar, so 
that, after Caesar's return, and as he traversed Italy, 
he found the cities under Brutus a most pleasing 
sight, as well as Brutus himself, who enhanced his 
honour and was a delightful companion. 

VII. Now that there were several praetorships to 
be had, it was expected that the one of greatest 
dignity, that is, the praetorship of the city, would 
fall either to Brutus or to Cassius ; and some say that 
the two men, who were already slightly at variance 
for other reasons, were still more estranged by this 
circumstance, although they were relatives, since 
1 Cf. Cicero ad Att. xiv. 1, 2. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 Bpovrov, avv(pK€i Kdaaio^i' ol Se Kauaapo'; epycv 
yeveaOat rrjv ^iKoveiKiav Tavrrjv, exarepw Kpix^a 
Bi iXiriBcov €1'BiS6vto<; eavrov, dxpt ov irpoay^Oev- 
Te? ovTco /cat 7Tapo^vv9evTe<^ ei? ayoiva Kari- 
(TTrjaav. '^yayvL^ero Be ^pouTO<; evfcXeia kul dpeTjj 
Trpo? iToWd Tov K.a(TaLOV koX Xafxirpd rd TLap- 

3 Oucd veavievfJLaTa. Kalcrap 8' dKov(Ta<i /cal fiov- 
\€v6fM€vo'^ iv Tot9 (/)tA,oi? etTTe' "AiKaiorepa fxev 
XiyeL Kacr(7to9, B/jouto) Be rr^v irpdoTijv Boreov^^ 
direBeix^V ^^ K.daaio<i e<^' krepa aTpaTi]y6<;, ov 
ToaovTOV €vvoLa<^ ^X^^ ^** ^^ eXa^ev ocrov 6py7J<i 
u)v dirkrvx^' 

4 B/ooOto? Be Kol rdXXa /lerecx^ '^V'^ KaLaapo<; 
Bvvd/jL€Q)<; oaov e^ovXero, ^ovXap^evw yap vTrrjp- 
X€V elvai T(x)v ^iXwv irpoorw kol BvvaaOac TrXec- 
(TTOV aXV eVXKev avrov rj irepl Kdaatov iracpela 
Kol direarpejiev, avTw fjuev ovttco Kaaalw BltjX- 
Xay/iievov ef eKeivr]^ t^9 (piXoTLptaf;, dKovovra Be 
TMV (plXcov BiaKeXevojjievwv /jltj Trepiopdv avrov 
VTTO Kaiaapof; fiaXaaaoixevov /cal KrjXoviievov, 
dXXd ^evyeiv ra? TvpavvLKd<^ (piXocfypocrvvaf; xal 
XdpLra^i at? oi) rifxwvra rrjv dperyjv, aW' eKre/ii- 
vovra rrjv dXKrjv /cal top Ovfibv inTepeiirovra 
XP^o-Qai TTpo^i avTov. 

VIIL Ov prjv ovBe Kalaap dvvTTOTnoti ^v irdji- 
rrav ovB^ dBtd/3Xriro<; 7rpo<; avrov, dXXd to fxev 
^povrjfia /cal to d^iwjjia Kal roi)? <j>lXov<; eBeBiec 
TOV dvBp6<;, eTTLareve Be tm ijOei. /cal irpwrov fiev 
AvToyvCov /cal AoXofieXXa Xeyofievojv vewrepi^ecv 
140 



BRUTUS VII. i-viii. I 

Cassius was the husband of Junia, a sister of Brutus. 
But others say that this rivalry was the work of 
Caesar, who secretly favoured the hopes of each 
until, thus induced and incited, they entered into 
competition with one another. Brutus, however, 
made the contest supported only by his fair fame 
and his virtue, as against many brilliant and spirited 
exploits of Cassius in the Parthian war.^ But Caesar, 
after hearing the claims of each, said, in council 
with his friends: *^ Cassius makes the juster plea, 
but Brutus must have the first praetorship." So 
Cassius was appointed to another praetorship, but he 
was not so grateful for what he got as he was angry 
over what he had lost. 

And in all other ways, too, Brutus had as large a 
share in Caesar's power as he wished. Indeed, had 
he wished it, he might have been first among Caesar's 
friends and exercised the greatest power ; but the 
party of Cassius drew him away from such a course. 
Not that he was reconciled to Cassius himself as yet, 
after their struggle for honours, but he gave ear to 
the friends of Cassius, who urged him not to suffer 
himself to be charmed and softened by Caesar, but 
rather to flee the tyrant's kindnesses and favours, 
for these were shown to him, not to reward his 
virtue, but to root out his vigour and his haughty 
spirit. 

" VIII. However, even Caesar was not wholly with- 
out suspicion, nor free from the effects of accusations 
against Brutus, but, while he feared his high spirit, 
his great repute, and his friends, he had faith in his 
character. Once, when he was told that Antony 
and Dolabella were plotting revolution, he said it 

* See the Crassus, xviii. ff. 

141 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovK €<^rj Tov<; iray^el^ fcal Ko/j,iJTa<; ivo'xXeIvy aWa 
T0U9 d)Xpov<; KoX la'xyov'^ i/c€ivov<;' 3povTov Xiycov 

2 Kol Kdaaiov eireira rov Bpovrov rivodv hiafiaX' 
Xovrcdv Koi (pv\dTT€(TdaL TrapaKeKevofxevoiv ry 
%efyol rov awfiaros dTrTOfievof; elTre* " Tt Be; ov/c 
av vfiLv BoKCL BpovTo<^ dva[ie7vai tovtI to aap- 
Kiov;^^ o)? ovSevl iTpoarjKov dWa> fied^ eavrov rj 
BpovTO) BvvaaOai roaovrov. koi /livrot BokcI 
irpcoTO'; av iv rfj iroXei yevkaQai /8e/3ata)9, oKi'^ov 
yjpQVOV avaayoyie.vo'^ ILaiaapi BevrepevaaL koI 
irapaKfidaai Trjv Bvvafiiv avrov koI fiapavOfjvuL 

3 rrjv iirl rot? KaropOco/jiaaiv idaa^ Bo^av. dWa 
Kda(Tio<;, dvrjp 0v/jLO€lB7]<; koI /idWov IBia /jLiao- 
Kolaap Tj KOLvfi fjLiaoTvpavvo^, e^eKavae /cal 
KarrjireL^e. Xeyerat Be l[ipovTo<; fxev rrjv dp')(7)v 
/3apvvea0aL, K.daato<; Be rov dp^ovra paaelv, 
aX\a re Kar avrov 7roLov/jLevo<; eyKXtj/xara xal 
Xeovrcov d<f)aLp€(TLV, 01)9 Kacrcrio? fiev dyopavofxelv 
fieXXcov TrapecT fcevdaaro, Kalaap Be fcaraXrjcpOev- 
raf; ev M.6ydpoi<;, 60^ rf 7r6Xt<; rfXai Bta KaXrjvov, 

4 Karea^^e. ravra ra drjpia au/jL(j)opdv Xeyerac 
fxeydXrjv yeveaOai ^leyapevaiv. ol fiev yap i]Br) 
T^9 TToXeco^; KaraXajx^avoiievr)^ Bieairaaav ra 
KXeWpa Koi rov<; Bear/jLOV<; dvijKav, 0)9 ifiiroBuyv 
etrj ra Orfpia ro2<; eirL^epopievoL^, rd S' copovaev 
€t9 avrov<; eKebvov; Kal BLa6eovra<; dvoirXov^ ijp- 
ira^ev, atare Kal rol<i 7roXefj.LOL<i rrjv oyjrtv oUrpav 
yeveaOai. 

IX. Tft) B ovv Kacrcrtft) ravrrjv fidXiard (paatv 
alriav vrrdp^ai t^? eTTi^ovXrjfi' ovk 6p6o)<; Xeyov 



142 



BRUTUS VIII. i-ix. 

\vas not the fat and long-haired fellows that troubled 
him, but those pale and lean ones ; ^ meaning Brutus 
and Cassius. And again, when certain ones were 
accusing Brutus to him, and urging him to be on his 
guard against him, he laid his hand upon his breast 
and said : " What ? Think ye not that Brutus 
can wait for this poor flesh ? " implying that no 
one besides Brutus was fit to succeed him in such 
great power. And verily it appears that Brutus 
might have been first in the city with none to dispute 
him, could he have endured for a little while to be 
second to Caesar, suffering his power to wane and 
the fame of his successes to wither. But Cassius, a 
man of violent temper, and rather a hater of Caesar 
on his own private account than a hater of tyranny 
on public grounds, fired him up and urged him on. 
Brutus, it is said, objected to the rule, but Cassius 
hated the ruler, and among other charges which he 
brought against him was that of taking away some 
lions which Cassius had provided when he was about 
to be aedile ; the beasts had been left at Megara, 
and when the city was taken by Calenus,^ Caesar 
appropriated them. And the beasts are said to have 
brought great calamity upon the Megarians. For 
these, just as their city was captured, drew back the 
bolts and loosened the fetters that confined the 
animals, in order that they might obstruct the on- 
coming foe, but they rushed among the unarmed 
citizens themselves and preyed upon them as they 
ran hither and thither, so that even to the enemy 
the sight was a pitiful one. 

IX. In the case of Cassius, then, they say this 
was the chief reason for his plotting against Caesar ; 
* Cf. Caesar, Ixii. 5. ^ Cf. Caesar, xliii. 1. 

M3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

re?, ef a/^X^ 7«/3 V^ ttj <f>v(7ei tov Kaaaiov 
Bv<T/jL€V€Ld Tf9 Kul ^aXeTTOT?;? 7r/)09 TO 7eVo9 twi/ 
Tvpdvvwv, 6l><^ iS7]\co(Tev en Trat? wi/ ^ahi^cov et? 
ravTO Tft) Toi) SuX-Xa TratSt ^l^aucrTft) hi^aa KoKelov , 
6 fjL€V yap iv toI<; iraial fjieyaXrjyopcov rrjv tov 
iraTpo^ iiryveL iJiovap')(jiav 6 he Kd(T(TLo<; eirava- 

2 (TTd<i KovBvXov<; iverpt/Sev uvtm. ffovXojxevcop Be 
TU)v eTTLTpoTTcov TOV ^auaTov fcal oiKeicov erfre^ievai. 
Kol BL/cd^eaOai Uo/jltttjIo'; eKcoXvae, koX avvaya- 
y(ov €t9 TavTo tov<; 7ralSa<i dfi^oTepov^ dveKpive 
irepX tov 7rpdy/j,aT0<;. euOa Br) XeyeTai tov Kda- 
(jLov elirelv ""Kye Bi], w <t>avaTe, ToX/irjaov evav- 
Tiov TOVTOV (ftOey^aadai tov Xoyov e/celvov €<j)' u> 
Trapco^vvOrjv, Xva aov rrdXiv eyco (JvvTpi^\ra) to 
o-To/^a." 

3 'YoLOVTO^ fxev Kao-crio?* ^povTov Be rroXXol 
jiev XoyoL Tvapd tcov avvrjdcov, TroXXat? Be (^rjpai^ 
KoX ypdfi/biaatv e^eKaXovvTO fcal Trapcop/ncov eVl 
Tr]V TTpd^iv ol TToXtTai. T(p fxev yap dvBpidvTL 
TOV 7rpo7i:dTopo<; ^povTOV tov KaTaXvcravTo<; ttjv 
TCOV ^aatXecov dp)(rjv eireypa^ov " Ei'^e vvv ^?, 
B/3o{)t€'" Kai ""Ci<^eXe ^rjv BpovTO<;.'^ to 3* av- 
Tov BpovTov ^rjfia (TTpaTtjyovvTO^; evpiaKeTO ixeO^ 
rjfiepav dvdirXecov ypafx/idTcov tolovtwv " BpovTe, 

4 Ka0€vBeL<;;^^ fcai *'Ovk el BpovTO<; dX7j6ct><;." aiTioi 
B^ TOVTCov OL }Laiaapo<i K6Xafce<i dXXa<i re Tifidf; 
e7ri(f)66vov<; dvevplaKovTe^ avTW koI BiaB)]/jLaTa 
Tot9 dvBpcdai vvKTCop e7nTc(^evT€<;, a)9 tov<; ttoX- 
Xou9 vTra^ofievoL fiaaiXea TrpoaeiTrelv dvTt Blktu- 
TO/509. TovvavTLOv S' diTr)VT7)a€V, ot)9 ev TOL<i Trepl 
Kaicrapo^i uKpifico^; yeypaTTTai. 

X. Kaaarlo) Be irecpcovTi 701)9 (j>lXovs eVl Kau- 
144 



BRUTUS IX. i-x. I 

but it is not so. For from the outset there was in 
the nature of Cassius great hostility and bitterness 
towards the whole race of tyrants, as he showed when 
he was still a boy and went to the same school with 
Faustus the son of Sulla. For when Faustus blustered 
among the boys and bragged about his father's ab- 
solute power, Cassius sprang up and gave him a 
thrashing. The guardians and relatives of Faustus 
wished to carry the matter into court, but Pompey 
forbade it, and after bringing the two boys together, 
questioned them both about the matter. Then, as 
the story goes, Cassius said : " Come now, Faustus, 
have the courage to utter in this man's presence that 
speech which angered me, and I will smash your 
face again." 

Such was Cassius ; but Brutus was exhorted and 
incited to the undertaking by many arguments from 
his comrades, and by many utterances and writings 
from his fellow citizens. For instance, on the statue 
of his ancestor, the Brutus who overthrew the power 
of the kings, there was written : " O that we had 
thee now, Brutus!" and ''^O that Brutus were alive!" 
Besides, the praetorial tribunal of Brutus himself 
was daily found covered with such writings as these : 
" Brutus, art thou asleep ? " and " Thou art not really 
Brutus." These things were brought about by the 
flatterers of Caesar, who, among other invidious 
honours which they invented for him, actually put 
crowns upon his statues by night, hoping to induce 
the multitude to address him as king instead of 
dictator. But the contrary came to pass, as I have 
written fully in my Life of Caesar. ^ 

X. Moreover, when Cassius sought to induce his 

^ Chapter Ixi. 

H5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aapa 7rdv7€<; a>fioX6yovv, el B/oo{)to9 r/yolro' Bel- 
aOai yap ov ')(^€ipS)V ovSe toX/at;? ttjv Trpd^iv, aWa 
86^r)(; dvBpo^; olo<; outo? ecrriv, coairep Karap')(o- 
fiivou KoX fiejSaiovvTOf; avrw tw irapelvaL to 
SiKaiov el Be p,rj, koX Bpcovra^; d6v/iorepov<; eae- 
crdat Kol BpdaavTa^i viroiTTOTepov^' o)? ovic av 
eKeivov to epyov, el /caXrjv alriav el)(ev, direiTra- 

2 fjuevov. rama a-vfKppoprjaa^; everv^e ByoouTO) 
irporepo^ e/c t?}? Bia(f)opd<; eKelvr)<;, kcu fieTa ra^ 
BiaXvcrei<i koI ^i\o^poavva<^ r]p(MiT7)aev el ttj vov- 
fjbrjvia Tov MapTLOv firjvo^ ejvwKev et? (TvyKkt^Tov 
trapelvai' irvvOdveaOai, yap &)9 \6yov virep fiaai- 
\eia^ Kalaapo^ oi (piXoL rore Kadrjaoiei'. <pi]<Tav- 
T09 Be TOV ^povTov fir] TrapievaL, " Tt ovv,^' elirev 
Kao'cri09} ** civ kuXmctiv 77/xa9;" "^Kp^ov epyov" 
€(l>7) 6 BpovTO<;, " rjBrj ro p^rj ai(07rdp, dXX* dp,vveLV 
rfi irarpLBi^ /cat TrpoaTToOvrjaKeiv rij^ e\ev6epia<;.^^ 

3 Koi 6 KdaaLGs CTrapOel';, **Tt9 B\" elire, "'F(o- 
pLalcov dve^erai crov 7rpoa7ro9vrjaKOVTO<; ; dpa 
dyvoel^, w ^povre, aeavrov ; rj ro ^rjpd aov 
Bofce2<; Karaypd^eiv tov<; v(f)dvTa(; kol tov<; Kairr]- 
Xoi/9, ov")(i TOL'9 7r/)a)T0V9 icaX KpaTL(TT0v<; ravra 
TTOielv, irapa fiev tmv dWayv arparTjycov €7rtB6(T€L<; 
Koi Oea<; Ka\ p,ovopd^oi^, Trapa aov Be ft)9 6(j)\7jpa 
TrarptKov rrjv KardXvcnv rij'i TVpavviBo<; dirat- 

4 Tovpra^;, avTOV<; S* virep crov Trdvra 7rda-)(eLv irpo- 
6vp,ov<^ 6i>Tu<;, olov d^LOvai kuI irpoaBe^^^ovTai. 

* afivyeiv rp irarpili Lentz, comparing Appian, B. C. ii. 113 ; 

OLflVVtlV. 

146 




BRUTUS X. 1-4 

friends to conspire against Caesar, they all agreed to 
do so if Brutus took the lead, arguing that the under- 
taking demanded, not violence nor daring, but the 
reputation of a man like him, who should consecrate 
the victim, as it were, and ensure by the mere fact 
of his participation the justice of the sacrifice ; other- 
wise they would be more timid in doing the deed 
and more suspected after they had done it, since men 
would say that Brutus would not have declined the 
task if the purpose of it had been honourable. After 
reflecting on this, Cassius made Brutus his first visit 
since the quarrel above mentioned,^ and when they 
were again on a friendly footing, asked him whether 
he had made up his mind to attend the meeting of 
the senate on the Calends of March ; for it had come 
to his ears, he said, that Caesar's friends would then 
move to have him made king. When Brutus answered 
that he should not attend, "What, then," said Cas- 
sius, " if we should be summoned ? " " It would at 
once be my duty," said Brutus, "not to hold my 
peace, but to defend my country and die in behalf 
of liberty." Then Cassius, elated, said: "But what 
Roman will consent to have thee die in such defence } 
Dost thou not know thyself, Brutus ? Or dost thou 
think that thy tribunal was covered with inscriptions 
by weavers and hucksters, and not by the foremost 
and most influential citizens? From their other 
praetors they demand gifts and spectacles and gladi- 
atorial combats ; but from thee, as a debt thou owest 
to thy lineage, the abolition of the tyranny ; and 
they are ready and willing to suffer anything in thy 
behalf, if thou showest thyself to be what they ex- 

> Chapter vii. 1-3. 

M7 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

<^ayei^TO?;" eV tovtov irepi^aXoiv tov l^povrov 
rjaTrd^ero, kol BLa\vOevT€<; ovT(o<i irpiirovTo TTyoo? 
TOV<i (piXovi. 

XT. ^Hv Si Tf? Faio? AtjdpLo<; tmv Ho/jLTrt-jtou 
^iXcov, ov iirl rovTcp KarrjyoprjOevra Kala-ap dire- 
Xvaev. 0UT09, ovx V^ d(f)€LOr] ^/act;? X^^P^^ ^X^^'> 
dWa Bt rjv CKivSvpevaev dp^V^ l3apvv6/jL€ro<;, 
ex^^po^ V^ ^aiaapi, tcov Be irepl Bpovrov iv 
TOt? /jLaXiara (jvvr)07)<^. irpo'i tovtov daOevovvTa 
B/3oDto9 elaeXOojv, "'H AiydpLc,^^ elirev, " iv oiw 
Kaipw voael^.^^ KdKelvo^ €vOv<; et? dyxcjva Biava- 
(TTa? KOi Xal36/jL€vo<; avTov r^? Sef^a?, '**A\V 
et Ti," <f)r]aLv, "ct) BpoOre, aeavTov (j)pov€L<; d^iov, 
vyiaivo)'^ 

XII. ^Rk tovtov Bia7reLp(op.evoL Kpu(pa twv yvco- 
pipicov 0I9 iiriaTevov dvexoivovvTO Koi irpoaeXap,- 
fiavov, ov p,6vov T(ov avvrjOwv iroiovp.evoL ttjv 
alpeaiv, dXX^ oaov^ rjiriaTavTO roX/xT^ra? 6vTa<; 

2 dya6ov<i Kol OavaTOV KaTa(f)povr)Td<i. Bib koI 
KiKipcova, TOVTO p.ev Trto-Tect)?, tovto Be evvoia^; 
eve/ca irpwTov ovtu Trap avTol<^, aTrcKpvyjravTO, 
p,7] TO) (f)va€L T0X./X779 ivBerjf; etvai 7r/)ocretA,^(^ft)9 
UTTO XP^^^^ y6povTLKr)v €vXd/3€Lav, elTa irdvTa 
KaO^ GKaGTOv dvdycDV tol<; Xoyiap.ol<; et? dfcpav 
dcr^dXetav, dii^Xvvrj ttjv dKp.rjv avTcov Trj<; irpo- 98! 

3 Ovpia^ Td^ov; Beo/iivrjv. iirel kol t(ov aXXcov 
eTaipoDV 6 B/joOto? StutlXiov re TrapeXnre tov 
^EiTTiKovpeiov KOL ^acovLov ipaaTr]V Karajz^o?, otl 
TTOppwdev avToU TOiavTrjv tlvcl kvkXw irepi^a- 
XovTO^ iv Tti> BiaXeyeadaL koI avix^iXoaoifielv 



148 



BRUTUS X. 4-xii73 

pect and demand." After this, he embraced Brutus 
and kissed him, and thus reconciled they betook 
themselves to their friends. 

XI. There was a certain Caius Ligarius ^ among 
the friends of Pompey, who had been denounced as 
such, but pardoned by Caesar. This man, cherishing 
no gratitude for his pardon, but rather offended by 
the power which had put his life in jeopardy, was an 
enemy of Caesar, and one of the most familiar friends 
of Brutus. Once, when this man was sick, Brutus 
came to see him, and said : " O Ligarius, what a 
time this is to be sick ! " Ligarius at once raised 
himself on his elbow, clasped Brutus by the hand, 
and said : " Nay, Brutus, if thou hast a purpose 
worthy of thyself, I am well." 

XII. After this, they secretly tested the sentiments 
of well known men in whom they had confidence, 
selecting not only from their intimates, but all whom 
they knew to be bold, brave, and contemptuous of 
death. For this reason, too, they kept their plans a 
secret from Cicero, although he was foremost among 
them, not only for the confidence, but also for the 
good will which he inspired. They feared that the 
caution which time and old age had brought him, 
combined with his natural timidity, and further, his 
habit of calculating all the details of every enterprise 
so as to ensure the utmost safety, would blunt the 
edge of their ardour at a crisis which demanded 
speed. Besides, Brutus also passed by, among his 
other friends, Statilius the Epicurean and Favonius 
the devoted follower of Cato. The reason was that 
some time before he had put them to a very similar 
test by the round-about method of a philosophical 

^ He is called Quintus Ligarius in the Cicero^ xxxix. 5. 

149 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ir€Lpav, 6 /jL€v ^a(£)VLo^ u'lrefcpivaTO %etpoj^ elvai 
fj^ovapx^cL^ Trapavofiov iroXe/xop €p,(f)v\tov, 6 oe 
^TaTLXio<; €(j)y] T(p ao(f)a) /cat vovv €')(pvTL Btct (pav- 
Xof? Kal avotjrovf; Kivhweveiv koX TapdrreaOai 
fiT) KaOijKeLv. irapcov he Aa^ecov avretTrev ap.(^o- 

4 T€pOl<i. Kal 6 BpoVTO? TOT€ /Jb€P ft)? eXOVTO^ TL 

rov Xoyov ')(a\.e7Tov Kal SvaKpirov aTreatoyTrrjaev, 
varepov Be Aa^ewvi KOivovrat to ,SovX€v/j,a. 
8e^ap,epov Be irpoOvpco^, rov erepov Bpovrop, 
€7rU\r)(rLv ^AX/Slvov, aX-Xo)? pev ovk ovra peKrrjp 
ovBe OappaXeov, eppcop^evov Be irXtjOei p-Qvopd-^oyv 
ov<; eVl Oea 'Fcopalcov erpecf^e, Kal irapa KalaapL 

5 TTLarevopLevov, eBoKei TrpoordyeaOat. Kaaalov Be 
Kal Aapewvo^ avrw BiaXeyop^evcov ouBev aTreKpi- 
varo, B/)ouTft) S* avro<i evTV)((bv IBia Kal paOcov 
on T?}? TTyoa^eco? r^yepLoav ia-rcv, u>p.oX6<yr]ae avp,- 
irpd^eiv iTpo6vp,cd<^. Kal tmv dXXcov Be roif^ irXei- 
CTTOU? Kal dpiarovf; rj Bo^a rov Bpovrov TrpoarjyeTO. 

6 Kal p,r)d^ opKov avvopoaavTe'i p,i]Te iriomv KaO^ 
lepwv Xa^ovTe^ rj B6vTe<;, ovt(d<^ diravre^ ecr^^^ov iv 
eavToU Kal KareaiMTTrjaav Kal a-vvBirjveyKav Mare 
/jLavT€Lac<i Kal (j)dapuai Kal lepol^i viro rcav Oecov 
7rpoBecKvvp,evT)v airiarov yevkaOai rrjp irpa^ip. 

XIII. 'O Be ^povro<i, are Brj rd irpoira Trj<; 
*V(iip.ri<i (jipoprjpLara Kal yeprj Kal dperdf; e^yjprrj- 
fjuepo^ eavTov Kal irepiPoSiP irdprd top klpovpop, 
e^(o p^ep eiretparo Kare^eLP Trap eavTW Kal Kara- 
Koapuelp Tr)p BidpoLap, oikol Be Kal pvKTcop ovk rjp 
6 avTo^;, d\Xd rd p,ep aKOPTa todp vttpcop avTov rj 

150 




BRUTUS XII. 3-xiii. I 

ission, wlien Favonius had answered that civil 
war was worse than illegal monarchy ; and Statilius 
had declared that it did not become a wise and 
sensible man to be thrown into turmoil and peril for 
the sake of feeble and foolish folk. Labeo, however, 
who was present, argued against them both. At that 
time, on the ground that the question was rather 
difficult and hard to decide, Brutus held his peace, 
but afterwards imparted his purpose to Labeo, who 
readily concurred in it. Then it was decided to bring 
over to their cause the other Brutus, surnamed Albi- 
nus ; ^ in other ways he was not an enterprising nor 
even a courageous man, but the large number of 
gladiators whom he was maintaining for the Roman 
spectacles made him powerful, and he had Caesar's 
confidence. When Cassius and Labeo discussed the 
matter with him, he would make no answer ; but he 
had a private interview by himself with Brutus, and 
on learning that he was leader of the enterprise, 
readily agreed to co-operate. The most and best of 
the rest also were won over by the reputation in 
which Brutus stood. And although they exchanged 
neither oaths nor sacred pledges, they all kept the 
undertaking so much to themselves and were so 
secret in carrying it out together that, although it 
was foretold by the gods in prophecies and oracles 
and sacrificial omens,^ no one would believe in it. 

XIII. Now Brutus, since he had made the foremost 
men of Rome for dignity, family, and virtue, depen- 
dent on himself, and since he understood all the 
danger involved, in public tried to keep his thoughts 
to himself and under control ; but at home, and at 
night, he was not the same man. Sometimes, in spite 

^ Cf. Caesar, chapter Ixiv. ^ Cf. Caesar, chapter Ixiii. 
VOL. VI F '5^ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(f>povTh i^icpepe, ra Be fxaXkov ivSvofievo'^ rq> 
Xoyiafxa) koX Siarpi/Scov ev ral^ airopiai^ ovk 
IXdvdave rrjv jvval/ca avvavairavoiievrjv, on fxe- 
(TT6<i icTTi rapa'xrj^ di]6ov<i /cal kvkXcI tl nrap 
eavTM Sva(j)opov /BovXevfia koX hvae^eXiKTOV. 

2 'H he ilopKLa Ovydryp fjuev, wairep etpr^rat, 
KttTcoi^o? Tjv, el^e S' avrrjv 6 B/oouro? dve'\jno<; wv 
ouK €K irapOevia';, dWd rod Trporepov reXevrt]- 
aavTOf; dvhpo^ eXafSe Koprjv ovaav en /cal iraihiov 
exovaav ef efcelvov /iifcpov, (p Bu/3Xo9 rjv ovojia' 
Kai n ^LpXthLOV fiLKpov aTTOfjivrj/iiovev/idroyv 
BpovTOV jeypa/ifjievov vtt' avrov SLaacti^erai.. 

3 (f)cX6aTopjo<; 8' rj TLop/Cia koX (piXavhpo^ ovaa 
KOI p^earr) (f)povrjp,aTO(; vovv exovro^;, ov irporepov 
eirey^eiprjaev dvepeaOai rov dvhpa irepl rcov 
diToppi^TWV t) XajSeiv eavrrjs Toiavrijv huiireLpav. 
Xa^ovaa p.a)(aipiov a> rov<i 6vv')(a<; ol Kovpel<^ 
d<l)ai poverty koI irdcra'i e^eXdaaaa rov OaXdfxov 
rd^ OTraSou?, rofirjv eve/BaXe tw pi'rjpSf /Sadetav, 
axrre pvaiv aifxarof; ttoXXtjv yeveaOai koX per a 
^LKpov 68vva<; re veaviKa^; /cal ^pi./ccoEet<; Trvperovf; 

4 emXa^elv e/c rod rpavp^aro^. dy(ovL(JovTo<i Be 
rod BpovTOV Kal 8va^opovvTO<; ev d/cp,f} r^? 
dXyr)B6vo<i ovaa BteXex^i] 7rpo<; avrov ovro)*;' 
*' 'Eyco, Bpovre, Kdrcovof; ovaa Ovydrrjp et9 rov 
aov eBoOrjv oIkov ov^ oiairep at iraXXaKevopLevai, 
KOiTr]<; pede^ouaa /cal Tpa7re^7]<; p,6vov, dXXd 
K0iV(ov6<; pLev dyaOwv elvat, koiv(ovo<; Be dviapcov. 
rd puev ovv ad rrdvra irepl rov ydpov dpep^irra' 
rfov Be Trap' ep,ov rt? diroBei^L's rj ')(^dpi^, el pn^re 
aot, 7rdOo<i diropprjrov avvBioiaw p,i]Te (ftpovriBa 

6 7rtcrT€&)9 Beop£vr]v; olB^ on yvpai/cela (pvats 



I 



BRUTUS XIII. 1-5 



of himself, his anxious thoughts would rouse him out 
of sleep, and sometimes, when he was more than 
ever immersed in calculation and beset with per- 
plexities, his wife, who slept by his side, perceived 
that he was full of unwonted trouble, and was re- 
volving in his mind some difficult and complicated 
plan. 

Porcia, as has been said, was a daughter of Cato, 
and when Brutus, who was her cousin, took her to 
wife, she was not a virgin ; she was^ however, still 
very young, and had by her deceased husband ^ a 
little son whose name was Bibulus. A small book 
containing memoirs of Brutus was written by him, 
and is still extant. Porcia, being of an affectionate 
nature, fond of her husband, and full of sensible 
pride, did not try to question her husband about his 
secrets until she had put herself to the following- 
test. She took a little knife, such as barbers use to 
cut the finger nails, and after banishing all her at- 
tendants from her chamber, made a deep gash in 
her thigh, so that there was a copious flow of blood, 
and after a little while violent pains and chills and 
fever followed from the wound. Seeing that Brutus 
was disturbed and greatly distressed, in the height 
of her anguish she spoke to him thus : " Brutus, I 
am Cato's daughter, and I was brought into tliy 
house, not, like a mere concubine, to share thy bed 
and board merely, but to be a partner in thy joys, 
and a partner in thy troubles. Thou, indeed, art 
faultless as a husband ; but how can I show thee any 
grateful service if I am to share neither thy secret suf- 
fering nor the anxiety which craves a loyal confidant ? 
I know that woman's nature is thought too weak to 

^ Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, colleague of Caesar in the 
consulship of 59 B.C. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

atrOevrj^ ZoKel \6yov iveyKelv diropprjrov' d\\* 
€(TTL T£9, 0) BpoOre, Kal t/oo^?}? dyaOiji; koI 
6/iii\ia<; XPV^'^V'^ ^^'i r)9o^ lax^'i' i/iol he Kal to 
Karwi^o? elvac Ovyarepa kol to BpovTOv yvvacKa 
irpoaeaTiv oh irpoTepov fiev tjttov eTreTroiOeLv, 
vvv 3' epbavTTjV eyvwKa /cal tt/oo? ttovov drjTTr^TOV 
6 elvaiy raur' elirovcra heiKwaLv avTU) to Tpavpa 
Kal 8i7]yeLTaL ttjp irelpav. 6 8' eKTrXayeU koI 
dvaT€Lva<; Ta(; yelpa^ eirev^aTO Bovvac tov<^ 0€ou<; 
avTM KaTopOovvTi TTjv TTpd^tv dvhpl TlopKLa<; 
d^bo) (^avTjvai. kol tots pev dveXdp/Save Tifv 
yvvalKa. 

XIV. Ilpoypa<f)€io'7j^ Se ^ofX?}?, et? r/v i7rLBo^o<; 
Tjv d(^i^€cr6ai K^alaap, eyvcoaav e7ri')(^€ip€LV fcal 
yap dOpooL peT dW/jXcov dwiroTTTO}^ eaeaOai 
Tore, Kal TraVra? e^eiv opov tov'^ dpiaTOv^ Kal 
irpcoTovfi dvSpa<;, epyov peydXov 'TTpax9evT0<; ev- 

2 dv<; dvTiXap^avopevov^ t/}? €\ev6€pLa<^. ehoKei 
he Kal TO Tov tottov Oelov elvai Kal irpo<i avTwv 
(TTod yap r)v pia t6)v ire pi to OeaTpov, e^eSpav 
e^ovaa ev fj Ilopirrjiov rt? gIkcov eiaTrJKei, T^}9 
TToXeo)? aTr]aapevr]<^ otg rat? aToal^ Kal tw 
OeaTpw tov tottov eKelvov eKoaprjaev. 6i9 TavT)jv 

OVV T) (TVyK\t]T0<i €Ka\elTO TOV ^lapTLOV p,r)v6<i 

paXicTTa peaovvTO^ (elSovf; MapTia<; ttjv -qixepav 
Voapaloi KaXovcriv), coaTe Kal haipwv rt? ehoKei 
tov dvSpa T7J Uopirriiov BIkt) irpocrd^eiv. 

3 'EX^ouo-?;? he ttj^; r)pepa<^ B/ooOto? ixev vtto^co- 
adpevof; eyy^eiplhiov p^ovr]^ avveihvia<i t)]<; yvvaLKo<; 
irporfKOev, ol h^ dWoL TTyOo? K^daaiov dOpoiaOevTe^ 
rov viov avTov to KaXovpevov dvhpelov ipdTiov 
dvaXap^dvovTa KaTrjyov el<; dyopdv. eKeWev he 

^54 



BRUTUS XIII. 5-xiv. 3 

endure a secret ; but good rearing and excellent 
companionship go far towards strengthening the char- 
acter, and it is my happy lot to be both the daughter 
of Cato and the wife of Brutus. Before this I put 
less confidence in these advantages, but now I know 
that I am superior even to pain." Thus having spoken, 
she showed him her wound and explained her test ; 
whereupon Brutus, amazed, and lifting his hands to 
heaven, prayed that he might succeed in his under- 
taking and thus show himself a worthy husband of 
Porcia. Then he sought to restore his wife. 

XIV. A meeting of the senate having been called, 
to which it was expected that Caesar would come, 
they determined to make their attempt there ; for 
they could then gather together in numbers without 
exciting suspicion, and would have all the best and fore- 
most men in one place, who, once the great deed was 
done, would straightway espouse the cause of liberty. 
It was thought, too, that the place of meeting was 
providentially in their favour ; for it was one of the 
porticoes about the theatre, containing a session- 
room in which stood a statue of Pompey. This statue 
the city had erected in his honour when he adorned 
that place with the porticoes and the theatre. ^ 
Hither, then, the senate was summoned about the 
middle of March ^ (the Romans call the day the Ides 
of March), so that some heavenly power seemed to 
be conducting Caesar to Pompey's vengeance. 

When the day came, Brutus girt on a dagger, to 
the knowledge of his wife alone, and went forth, 
while the rest assembled at the house of Cassius and 
conducted his son, who was about to assume what was 
called the " toga virilis," down to the forum. Thence 

» Cf. Pompey, xl. 5. * March 15, 44 B.O. 

155 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Trdvre^ et? ttjv Ylofjunjiov aroav 6/jL^a\6vT€<; Bi€- 
rpifiov, to? avTLKa K.aiaapo<i a^L^ofxevov irpo^ 

4 Tr)v avyKXrjTov. €v6a Sr] fidXiara tcov dvhpoiv 
ro cLTraOe'^ koI irapa rd Beivd Ka6e(Try]Ko<^ edav- 
fiaaev dv rt? etSo)? to peWov, on TroXXot? Sid to 
(TTpaTTjyeLV dvay/ca^o/jLepoi ')(pr}paTL^€iv ov p,6vov 

TTyOaft)? r]KpOO)VTO TCaV ivTVJX^VOVTWV KoX BLa<f)€po- 

pivcov wcnrep a-)(^o\d^ovTe<;, dWd koX ra? Kpiaei^; 
€Kd(TT0i<^ aKpi^el^i Kol peTd yvot)/jir]<; eSlSocrav, 

5 eV^yLteXw? 7rpoaexovT6fi. iirel Be ri? pr) /BovXo- 
pevo^ Bi/crjv vTrocr^ecv eTreKaXelTO J^aLcrapa Kai 
TToXvf; riv ^ocov koI papTVpopevo^, diro/SXexIraf; 6 
B/9oDto? eh Tov<; 7rap6vTa<;, ** 'E/xe Katcrayo," 
elrrev, " ovTe KcoXvei iroielv ra KaTd tou? vopov^ 
0VT6 KwXvaec.'^ 

XY. KatTOi TToXXd Oopv^coBrj KaTd tv)(i)v 
auTOi? irpoaeireae' irpcoTov pev Ka\ pdXiGTa to 
ffpaBvvecv top K.aiaapa t?}? 7)pepa<; 7rpor]Kovcn]<; 
Kal BvaiepovvTa /caTex^crOai pev viro Trj<; yvuaiKo^ 
oXkol, KwXveaOai Be irpoeXOelv virb tcov pdvTewv. 

2 BevTepov Be Kda/ca tcov avveiBoTcov evl irpooreX- 
6(i)V TL^ Kal Xapopevo^ t?}<? Be^td^, " Su pev,^ 
elirev, " direKpy^jro) to aTToppiiTOV, w KdcTKa, 
TT/oo? r)pd<;, B/3oDto<? Be poi irdvTa pep/pv/cevJ^ 
eKTrXayevTCi Be tov KdcrKa yeXd(ja<; eKeivof;, 
" HoOev,'^ e(f)r}, " ra^^eo)? ovtco^, o) paKupie, ire- 
7rXovTr)Ka<i mctt eh dyopavopiav aTroBveaOai;" 
irapd ToaovTOV p,ev 6 KdaKa^; rjXOe (KpaXeh 

3 dpLCpL^oXla irpoeaOai to dTTopprjTOV avTov Be 
iS6 






BRUTUS XIV. 3-xv. 3 



they all hastened to the portico of Pompey and 
waited there, expecting that Caesar would straight- 
way come to the meeting of the senate. There any 
one who knew what was about to happen would 
have been above all things astonished at the indiffer- 
ence and composure of the men on the brink of this 
terrible crisis. Many of them were praetors and 
therefore obliged to perform the duties of their 
office, wherein they not only listened calmly to 
those who had petitions to offer or quarrels to com- 
pose, as if they had ample time, but also took 
pains to give their verdicts in every case with accu- 
racy and judgment. And when a certain man who 
was unwilling to submit to the verdict of Brutus 
appealed to Caesar with loud cries and attestations, 
Brutus turned his gaze upon the bystanders and 
said : " Caesar does not prevent me from acting 
according to the laws, nor will he prevent me." 

XV. And yet many things occurred to surprise 
and disturb them. First and foremost, though the 
day was advancing, Caesar delayed his coming, being 
detained at home by his wife because his omens were 
unpropitious,^ and prevented from going forth by 
the soothsayers. In the second place, some one 
came up to Casca, one of the conspirators, took him 
by the hand, and said : " You hid the secret from 
us, Casca, but Brutus has told me everything." And 
when Casca was dumb with amazement, the man 
burst out laughing and said : " How did you get so 
rich on a sudden, my good fellow, as to stand for the 
aedileship ? " So near did Casca come, in the mistake 
caused by the man's ambiguity, to disclosing the 

* Cf. Caeaar, Ixiii. 5. 

»57 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

BpovTOV Kal Kdaaiov avrjp fiovkevTLKO^ YioiriXio^; 
Aaiva<; aairaadijuevo'^ TrpoOvfioTepov /cal yjndvpL- 
(Ta<i rjpefjLa, " Xwev-x^ofiai,'' ^rjalv, " v/juv i/creXelv 
a KaTCL vovv ex^Te kol irapafceXevofJuai /jlt) fipaBv- 
veiv ov yap aLWirarai to Trpdjfia. ' Kal ravr 
eiTTODV cLTreaTr] ttoWtjv vTroyJrlav ifijSaXoDV tov 
TTeTTvadai Trjv irpa^iv. 

'El^ TOVTM he Tt? OLKodeP €$€1 TT/JO? TOV ^pOVTOV 

4 dyyeWcov avTW ttjv yvval/ca 6v7]aKetv. rj yap 
HopKua 7rpo9 TO /jueWov eKiraO^f; oixra Kal to 
ljLeye6o<; /jlt) <j>6povaa tt}? (jipovTiSo^; eavTrjv re 
fi6\i<i oXkoi KaTelye, koI 7rpo<i irdvTa Oopufiov 
Kal ^oijvy coaTrep at KaTdcr^eToi rot? ^aK-^^^LKol*; 
irddeaiv, e^aTTOvaa twv fiev elaiovTwv air 
dyopd<; CKaaTOv dveKpivev 6 tl irpdTTOL BpovTO<;, 

5 eTepov^ Be o-fi^e^w? efeVeyLtTTG. Te\o<; Be tov %/)o- 991 
vov /j,rJKo<s \ajjL^dvovTO<; ovKeT dvTel')(^ev rj tov 
(r(op.aTo<; Bvvap,i<;, dX)C e^eXvOr] Kal KaTe/iapac- 
veTO Tr](; -vI^u^t}? d\vova7j<; Bid Ttjv diropiav Kal 
irapeXOelv fiev eh to Bco/idTiov ovk ecfiOij, rrepL- 
laTaTo 3' avT7]v, coairep €Tvy)(^avev, ev jxeaw Kade- 
t^opeir]v XtTToOvfiLa Kal 0dfjL^o<; djuy^avov, ij re 
XP^^ p-€Ta^oXr)v eXd/jb^ave Kal Trjv (l)Q)vr}v eire- 

6 (TXV'O TTapTdiraaLv. ai Be OepdrraivaL tt/oo? t^j' 
oyjrLv dvwXoXv^av, Kal twv yeiTovcov avvBpapov- 
Tcop eirl 6vpa'=; Ta^^ TTporfXOe (f)i]/J^r) Kal BieBoOrj 
X0709 CO? T€dv7]KVLa<i avTrj<^. ov ix)]v dXX! eKelmjv 
jiev dvaXdiJuy^aaav Iv /Spaxel Kal Trap' eavTjj 
yevofievTjv at yvvaLKe<; lOepdirevov 6 Be B/ooOto? 
VTTO TOV Xoyov irpoaTTeaovTO'^ avTw avveTapdxOrj 
jxev, o)? €Iko<;, ov p.r}v ye KaTeXtire to kolvov ovB' 
eppvTj 7r/309 TO OLKelov VTTO TOV 7rd6ov<i, 

.58 



I 



BRUTUS XV. 3-6 



secret. Moreover, Brutus and Cassius were greeted 
more warmly than usual by Popilius Laenas, a senator, 
who then whispered quietly to them : " I join you in 
praying for the accomplishment of what you have 
in mind, and exhort you not to delay, for the matter 
is on men's tongues." Having said this, he went 
away, leaving them full of suspicion that their under- 
taking had become known. 

At this juncture, too, a messenger from his house 
came running to Brutus with the tidings that his 
wife was dead. For Porcia, being distressed about 
what was impending and unable to bear the weight 
of her anxiety, could with difficulty keep herself at 
home, and at every noise or cry, like women in the 
Bacchic frenzy, she would rush forth and ask every 
messenger who came in from the forum how Brutus 
was faring, and kept sending out others continually. 
Finally, as the time grew long, her bodily powers 
could no longer endure the strain, but were relaxed 
and enfeebled as her perplexities threatened to drive 
her mad. She had not time to go to her chamber, 
but just as she was, sitting in the midst of her 
servants, she was overwhelmed with faintness and 
helpless stupor, her colour fled, and her speech was 
utterly stayed. Her maids shrieked at the sight, 
and since the neighbours came running in a crowd 
to the door, a report speedily went forth and a story 
was spread abroad that she was dead. However, she 
revived in a short time, came to herself, and was 
cared for by her women ; but Brutus, though he 
was confounded, naturally, by the startling tale, 
nevertheless did not abandon his public duty, nor 
was he driven by his affliction to dwell on his private 
concerns. 

159 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XVI. ^HBrj he K^ala-ap aTnjyyeWero irpoaicnv 
iv (f)op6L(p Ko/jbt^o/jievo^. iypcoKet yap lirl rot? 
lepoL<; ddvfiwv fiijhev eiri/cvpovv Tore rcov fjiei^o- 
vcov, oKX' vTTep^dWecrOaL GK'qy^djjievo'^ dcrOeveiav. 
eK^avTi 3' avTw rod ^opeiov TrpocrpveU IIoTrtA-io? 
AaLva<;, eKelvo^ 6 /j,iKpa> irpoaOev ev^afxevo^ rot? 
Trepl ^povrov eiTLTvyxdveLv koI KaropOovv, BceXi- 
yero irXeiw XP^^^^ icfyto-rap^evw kol irpoaexovri 

2 TOP vovv. ol Be avvwfiorav (XeyeaOo) yap ovt(o<;) 
Tr)<; p.ev <j>Q)vi]<; ovk i7raiovTe<; avTOv, TeKpbaipopsvoi 
S' a<^* c5i^ inrevoovv jjlyjvvctlv elvat t^? eirL^ovXr}'^ 
rrjv KOLVoXoyiav, dveireaov re raU yv(i>fxaL<;, Kal 
7r/309 dW't]\ov<; e^Xe-yjrav dv6op,o\oyovfjLevoi, Bid 
Tcov irpocTcoTrayv &)? XPV f^V Trepipeveiv avWrjyjrLv, 

3 dW 6vdv<i aTToOvi^aKeiv Bi avrodv. Kaaalov S* 
r}Br) Kal tlvcov aXkcov ra? x^lpa^i eTri/Be^XrjKOTcov 
Tal<i \a^aL<; vtto rd Ip^dria Kal aTrcofievcov rd 
eyX'^ipiBia, ^povro^ iyKariBoov tm rov Aalva 
a)(rjpaTi Beofxevov airovBrjv Kal ovx} Karrfyo- 
povvTO<i, i(f)06y^aTo pev ovBev Bid to ttoXXoi)? 
dWoTptov; dvafieixlxOcit', (^aiBpo) Be T(p rrpoacoirw 

4 Tou? irepl K.dcraiov eOdppvve. Kal perd piKpov 
6 Aalva^ TTjv Be^idv rod Kaiaapo<; KaTa<^i\r)aa<; 
airearr}, (j)avepo<; yep6pevo<; co? vTrep eaurov Kal 
T(ov avra> tivo^ Biacpepoproiv eiroielro rrjv 
evrev^iv. 

XVII. T^9 Be l3ov\rj<i eh Tr)v e^eBpav TrpoeicreX- 
6ov(Tr)(; ol pev dWoi rov Bi(f)pov rov K.aiaapo<^ 
Trepiearrjaav co? evTvy^dveiv ri peX\ovTe<; avrw. 
Kal K.da<7iov pev Xeyerai rpeTrovra to irpoawirov 
€i<; TTjv eiKova rov UopTrytov irapaKaXelv coairep 

r6o 



I 



BRUTUS XVI. i-xvii. I 



XVI. And now word was brought that Caesar was 
coming, borne on a litter. For in consequence of the 
dejection caused by his omens, he had deteraiined 
not to sanction any important business at that time, 
but to postpone it, under pretext of indisposition. 
As he descended from his Htter, Popilius Laenas, 
who, a little while before, had wished Brutus success 
in his enterprise, hurried up to him and conversed 
with him for some time, and Caesar stood and listened 
to him. The conspirators (for so they shall be called) 
could not hear what he said, but judging from their 
suspicions that what he told Caesar was a revelation 
of their plot, they were disconcerted in their plans, 
and mutually agreed by looks which passed between 
them tliat they must not await arrest, but at once 
dispatch themselves. Cassius and some others, indeed, 
had already grasped the handles of the daggers be- 
neath their robes and were about to draw them, when 
Brutus observed from the mien of Laenas that he 
was asking eagerly for something and not denouncing 
anyone. Brutus said nothing, because many were 
about him who were not in the plot, but by the 
cheerfulness of his countenance gave courage to 
Cassius and his friends. And after a little while 
Laenas kissed Caesar's hand and withdrew. He 
had made it clear that it was in his own behalf and 
on something which closely concerned himself that 
he had consulted Caesar. 

XVII. When the senate had preceded Caesar into 
the session-room, the rest of the conspirators stationed 
themselves about Caesar's chair, as if they intended 
to have some conference with him, and Cassius is said 
to have turned his face towards the statue of Pompey 
and to have invoked it, as if it had understanding ; 

i6i 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aladavojievov, Tpe^Mvio^ Be irepl ra^; 6vpa<^ 
^AvTcovwv iTrio"7ra(Td/jL6VO<; koX irpoao/jLiXcov efo) 
•2 KaT€(T)(^e. ILaiaapL Se elatovTi fiev rj avyK\r)TO<; 
vTre^aviarrj, KaOe^ofievov 8* euOv^ eKelvoi irepi- 
kayov aOpooi, TiWiov J^i/ji/Bpov ef eavrcov irpo- 
^dWovre^ virep dSeXcpov (pvydBo^ Beofxevov 
Kol (TvveBeovTo 7rdvT€<;, dirrofievoi re ')(^eipwv koX 
(TTepva Koi K€4)a\r)v xaTecpiXovv. aTroTpL^Ofievov 
Be Td<^ B€7](T€L<i TO jrpcoTOv, eW^, a><; ouk dviecrav, 
e^avLaraixevov ^ia, TiXkio^ fxev diJi(fioTepaL<; ral^; 
')(€pcrlv etc Tcop w/jlcou Kareairaae to ifidrLov, 
KdcrKa<i Be Trpwro? (elar^Kei yap oiriadep) 
dvaairdaa^ to ^l(J)o<; BieXavvei, ovk eU /3d0o<iy 

3 irapd top m/iov. dvri\afj,6avo/jb€vov Be r^? Xa^r)^; 
Tov }^aLcrapo<; koX fieya 'I^co/ialcrrl dvafcpayovTO^;, 
"^Avoaie Kda/ca, rl Tro^et?;" eKeLvo<; 'KXX7]uiaTl 
TOV dBeX(l)bv irpoaayopevaa'i eKeXevae ^orjOelv. 
TjBrj Be iraiofievo^ vtto ttoXXmv kol kv/cXw irepi- 
^Xeircov koX BccocraaOac /3ovX6/uei'o<;, o)? elBe 
IRpovTov eXKOfievou ^L(f)o<; eV avrov, rrjv %etpa 
ToO YidaKa Kparcov df^rjKe, fcal tm l/uaTLW ttjv 
K6(f)aXr)V eyKaXvy\rdp.evo<^ irapeBwKe ro aco/ia Tal<; 

4 7rXr)yaL<i. ol S* d(f)eLBa)<; dvaireTrXeyiievoi ttoXXols 
irepl ro crcofMa ')(^pd)iJLevov toI<; ^Icfteaiv dXXrjXovi 

€TLTpCOaKOV, COCTTe KOL BpOVTOV et? T^I/ X^^P^ 

7rXi]yT]v Xa^elv rev (f)6vov crvv€(f)a7rT6fi€vov, Trtyu,- 992 
TrXacrOaL Be rod aiparo^; dirapra^. 

XVIII. OvTco B' diTod avovTof; avrov B/ooOto? 
fiep eh fieaov irpoeXOcop i^ovXero Xeyeip Koi 

162 



I 



BRUTUS XVII. i-xviii. I 



>ut Trebonius drew Antony into conversation at 
he door and kept him outside.^ As Caesar entered, 
he senate rose in his honour, but as soon as he was 
eated the conspirators surrounded him in a body, 
j)utting forward Tullius Cimber of their number with 
I plea in behalf of his brother, who was in exile. 
The others all joined in his plea, and clasping 
Caesar's hands, kissed his breast and his head. At 
irst, Caesar merely rejected their pleas, and then, 
when they would not desist, tried to free himself 
IVom them by force. At this, Tullius tore Caesar's 
robe from his shoulders with both hands, and 
Casca, who stood behind him, drew his dagger 
and gave him the first stab, not a deep one, 
near the shoulder. Caesar caught the handle of 
the dagger and cried out loudly in Latin : " Im- 
pious Casca, what doest thou ? " Then Casca, ad- 
dressing his brother in Greek, bade him come to his 
aid. And now Caesar had received many blows and 
was looking about and seeking to force his way 
through his assailants, when he saw Brutus setting 
upon him with drawn dagger. At this, he dropped 
the hand of Casca which he had seized, covered his 
head with his robe, and resigned himself to the 
dagger-strokes. The conspirators, crowding eagerly 
about the body, and plying their many daggers, 
wounded one another, so that Brutus also got a 
wound in the hand as he sought to take part in 
the murder, and all were covered with blood. 

XVIII. Caesar thus slain, Brutus went out into the 
middle of the session-room and tried to speak, and 

^ In Caesar, Ixvi. .3, Brutus Albinus is incorrectly said to 
have detained Antony in conversation. Cf. Appian, B.C. it 
U7, «^nd Cicero's letter to Trebonius {Epist. x. 28). 

163 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaTelye Oappvvwv ttjv o-vyKXrjTov' rj 3' viro Beovf} 
€(f)€V'y€V aTciKTcof;, Kol Trepl ra? dvpa<; wdiafxo^ 
Yjv Koi rdpa'x^o';, ovS6vo<; Sia)KOVTO<; ovBe Kare- 
7r6iyovTO<;. lax^P^^ J^P iBeSoKTo firjBeva Kreiveiv 
erepov, aWa iravra^ eirl rr^v eXevOepiav avaKa- 

2 XelaOai. Koi toZ? jxev aWoi^ iracriv, OTrrjviKa 
Biecr/coTTovvTO rrjv irpd^iv, rjpeaKev ^Avroiviov 
eTTLacpdrreiv K^aucrapi, fxovap')(^LKov dvhpa kol 
v^piarrjV, la^vv re TreTTOirjp^evov o/jliKlu koi avpij- 
deia irpb's to (TrparKOTiKov, kol pbaKicrO^ on rat 
(f)va€t ao/3apa> kol fieyaXoTrpdy/novc irpoaeiXijcpei 
TO tt}? vTrarela^; d^iwfxa rore Kataapt awdp-^^wv. 
dX\d BpoOro? iviarTj irpo^ to ^ovXev/iia, Trpayrov 
fiev la')(^vpL^6jjLei'o<; tw BiKaiw, Sevrepov 8' vtto- 

3 rideU iXTTiSa t^? fMera/SoXrjf;. ov yap aTreyivco- 
aK€v €V(f>vd KOL (ptXoTt/jLOV dvBpa Kol S6^r]<; 
ipaarrjp top ^Avtcovlov, eKiroScov Katcra/)o? yevo- 
fiepov, crvv6(f)dylrecr6aL rfj TrarpcSt t^? e\ev6epia<^, 
iinaTraaOevra t& ^']Xq) tt/jo? to kuXov vit* 
avTWV. ovTco fxev ^ Avrcoviov BpouTO? irepieiroLrj- 
aev ev Be tw rore (po^w fiera^aXcov iaOfjra 
BrjiMoriKTjv e^vyev. 

4 Ot he Trepl "BpovTov et? to KaTreTcoXiov e)(^co- 
povv, rjjiayiJbevoi 7 a? 'X.^lpa^;, kol tcl ^i(f>7] yv/xva 
BeiKvvvTe<i eirl ttjv eXevOeplav irapeKaXovv tov<^ 
TToXiTa^. TO fJiev ovv irpoirov rjaav dXaXayjioi, 
Koi Biahpofial tw irdOei KaTO, TV)(r]v eiriyLvop^evat 
TrXeiova tov Oopv^ov eTToirjcrav' o)? S' ovTe (f)6vo<i 
dXXo<; ovO* dpirayrj tlvo^; eyivsTO tmv Keip^evwv, 
dappovvTe^ dveSaivov o'i Te ^ovXevTal kol to)v 

BtJ/jLOTCOV TToXXol TTyOO? T0V<i dpBpa<i 6t9 TO KaTTC- 



164 



kii 



BRUTUS XVIII. 1-4 



would have detained the senators there with en- 
couraging words ; but they fled in terror and con- 
tusion, and there was a tumultuous crowding at the 
door, although no one pressed upon them in pursuit. 
For it had been firmly decided not to kill any one 
else, but to summon all to the enjoyment of liberty. 
All the rest of the conspirators, indeed, when they 
were discussing their enterprise, had been minded 
to kill Antony as well as Caesar, since he was a 
lawless man and in favour of a monarchy, and had 
acquired strength by familiar association with the 
soldiery; and particularly because to his natural 
arrogance and ambition he had added the dignity of 
the consulship, and was at that time a colleague of 
Caesar. But Brutus opposed the plan, insisting in 
the first place on a just course, and besides, holding 
out a hope of a change of heart in Antony. For he 
would not give up the belief that Antony, who was 
a man of good parts, ambitious, and a lover of fame, 
if once Caesar were out of the way, would assist his 
country in attaining her liberty, when their example 
had induced him to follow emulously the nobler 
course. Thus Antony's life was saved by Brutus ; 
but in the fear which then reigned, he put on a 
plebeian dress and took to flight. 

And now Brutus and his associates went up to tl\e 
Capitol, their hands smeared with blood, and dis- 
playing their naked daggers they exhorted the 
citizens to assert their liberty. At first, then, there 
were cries of terror, and the tumult was increase^ 
by wild hurry ings to and fro which succeeded the 
disaster ; but since there were no further murders and 
no plundering of property, the senators and many 
of the common people took heart and went up to 

165 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

5 T(o\iov. ci6poia6evTO<; he rov irXi^dov^ BceKe'^Or] 
BpouTO? iiraycoya rov Si]/jlov koI Trpeirovra roU 
ireirpayixevoLf;. eTraLvovvTwv he Koi Karievat 
^0(M)VT(Dv 6appovvTe<s fcare/Sacvov ei? ayopdv, oi 
fjuev aWoi avveTTo/ievot fier aWrfkwv, l^povrov 
he iroWol rcov iincfiavoyv TrepieTTOvre^ ev fiiaco 
irdvv \a/jL7rpa)f; Karrjyov diro Trj<; aKpa<i koX 

6 KaTecTTrjaav eirl rcov ip/SoXcov. Trpo? he r-qv 
oyjnv ol TToWoL, Kaiirep p,Lydhe<i ovre^ kol irape- 
(TKevaapevoL Oopv^elv, hieTpeaav koi to peWov 
ehe')(0VT0 K6(7p,(p Koi aiwrrfj. irpoeXOovro^ h' 
avTov irdvre<i rjcrv^lav rw \6y(p 7rape(7)(^ov' on 
h* ov Tracn 7rp6<; rjhovrjv eyeyovei to epyov, ehrjXco- 
aav dp^ap,evov Xeyeiv Klvva koX /caTrjyopelp 
l^aiaapo^ dvapprjyvvpevot Trpo<^ 6pyt]v koi KaKco'i 
TOP J^Lvvav \eyovTe<;, wcfts irdXiv tou<; drhpa^ 

7 6t9 TO J^aireTcoXLov direXOe'lv. evOa hr) hehico^; 
TToXiopKLav 6 BpouTo? direTrepiTe tou? dplaTov; 
tS)V avvava^dvTcov, ovk d^ioov r^? alYia^ py] 
psTe^ovTa^ avT0V<i avvvirohueadaL tov Kivhvvov. 

XTX. Ov p.r]V dXXd TTJ vcFTepaia tt}? fiovXi]<; 
arvveXOovarjfi eh to tt}? F?}? lepoVy 'Avtcovlov he 
Kol YlXdyKov KOL K^iKepcovo^ elirovTcov Trepl dp^vrj- 
aTia<^ KOI opovoLa<i, eho^e prj ptovov dhtiav elvat 
Tot? dvhpdcriv, dXXa koI yvcopiijv virep Tipwv 
irpoOelvai tov<; VTrdTov^. koi tuvt^ eTriylrrjcfxad- 
2 pievoi hieXvOrjaav. ^Avtcovlov he tov viov et? to 
K.a7reT(t)Xiov opypevaovTa 7^€pL^|ravT0fi KaTTjXOov 
ol irepl HipovTOv, darrraapLOL t6 fcal he^icaaei^i 

1 66 



I 



BRUTUS XVIII. 4-xix. 2 



the men on the Capitol. When the multitude was 
assembled there, Brutus made a speech calculated 
to win the people and befitting the occasion. The 
audience applauding his words and crying out to him 
to come down from the Capitol, the conspirators took 
heart and went down into the forum. The rest of 
them followed along in one another's company, but 
Brutus was surrounded by many eminent citizens, 
escorted with great honour down from the citadel, 
and placed on the rostra. At sight of him the mul- 
titude, although it was a mixed rabble and prepared 
to raise a disturbance, was struck with awe, and 
awaited the issue in decorous silence. Also when he 
came forward to speak, all paid quiet attention to 
his words ; but that all were not pleased with what 
had been done was made manifest when Cinna began 
to speak and to denounce Caesar. The multitude 
broke into a rage and reviled Cinna so bitterly that 
the conspirators withdrew again to the Capitol. There 
Brutus, Avho feared that they would be besieged, sent 
away the most eminent of those who had come up 
with them, not deeming it right that they should 
incur the danger too, since they had no share in the 
guilt. 

XIX. However, on the following day the senate 
met in the temple of Tellus, and Antony, Plancus, 
and Cicero spoke in favour of amnesty and concord. 
It was then voted not only that the conspirators 
should have immunity, but also that the consuls 
should lay before the people a measure to pay them 
honours. After passing these votes, the senate broke 
up. Then, wlien Antony had sent his son to the 
Capitol as a hostage, Brutus and his associates came 
down, and there were salutations and greetings for 

167 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eyevovro iravrcov ava/nix^ivrcov. /cal K.daaiop 
fjLev ^AvT(t)Vio<; elcrria irapakafioDv, Bpovrov Be 
Ae7ri8o9, T0U9 8' aXXof?, w? rt? eZ;^e Trpo? e/caarov 
3 ^ avvrfdeia^ rj ^L\o(f)poavvr)^. afia S' "Q/iepa 
ttoXlv avveX06vT€(; ol fiovXevral irpwrov jxev 
^KvT(jdvi(p rt/jLCLfi ehoaav &)? KarairavaavTi rroXe- 
fjLcov i/jL<j)v\Lcov dp-^i]V' eirena twi^ irepl Bpovrov 
rjaav eiraivoL rcov irapovrcov, koX t€\o<; iirap^Lcbv 
hiavojJLai. . l^povrw fiev 'yap iyjrrjcpiaavTO Kp/]T7jv, 
Kaaaio) Be Al/Svtjv, Tpe^wvUp Be ^Aaiav koI 
lLifji(3pM ^iOvviav, T(p 3' erepcp Bpovro) rrjv irepl 
TOP ^UptBavov Tdkariav. 

XX. Mera Be ravra irepl rcov Kai,(Tapo<i Bia- 
07]K(ov KOI ra^r}? avrov \6ywv ep.7rea6vT(iiv, kol 
Tcov irepl Tov 'Avtcoplop d^iovprwp rat: re Bia- 
6?]Ka(; dpaypcoaOrjpac koX tov (Kop-aro^ eK(f)opdp 
yepeaOai, /xr/ KeKpv/j,pievr]p fjLr]8' drtp^op, co? /jlt] koI 
TOVTO irapo^vpr) top Brjpbop, Kdaaio^ piev la-^vpo)^ 
dpTeXeyep, el^e Be B/3oOto? kui crvpe^aypTjae, Bev- 

2 Tepop dpbapTelv tovto B6^a<;. koI yap \\pTCjopiov 
<^eiadpLepo<; alriap ea')(ep eTTLTei'^ccrac ttj avpay- 
pLoaia ^apvp Kal Bvap-a^op rroXepaop, Kal to, irepl 
Tr)P Ta<:f)r}P op 6 ^ApToypio^ rj^iov Tpoirop edaa<i 
yeveadai tov 7rapT0<; acpaXrjpat. irpcoTOv p.€P yap 
ip Tai<; BiaOijKaL<; Behofxepcop kut dpBpa 'Vwp,aLOt<i 
TTCLGL Bpaxp^MP e^BopLrj/copra irePTe Kal tw Bt]pL&> 
rS)P irepap tov iroTapbov ki]it(dp d7roXeXeipLpL€P(ov, 
ov pvp e<TTL Tv-)(ri^ lepop^ evpota Oavp^aaTrj Kal 

3 iToOof; avTOV tou^ TroXtra? elXep' eireiTa tov 
(T(i)pbaTO^ eh Tr)P dyopdp K0pLia6epT0<; ^ApT(t)PLO<; 
eiraipop, coairep edo<^ eVrt, Bce^eXOcop, Kal tcl 
TrXy'jOr] Kipovjuepa irpo^ top Xoyop opcop, eh olKToy 
1 63 



I 



BRUTUS XIX. 2-xx. 3 



all without discrimination. Cassius was taken home 
and entertained by Antony, Brutus by Lepidus, and 
the rest by their several comrades or friends. Early 
next morning the senate assembled again. In the 
first place, they gave a vote of thanks to Antony 
for having stopped an incipient civil war ; next, they 
passed a vote of commendation for the followers of 
Brutus who were present ; and finally, they distributed 
the provinces. It was voted that Brutus should have 
Crete, Cassius Africa, Trebonius Asia, Cimber Bi- 
thynia, and the other Brutus Cisalpine Gaul. 

XX. After this, the subjects of Caesar's will and 
of his burial came up for discussion. Antony de- 
manded that the will should be read publicly, and 
that the body should be carried forth to burial, not 
secretly, nor without honours, lest this also should 
exasperate the people. Cassius, indeed, vehemently 
opposed these measures, but Brutus yielded and 
agreed to them, thus making a second mistake, as it 
was thought. For by sparing Antony's life as he had 
done he incurred the charge of raising up against 
the conspirators a bitter and formidable foe ; and 
now, in allowing Caesar's funeral rites to be con- 
ducted as Antony demanded, he committed a fatal 
error. For, in the first place, when it was found 
that the will of Caesar gave to every single Roman 
seventy-five drachmas, and left to the people his 
gardens beyond the Tiber, where now stands a 
temple of Fortune, an astonishing kindliness and 
yearning for Caesar seized the citizens ; and in the 
second place, after Caesar's body had been brought 
to the forum, Antony pronounced the customary 
eulogy, and when he saw that the multitude were 
moved by his words, changed Ids tone to one of com- 

169 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fjueri^aXe, koX ttjv io-Orjra \a^(ov tt]v KaLa-apo<; 
T^/jLajfMevrjv aveinv^ev, eiriheiKvviievo'^ ra? hia- 
K07ra<; fcal tojp rpavfidrwv rb 7r\rj9o<;. tjv ovv 

4 I6elv ovhev en Koafiw '^ivb^ievov aXV ol yikv 
i^owv Tou? dvBpocf)6vov<i dvaiptlv, ol 8', wairep 
eVl KXo)Slov tov Brj/naycoyov irporepov, cltto to)v 
€pya(TTr]pLa>v rd ^dOpa Koi rd<; rpa7re^a<; dva- 
a7r(ovT€<; Kal avyKO/jLi^ovr€<; et? ravro irajifJieyeOr) 
TTVpdv evrjaav Kal tov veKpov lindevTe^ ev iieaw 
TToWcbv /lev iepo)v, ttoWcov B^ davXcov kol d^e- 
firfk(av TOTTWV KaO^yt^ov. a)(; Be to TTvp efeXa/x- 
y\rev, dWa^66ev d\\o<; jrpoacpepo/jLevoi Kal BaXov^ 
dvaaiTwvTe^ r}/j,L(f)\€KTov^ BieOeov errl Td<; olKia^ 

T(OV dvrjprjKOTOyV aVTOV &)? ifl7Tp7J(TOVT6<;. 

5 'AXV eKelvoi fxev ev 7r6(ppayfi€P0L irpoTepov 
direKpovaavTO tov klvBvvov tjv Be ti<; Kivva*;, 
'iroir}TLKO<; dvrjp, ovBev tt}? alTLa<; /leTex^ov, dWd 
Kal (plXof; }Laiaapo^ yeyova)<^. ovto<s ovap coero 
KaXov/Jievo<; viro Kaicrapo^ eirl Belirvov dpvelaOai, 
TOV Be Xiirapelv Kal fiid^eaOai, Te\o<; 5' dyeiv 
Xa^6/j.€vov tt}? ')(eipo<^ e/9 d')(avri toitov Kal aKOTei- 
vov, avTOV 8' cLKOvTa Kal Teda/jL/Srjfievov eireaOai. 

6 TavTTjv IBovTL Ti^v Qy^TLV avTO) avve^T] irvpeTTeiv 
Bid vvkt6<^' 6fiw<^ 8' ecoOev €KKo/jLi^ofievov tov 
a(ap,aT0<; alBovfJbevo<i pLtj irapelvai TrpofjXOev et? 
TOV o^Xov TjB-q Biaypiaivofievov. 6(f)deU Be Kal 
8o^a9 oup^ oairep r)v K^ivva^ elvai, dXX^ €K€lvo<; 6 
Kalaapa Trpo^ ttjv iKKXrjalav evay^^o^ XoLBoprjaa^;, 
Bie(nrda6r]» 

170 



I 



BRUTUS XX. 3-6 



passion, dnd taking the robe of Caesaf, all bloody as 
it was, unfolded it to view, pointing out the many 
places in which it had been pierced and Caesar 
wounded. All further orderly procedure was at an 
end, of course ; some cried out to kill tiie murderers 
and others, as formerly in the case of Clodius the 
demagogue,^ dragged from the shops the benches 
and tables, piled them upon one another, and thus 
erected a huge pyre ; on this they placed Caesar's 
body, and in the midst of many sanctuaries, asylums 
and holy places, burned it. Moreover, when the fire 
blazed up, people rushed up from all sides, snatchet 
up half-burnt brands, and ran round to the houses 
of Caesar's slayers to set them on fire. 

These men, indeed, having previously barricaded 
themselves well, repelled the danger ; but there was 
a certain Cinna, a poet, who had no share in the 
crime, but was actually a friend of Caesar's. This 
man dreamed that he was invited to supper by Caesar 
and declined to go, but that Caesar besought and 
constrained him, and finally took him by the hand 
and led him into a yawning and darksome place, 
whither he followed unwilling and bewildered. 
After having this vision, he fell into a fever which 
lasted all night ; but in the morning, nevertheless, 
when the funeral rites were held over Caesar's body, 
he was ashamed not to be present, and went out into 
the crowd when it was already becoming savage. He 
was seen, however, and being thought to be, not the 
Cinna that he really was, but the one who had re- 
cently reviled Caesar before the assembled people, 
he was torn in pieces. 

^ Clodius was killed in a street-brawl with Milo, 52 B.C. 
Cf. Cicero, xxv. 1. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXI. TovTO TO irddo^i fidXiara fxerd ye rr^v 
*AvTCt)viov /jb6Ta^oXr)V BeLaavTe<; ol irepl Bpovrov 
dve')(^ui)priaav Ik tt)? TroXeo)?* koI hierpiPov iv 
^AvtIm to TTpMTOv ft)?, orai' irapaKfJidar) koX 
fiapavOfj TO tt}? opyrj^;, av6i<; eh 'Voofxr^v kuti- 
6vT€<;. o pahioi<; eaeaOai irpoo-ehoKOdv iv irXi^OeaL 
<^opd<i d(7ja6pr)T0v<i koI Tay^eia^; (f>cpop,ei>oL<i, koI 
TTjV avjfcXrjTov evvovv e'XpvTe^y rj Tov<i K^lvvav 
BiaaTraaafievov; x^Cpeiv edaaaa tou? enrl ra? 
olKLa<i ra? eKeivcov e7re\66vra<; dve^^i^Tet koI 

2 (TureXdjui^avev. r]Br) Se /cal 6 Srjpo<; d^66p.€vo<^, 
^ AvTwviov a')(€hov eh p^ovapy^iav KaOiaTapevov, 
3povTov eiToder koI TrpoaehoKaro tcl'^ Oea<i d^eiv 
irapcuv auTo?, a? axfyeiXe aTpaTrjycov 7rapaa')(^e2v. 
alaOopevo^i he ttoXXoix; tmv vtto l^aicrapo^ 
€aTpaT€v/Jiev(ov Koi yr\v Kol TroXet? Trap eKeivov 
XafiovTWV e7n/3ovXevopTa<; avTw /cat KaT oXiyov^ 
irapeiapeovTa^ eh ttjv ttoXlv ovk eOdpp-qaev eX- 
Oelv, dXX! 6 hr)po<; eOeaTO p,r) 7rap6jno<; eKeivov 994 
ra? 6ea<s, d^eiScj^i irdvv ')(^opriyovp,eva<i Ka\ irepiT- 

3 Tft)9. 6r]pia Te ydp irdp^iroXXa avv€ct}v^]pevo<; 
CKeXevae fir}Bev diroBoaOai p^rjB' vTroXtTrelv, dXXd 
TracTL Karaxpv^cio-OaL, Kal tmv irepl tov Aiovvaov 
Te'^VLTMV avTo<i eh Neai^ ttoXlv KaTa^d'^ eveTV)(e 
irXeiGTOi^' Trepl Be KavovTiov Tivo<i evrjfiepovvTOf; 
ev Toh OedTpoi^ eypa<^e irpo^ tov<; ^/Xou? otto)? 
ireiaavTe^ avTov elaaydycocriv 'KXXtJvcov ydp 
ovBeva ^LaaOrjvai 7rpoai]K€iv. eypa^e Be Kal 
KiKepcovL, 7rdvTco<; irapaTVX^^v Tah 6eaL^ Beofxevo^, 
172 



I 



BRUTUS XXI. 1-3 



XXI. This incident more than anything else, ex- 
cept, perhaps, Antony's change of heart, frightened 
Brutus and his adherents, and they withdrew from 
the city. At first they spent some time in Antium, 
with the idea of returning to Rome when the people's 
wrath had passed its climax and subsided. This they 
thought would readily come to pass, since multitudes 
are fickle and impetuous, and, besides, they had the 
senate in their favour, which let those who tore Cinna 
to pieces go unpunished, and yet tried to seek out 
and arrest those who had assaulted the houses of the 
conspirators. Already, too, the people were disturbed 
because Antony was assuming almost absolute power, 
and they longed for Brutus ; it was also expected 
that he would be present in person and conduct the 
spectacles which it was his duty as praetor to furnish. 
But Brutus learned that many of the veteran soldiers 
of Caesar who had received land and cities from their 
commander, were now plotting against his life and 
in small bands streaming into the city. He therefore 
had not the courage to come. The people, however, 
had their spectacles, in spite of his absence, and 
these were very lavishly and magnificently appointed. 
For Brutus had purchased a great number of wild 
beasts, and now gave orders that not one should be 
sold or left behind, but that all should be used ; and 
he himself went down to Naples and conferred with 
a very large number of actors ; and regarding Ca- 
nutius, an actor who enjoyed great fame, he wrote 
to his friends that they should persuade him to go 
to Rome ; for no Greek could properly be compelled 
to go. He wrote also to Cicero, begging him by all 
means to attend the spectacles. 



173 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXII. *Rv roiavrr) Se Kajacndcrei rcov irpa- 
fyfidrdiv ovTOiv erepa yCveraL /jbera/SoXrj rod veov 
}Laiaapo<i iireKOovTo^;. ovro<; r]v [lev i^ dSeXcj^Lhrj^ 
l^aiaapo^, <ypd/jLp.ari Be 7raL<i vtt avrov kol 

2 Kkrjpovopo^ d7roX€\ei/jL/j.€VO<;. iv S' ^AttoWcovlo. 
hierpL^ev ore Kaicrap dvrjpeOrj, crxoXd^wv irepl 
\6yov<; KaKeivov irrl UdpOovf; eXavveiv €v6v<^ 
eyvcoKOja irpoajxevcdv. dpa he tm irvOeaOac to 
TrdOo^ r)X6ev eh 'Fcoprjv koX B7)pay(oyia<; dp')(r]v 
Tovvop,a l^aiaapo<s Oepevo^ eavrw koX Siavifiwp 
TO KaTaXei,(ji6ev dpyvpiov roL<; TToXiraL^ ' Avtcoviov 
re KaTeorraaia^e kol '^(^pTjp.aTa SLaBL8ov<; avpiaTrj 
KoX avvrjye iroWoix; tmv vtto }La'iaapo<; iarparev- 

3 fievcdv} iirel Be KiKepoyv ro) tt^o? ^ Avtoovlov 
/jLLaeL rd l^aiaapo^ errpaTre, rovro) fiev 6 BpoOro? 
eireirXrjTTev l(j')(yp(ii<=;, ypdcf)cov co? ov Beairorr^v 
^apvvoLTO K^iKepcov, dXXd fxtaovvra BeaTTorrjv 
(po^oLTo, Kol TToXirevotTO BovX€La<i aipecnv ^iXav- 
6pd)7TOV ypd(f)cov Kol Xeycov o)? \priaT6<; ccttl 
Kaiaap. " Ot Be irpoyovoi,^^ iprjatv, " rjpLCJv ovBe 

4 TTpaovf; Beairora'; virepevov.'' avTW 8' el<i tovto 
KULpov /jL7]Te TToXefieli' /3e/3aLO)<i BeBo^OaL fii^re 
rjcrv^d^eiv, aXV ev p,ovov elvai jSe/SovXev/jievov, 
TO prj BovXeveiv Oavp^dl^eLV Be KiKepcovo^, el 
rrroXe/jLov p,ev epcpvXiov Koi KLvBvvcoBf] BeBoixev, 
ala^pdv Be kol dBo^ov elp/jvrjv ov (po^elrai, rov 
B' AvToovLOV eKjSaXelv ti}? rvpavviBo^ piaOov 
alrel to Kataapa KaraarrjaaL rvpavvov. 

XXIII. ^Ev fxev ovv ral^ irpcorai^ eiriaToXai^ 
Toiovro^; o ByOoOTO?* rjBrj Be tmv /xev co? Kalaapa, 
TMV 3* &)? ^ AvToavLov Bticnapevdyv, wvicov Be tCjv 

^ iarpaTivfxivwv as in xxi. 2 : (rrparevofxfvwv. 

T74 



I 



BRUTUS XXII. i-xxiii. I 



XXII. Matters were at such a pass when a fresh 
turn was given to them by the arrival of the young 
Caesar. He was a son of Caesar's niece, but had 
been formally adopted by him, and left his heir. He 
was pursuing his studies at Apollonia when Caesar 
was killed, and had been awaiting him there after 
his determination to march at once against the Par- 
thians. As soon as he learned of Caesar's fate, he 
came to Rome, and as a first step towards winning 
the favour of the people, assumed the name of Caesar 
and distributed to the citizens the money which had 
been left them by his will. Thus he deposed Antony 
from popular favour, and by a lavish use of money 
assembled and got together many of Caesar's veteran 
soldiers. When Cicero was led by his hatred of An- 
tony to take the side of Octavius Caesar, Brutus 
rebuked him severely, writing that Cicero did not 
object to a despot as such, but only feared a despot 
who hated him, and that when he declared in his 
letters and speeches that Octavius was a worthy 
man, his policy meant the choice of a kindly slavery. 
" Our ancestors, however," said he, " could not endure 
even gentle despots." As for himself, he had not as 
yet definitely decided, he said, either for war or for 
peace, but on one thing only was he determined, and 
that was not to be a slave ; and he was amazed, he 
said, that Cicero dreaded a civil war with all its perils, 
but was not afraid of a shameful and inglorious peace, 
and that, as a reward for driving Antony from the 
tyranny, he asked the privilege of making Octavius 
tyrant. 

XXIII. Thus, then, did Brutus express himself in 
his first letters to Cicero. But already one faction 
was forming about Octavius, and another about 

175 



PLUTARCH^S LIVES 

(TT par oireScov odairep vtto KrjpvKi TrpocmOeixevwv 
Tftj 7t\€0V SiBovTi, Travrdiracn Karayvovf; tmv 
TrpayficLTCov eyvco KaTokiTrelv ^YraXiav, koL ire^fj 
Slo. Aevicavia^ e/? 'EXeai^ eVt daXaaaav r}K€P, 

2 69ev 7) Hop/cla fieWovaa irakiv eh 'FoofjLijv airo- 
TpaireaOai \av6dveiv fiev iireipcLTO 7r€pi7raO(7)<: 
exovaa, <ypa(f)r} Si Ti? avrrjv 7rpovBo)K6 raWa 
yevvaiav ovaav. rjv yap ifc ra>v 'KWr^viKOiv 
hidOeo-i^;, irpoTrefjinToixevo^ "EKTcop viro ^AvSpo/xd- 
')(ri^ Ko/jLL^ofM6pr)<; Trap* avrov ro iraLhiov, €K€iva) Be 

3 iTpoa(3\eiTOva7]^. ravra 6 ew fjuevrjv rrjv HopKiav 
77 Tov 7rd0ov<; el/coDV i^errj^ep et? BaKpva- Kal 
TToWd/cL^ (fiOLTMaa tt)? 7)ixepa^ €K\aiev. ^AklXlov 
Be Tivo<; rcov ^povrov c^iXwv ra irpo^i ''EKTopa 
T^? ^ AvBpofjbd'xr]'; €7rrj Bl€\66vto<;, 

"E/cTO/3, drap av jmol iaal iraryp Kal irorvia 

p.r)rrip 
^Be Ka(TLyvrjTo<;, av Be jjlol Oa\€po<i rrapaKoiTr]^, 

4 /jLfLBidaa<; 6 B/ooOto?, " 'AXX' ovk efxoi 7'," elire, 
" TTpo? Uop/ciav eireiCTi <f)dvai rd rov ''E/tTO/309, 

larov '^Xaxdryv re /cal d/jL(f)L7r6Xoiai xeXeve' 

adifxaro^ yap diroXeiTrerai (f)V(T€C tcov oacov dvBpa- 
yaOij/uLdrcov, yvoy/juy] 5' virep t?)? 7raTpiBo<i, Ma ire p 
r)/jLeL<;, dpiarevei.'' ravra jxev 6 t^? YiopKia^; vio<; 
laroprjKe BlJ/^Xo?. 

XXIV. ^Ava)(6eU S' B/jol'to? ifcelOev iir 

Adr]vo)v eirXei. Be^apLevov Be rov Bi]pov irpoOv- 
fio)<; avrov ev^rjpiiaL<^ Kal -yln^c^iaiiaaL Birjrdro fjuev 
irapd ^ev(p nvi, ^eojJLvrjarov 3' dKpod)fjL€vo<; rov 

AKaBrjfjLiaKOv Kal KparLTnrov rov liepnrari^riKov 

176 



I 



BRUTUS XXIII. i-xxiv. i 



Antony, and the soldiers, as though for sale at 
auction, flocked to the highest bidder. Altogether 
despairing, therefore, of the state, Brutus determined 
to abandon Italy, and came by land through Lucania 
to Elea by the sea. As Porcia was about to return 
thence to Rome, she tried to conceal her distress, 
but a certain painting betrayed her, in spite of her 
noble spirit hitherto. Its subject was Greek, — 
Andromache bidding farewell to Hector ; she was 
taking from his arms their little son, while her eyes 
were fixed upon her husband. When Porcia saw 
this, the image of her own sorrow presented by it 
caused her to burst into tears, and she would visit it 
many times a day and weep before it. And when 
Acilius, one of the friends of Brutus, recited the 
verses containing Andromache's words to Hector, 

'' But, Hector, thou to me art father and honoured 
mother 
And brother ; my tender husband, too, art thou," 

Brutus smiled and said : " But I, certainly, have no 
mind to address Porcia in the words of Hector, 

' Ply loom and distaff and give orders to thy maids,' ^ 

for though her body is not strong enough to perform 
such heroic tasks as men do, still, in spirit she is 
valiant in defence of her country, just as we are." 
This story is told by Porcia's son, Bibulus.^ 

XXIV. From thence Brutus put to sea and sailed 
for Athens. Here the people welcomed him eagerly 
and extolled him in public decrees. He dwelt with a 
certain guest-friend, attended the lectures of Theo- 
mnestus the Academic and Cratippns the Peripatetic, 
1 Iliad, vi. 429 f.; 491. * Cf. chapter xiii. 2. 

177 



PLUTARCH'S LIV^S 

Ka\ avfj,(f>t\o(TO<f)a)v eSofcei iravTairaaLv apyelv koI 

2 (TxoXd^eiv. eirpajTe he ra irpb^; rov iroXefiov 99i 
az/fTToTTTa)?. Ka\ yap eh MaKeBoviav eire/ji^lrev 
'Hpoa-Tparov oiKeLovjJLevo^ TOV<i eVl tmv ixel 
(TTpaTOTreScov, koI tov<; a^o\d^ovTa<s cltto 'Vct)/j,r](} 

ev dcrrei veov<; dveXcifx^aie koL (jvvel')(^ev. wv rjp 
Kol Ki,K€p(ovo<; VI 6<;, ov eiraivel BiacpepovTco^;, /cal 
(pr)(jLV, ecT iyp-qyopev etr evvirvid^eTai, 6avfid- 
t^eiv ovTO) yevvaiov ovra kol fiLaorvpavvov. 

3 ^Ap^dfjL€PO<; Be Tciiv Trpay/jLaTcov dva(j)avh6v 
aTTTeadai, kol TTv66fievo<^ irXola 'VwjjLalfcd fieard 
'X^P'qfjidTwv ef 'Acr/a? 'TTpo(T(f)epea6aL kol arparrj- 
yov eiTLTrXelv avBpa ')(^apievTa kol yvaopiixov, 
dirijvTrjaev avrw irepl Y^dpvarov evrv^^v Be koI 
ireiaa^ Kal irapaXa^wv ra irXola Xa/nirporepav 
uiroBoxi-jV eiTOielro, Kal yap tjv rj/jbepa /caO' rjv 

4 eyeyovei irpSirov 6 B/^oOro?. o)? ovv eXOovre*; eh 
TO TTivetv eTTLX^aeL^; eiroiovvTO vLkij^; re Bpovrov 
Kal 'Po) uaicov eXevdepia<^, ert puaXXov avrov^ 
pwaai l3ovX6/jLevo<; yTTjae Trorijpiov fiet^ov Kal 
Xa^div, dir^ ovBejjbia^ Trpocfidaeco'i dve(^d)vr]ae rov 

aTL'^OP TOVTOV 

dXXd fie polp oXoi-j Kal A?;tou9 eKjavev vl6<;. 

5 en Be Kal Trpo? tovtol^; laropovcriv, ore r-tjv 
reXevraiav ev ^lXIttttok; fia'x^ov/jLevo^ ^^ll^i' p^d- 
XV^> cvvOjjfia i:ap aurov roh arparid)raL<; 

AiToXXwva BoOrjvai. Bio Kal t% crv/jL(f)opd^ 
Tidevrai arjjjLelov eKeivrjv rrjv dvacpdyvrjaiv. 

178 



I 



BRUTUS XXIV. 1-5 



discussed philosophy with them, and was thought to 
be wholly given up to literary pursuits. But without 
any one's suspecting it, he was getting ready for 
war. For he sent Herostratus into Macedonia, de- 
siring to win over the commanders of the armies 
there, and he united in his service all the young 
Romans who were studying at Athens. One of these 
was Cicero's son, on whom he bestows high praise, 
declaring that whether awake or asleep and dream- 
ing, he was amazed to find him of such a noble 
spirit and such a hater of tyranny. 

Afterwards he began to act openly, and having 
learned that Roman transports full of treasure were 
approaching from Asia, and that an accomplished 
and well-known man was in command of them, he 
went to meet him at Carystus. After conferring 
with him and persuading him to hand over the 
transports, he prepared an entertainment of unusual 
splendour; for it was Brutus's birthday. Accord- 
ingly, when they were come to their wine, and were 
pledging " Victory to Brutus," and " Liberty to the 
Romans," wishing to animate them still more, Brutus 
called for a larger beaker, and then, when he had 
received it, without any ostensible reason, recited 
this verse : — 
"But I am slain by baleful Fate and Leto's son." ^ 

And still further, in addition to this, historians tell 
us that when he was going out to fight his last battle 
at Philippi, the watchword which he gave out to his 
soldiers was "Apollo."^ Therefore they conclude 
that when he recited that verse, it also was a presage 
of his calamity. 

^ Patroclus to Hector, Iliad, xvi. 849 Leto's son was 
Apollo, and the name was thought to mean Dtstroyer. 

'19 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXV. *Ea: tovtov irevrrjKOvra fiev avra) fivpid- 
Sa? ^Avriariof; a<f) o)V rj>ye koI avro^ et? ^IraXtav 
'^pTjjjidrcov hihwaiv, ogol he irepl ^eacraXiav en 
Trj<; HofiTrrjtov (TTpaTia<; eirXavoyvro avveppsov 
d(Tp€V(o<^ 7rpo<; avrov /Trvre?? Be TrevraKoalov; 
dcf)€L\eTO Kivva 7rpb<; Ao\o/3eXXav dyovTo<; ek 

2 ^Aaiav. i-mrrXevaa^; re rfj Arj/jirjTptdSi, iroXXwv 
oirXayv e^ayo jjuevcov irpo^ ^Avrcoviov, a K.aiaapo<; 
Tov Trporepov KeXevaavTO<s eirX tov TIapOt/cbv 
iiTOLrjOrj TToXe/JLOV, efcpdTr]aev. 'OprrjaLov Be rov 
a-Tparrj-yov irapaBovro'^ avTw MaKeBoviav, Kal 
TMv iv Kv/cXo) ^acTiXecov Kal Bvvaarcov crvviara- 
fievcov Kal TrpoarLOefievcov, dyyeXXeraL Tdio<;, 6 
*AvrcovLov dBeX(j)6<;, ef 'IraX/a? Bcaffe^rjKcofi fia- 
Bi^eiv ev6v<; iirl ra? Bvvdpei<; a? iv 'ETriBdfjLVfp 

3 Kal ^ AiToXXwvia Bartz^io? avvelye. ^ovXopevo^ 
ovv <^6d(TaL Kal irpoXa^elv 6 VtpovTO'^ i^ai(j)m]<; 
dvaarrjaa^ Tov<i crvv avrw Blcl y^copicov ')(^aXe'JT 6)v 
VL(f)6fji€vo<; eiTopevero' Kal rroXv TrporfxOe roix; 
KopL^ovTa<; TO apiarov. ey<yv<; ovv ^KiriBapvov 
yevopevo^ Blcl kottov Kal '\jrv')(0'i i^ovXip,[a<Te. 
(Tvp.TTi'mei Be pudXiara to vra^o? ')(^i6vo^ ouayf; 

4 iTOvovaL Kal KTijveai Kal dvOpoDiTOL^, etre rov 
Oeppiov Bia TrepL-yjrv^iv Kal irvKvcoaiv, orav evro^; 
dirav Ka6eLp')(6fi, rrjv rpo^r^v ddpow^ dvaXiaKov- 
T09, elVe BpLpela Kal Xeirrr) rrj^ y^bovo^; BiaXvo- 
/jLevi]<; iovaa irvor] repvei ro aeopa Kal Bia(p6€ipeL 
TO Oeppov e^ avTOV Ovpa^e Biaaireipopevov. ra? 
yap e^iBpcoaet^ irapex^vv BoKel to Oepphv dirav- 

f8o 



I 



BRUTUS XXV. 1-4 



XXV. After this, Antistius ^ gave him five hundred 
thousand drachmas from the moneys which he was 
personally taking to Italy, and all Pompey's soldiers 
who were still wandering about Thessaly gladly 
flocked to his standard. He also took from Cinna 
five hundred horsemen that he was conducting to 
Dolabella in Asia. Then sailing to Demetrias, whence 
great quantities of arms, which the elder Caesar had 
ordered to be made for his Parthian war, were being 
conducted to Antony, he took possession of them. 
After Hortensius the praetor had delivered up Ma- 
cedonia to him, and while all the surrounding kings 
and potentates were uniting on his side, word was 
brought that Caius, the brother of Antony, had 
crossed over from Italy and was marching directly 
to join the forces under Vatinius in Epidamnus and 
ApoUonia. Wishing, therefore, to anticipate his arr 
rival and capture these forces, Brutus suddenly set 
out with the forces under him and marched through 
regions difficult of passage, in snow storms, and far 
in advance of his provision-train. Accordingly, when 
he had nearly reached Epidamnus. fatigue and cold 
gave him the distemper called "boulimia." This 
attacks more especially men and beasts toiling through 
snow ; '^ whether it is that the vital heat, being wholly 
shut up within the body by the cold that surrounds 
and thickens it, consumes its nourishment completely, 
or that a keen and subtle vapour arising from the 
melting snow pierces the body and destroys its heat 
as it issues forth. For the sweat of the body seems 
to be produced by its heat, and this is extinguished 

1 A mistake for Appuleius (Cicero, Philippics, x, 11 ; 
Appian, B.C. iii. 63), who was quaestor in Asia. 

* As it did the " Ten Thousand " in Armenia (Xenophon, 
Anab. iv. 5, 7 f.). 

i8i 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Twvri TcS y^rvxpfp Trepl rrjv eiricfidveiav <T^evvv- 
fjuevov. vTrep wv iv erepoi^; fxaXkov rjiropT^rat. 

XXVI. Ai7ro6v/jLovvTO<; Sk rod ByQourou xal 
/jLr)S6vo<; e^ovro(; iv rS> cnpaTOirehcp firjBep iSco- 
Si/iop, r)vayKda6r](Tav olirepl avrov iirl tov<; ttoXc- 
/jLLov(; fcara(t)vye2v' Koi rai<; 7rv\ai<; 7rpoa€\66vr€<; 
dprov iJTOvv roi"? ^vXuKa^. ol Be SiaKovaavr€<i 
TO av/jLiTTcofia Tov lipovTov Traprjaav avrol koX 
aiTLa Koi TTora KOjJii^ovTe^. dvd' a)v 6 3povro<;, 
(09 rrjv TTokiv irapeXa^ev, ov ^ovov tovtol^, 
dWa /cat irdcri Bid tovtov<; <^ikav6p(jn7T(D<^ 

€)(py'](TaTO. 

2 Fttfo? 8' ^Avr(oi't,o<; ^ATroXkcovia irpocr^aXcDV 
eK€L Tou? iyyv<; ovra^ eKoXeu cTTpaTid)Ta<i. iirel 
3' ovToi re irpo^ l^povrov oj^ovto fcal tou? 

^ ATToWcovidra'; jjcrOero ra J^povTov (f)povovvTa<?, 995 
eKkLirwv Trjv TToXiv eh ^ouOpwrov e^dSi^e. Koi 
irpoyrov fiev diroXXvai rpel^; aiTeipa<^ Ka9^ ohov 
VTTO BpovTou KaraKoireiaa^' eiretTa tov<; irepl rrjv 
BvXXiBa TOTTOL'? '7rpoKaTaXr)(f)0€VTa^ iirixeLpcov 
eKJSid^eadaL /cal /id^^v avvdyfra^; KiKepcovi viKa- 

3 ruL. TovT(p yap 6 B/joOto? €)(^pi]TO a-TparrjyS) 
KoX TToXXd hi avTOv Kardypdcoae. Xaj3oiv Be tov 
Vdiov iv ')(^a)pioL<i eXdyBecri, fxaicpdv Bieairaafxevov 
ovK eiaaev ifi^aXelv, dXXd irepitinTevae, cpeiBe- 
aOai KeXevcov, a;? /jLeTa fiiKpov IBlwv iaofJievwv. o 
Koi avve^rj, irapeBoaav yap eavTov^ Kal tov 
aTpaTrjyov, ware pieydXr]v rjB)] irepl tov l^povTov 

•4 BvvaixLv elvaL. \pQvov fxev ovv iroXvv iv tl/htj 
TOV Vdiov 7776 fcal ra Trapdarj/uia r/}? ap')^rj<; ovk 
d(f)^pec, Kalirep, w? (^aaiVy dXXwv re ttoXXcjv Kal 



182 



I 



BRUTUS XXV. 4-xxvi. 4 

by the cold which meets it at the surfece. But I have 
discussed this matter more at length elsewhere.^ 

XXVI. Now, since Brutus was faint, and since not 
one of his soldierjs had anything in the shape of food, 
his attendants were obliged to have recourse to their 
enemies, and going down to the gate of the city 
they asked the sentinels for bread. These, when 
they heard of the mishap of Brutus, came to him 
themselves, bringing food and drink. Wherefore 
Brutus, when the city had surrendered to him, treated 
not only these men humanely, but also all the other 
citizens for their sake. 

When Caius Antonius drew near Apollonia, he 
summoned the soldiers who were in the vicinity. 
These, however, went to Brutus, and Caius perceived 
also that the people of Apollonia favoured the cause 
of Brutus. He therefore left the city behind and 
set out for Buthrotum. To begin with, he lost three 
cohorts on the march, which were cut to pieces by 
Brutus; next, when he tried to force the positions 
near Byllis which his opponents had earlier occupied, 
and joined battle, he was defeated by Cicero. For 
Brutus employed this young man as general, and won 
many successes through him. When, however, he 
came upon Caius in marshy regions and with his forces 
widely scattered, Brutus would not permit his men 
to attack them, but rode about giving orders to spare 
them, in the belief that they would soon be his own. 
And this actually came to pass. For they surrendered 
themselves and their general, so that now Brutus 
had a large force about him. For a long time, then, 
he held Caius in honour, and would not deprive him 
of the insignia of his command, although^ as we are 

^ Cf., for example, Morals, pp. 691 f. 
VOL. VI. G ^ ^ 



PLUTARCH^S LIVES 

}!iiKepcovo<; airo 'PcoyLtr;? ypa(f)6vT(ov fcal Kekevov- 
Twv avaipelv ap^d/j.€vov Se Kpv^a toI<; rjyefJLoat 
BiaXeyeadat koI TToti^aavra verorepiafiov ivOe- 

5 /jLevo<; €i9 vavv i(\iv\aTTe. rcov Se BLa<f)0ap€VTcov 
(TTparicorcov €L<; ^ ATToWcjviav aTrodTavrwv koX 
KaXovvTcDV e/cel rov ^povrov, ovk e^i] rovro 
irdrpiov elvai 'Pw^aloi^, dX)C eKeivov^ 7rpo<; rov 
dp')(ovTa ')(^p7)vai pahi^ovTa<i avrov^ irapaireladaL 
Tr)V €7rl ToU r)/jLapTrj/jLepoc<; opyijv. iXOovai Se 
xal heojievoi'^ avjyva)fji')]v eBwKe. 

XXVII. MeWoz^Ti 8' avra> Sia/Saiveiv et? tt]v 
^Aaiav rjKev dyyeXia Trepl ri}^ ev 'FcofMrj fiera- 
ySoXr}?. o yap vio^ Kataap rjv^rjOrj ixev vtto Trj<^ 
^ovXijf; iir Kvtodvlov, efcfBoKayv he rr]<; 'IraXta? 
i/celvov avTO<; rjhri (j)ol3epo^ r]v, vTrarelav t€ fivco- 
jxevo^ Tvapa vo/jlov, koI a-rparev/jLara rpicfxoL' 

2 fieydXa, rrj? 7r6\eco<; ovSev Beo/jLevrj^;. opcov Be Koi 
ravra ttjv ^ovXrjv ^apvvofxevrjv koX tt/OO? tov 
^povTOV d<f)opwaav e^co koi yfrrj^i^ofjieprjv eKeivw 
Kol fie/Saiovaav ra(; e7rapy(ia<^, eSeiae. /cal rov 
fi6v ^AvT(oviov irefjiiroyv et? cjuXlap TrpouKdXelro, 
Ta? Be Bwdfiei^ rfj iroXec irepiarrjcra^; virareiav 
kXa/Sev, ovirw irdvv fieipdfcioi^ cov, aXX' eiKoarov 
ay^op ero^i, co? avTo<; iv roi? virofjiprjiiacnp etprjKep. 

S evduf; Be BLfca<; (popov Kara tcop irepl top Vtpovrov 
ela-fjyep, ax; dvBpa irpcorop ep dp)(^al<i Tal<; jxeyi- 
crraf? dpDprjKoTcop aKpirop' kol Kart^yopop iire- 
arr](Te B/joutou fiep AevKiop KopuKpiKiop, Kao*- 
(TLOV Be Mayovoi^ ^ Ay pLTTTrap. oo^XiaKavop ovp 
TCL^ Bifca<; ip7Jfjia<i dpayKa^ofxepcop (bepeiv yfrrjcfyop 

4 T(OP BiKaaTwv. Xiyerai Be tov Kr)pvKO<;, ojcnrep 

184 



I 



BRUTUS XXVI. 4-XXV11. 4 

told, Cicero and many others besides wrote to him 
from Rome and urged him to put the man to death. 
However, when Caius began to hold secret commu- 
nications with the officers of Brutus, and incited a 
revolt, Brutus put him on board a ship and kept him 
under guard. And wh^;n the soldiers who had been 
corrupted by Caius withdrew to Apollonia and in- 
vited Brutus to come to them there, he told them 
this was not a Roman custom, but that they must 
come themselves to their commander and seek to 
avert his wrath at their transgressions. And when 
they came and asked his pardon, he granted it. 

XXVII. But as he was about to cross into Asia, 
tidings came to him of the change that had taken 
place at Rome. For Octavius Caesar had been 
strengthened by the senate against Antony, and 
after ejecting his rival from Italy, was himself now 
an object of fear, soliciting the consulship illegally, 
and maintaining large armies, of which the city had 
no need. But when he saw that even the senate 
was displeased at this and turned their eyes abroad 
to Brutus, confirming him in command of his pro- 
vinces by their vote, he became afraid. So he sent 
and invited Antony to become his friend, and then, 
stationing his forces about the city, secured the con- 
sulship, although he was still a mere youth, being in 
his twentieth year, as he himself has stated in his 
Commentaries. Straightway, then, he brought in- 
dictments for murder against Brutus and his associ- 
ates, accusing them of having slain the first magistrate 
of the city without a trial. He appointed Lucius 
Cornificius to be prosecutor of Brutus, and Marcus 
Agrippa of Cassius. Accordingly, their cases went 
by default, the jurors voting under compulsion. And 

185 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

e'iwOev, airo rov ^rjiiaTO<i rbv ^povrov iirl Tr)v 
BiKTjv Ka\ovvTO<i, TO fi6v ttXtjOo^; eTTLhrjXw^i (JTevd- 
fat, Tov^ S^ apiarov^ Kvyjravra<; eh yrjv rjavx^av 
ayeiv, TIottXiov Be ^lXlkcop 6(f)dr}vaL BaKpuaavra, 
Kal Sea T7]v air Lav ravryjv oXiyov varepov era 
5 rS)v '7rpoypa(f)€VT(ov eVt Oavdrco yeveaOai. fxerd 
ravra StaWayevre'^ ol rpeh, Kataap, ^Avrcovio^;, 
Ai'/nBo^, BieveijjiavTO ra<; i7rap)(^[a<; (T<f)ayd^ re 
Kal 7rpoypa<pa<i dvhpoyv BiaKocrlcov iiroLrjaap, iv 
oh /cat Ki/cepoyv direOave. 

XXVIII. l^ovTwv ovv eh M.aKeBovLav diray- 
yeXOevTwv eK^iaaOeh o B/)oi)to9 eypayjrev 'Oprrj' 
ai(p KTelvai Tdiov ^ AvtcIovlov, od^ Sr) lipovTcp re 
Kal ILiKepwvi ri/jLoypcov, tS) fiev ovn (plXo), tw Se 
Kal Kara yevo<; TrpoarjKovTL. Bed raud^ varepov 
^A.vrcopw^ 'Oprrjaiov ev ^iXiiTiroi<: Xa^oov ru) 

2 pLvrjiiari rov dBeX^ov nrpoaeacpa^e. ByDoOro? Be 
T?}? K.iKepa)vo<; reXeurrj'^ rrj air la ^rfalv ala^v- 
veadat. jJiaXkov t) rep rrddec avvaXyelu, iy/caXetp 
Be roh eirl 'Pco/x^? (pLXoi<;' BovXevet-p yap avrcop 
alria fxaXXop rj rwp rvpavpovprcop, Kal Kaprepetp 
6po)pra<; Kal 7rap6pra<; a fjUTjB' aKoveip avroh 
dpeKrov rjp. 

WepaL(ji)(ja<; Be rop arparop eh ^Aalap TjBrj 
Xap^rrpop opra, pavriKOP fiep e^rjprvero aroXop ep 
^idvpia Kal irepl J^v^ikop, ire^fj B^ avrof; iirioDP 
KaOlararo ra? TroXet? Kal roh Bvpdarai^i ^xpv 

3 /J-dri^e, Kal tt/jo? Kdacriop errep^irep eh Xvplap drr 
Alyvirrov ixeraKoXodP' ov yap dp^yp Krcop,epov<; qq^ 

i86 



I 



BRUTUS XXVII. 4-xxviii. 3 

it is said that when the herald on tlie rostra pro 
nounced the customary summons for Brutus to appear, 
the multitude groaned audibly, while the better 
classes bowed their heads in silence; and that Publius 
Silicius was seen to burst into tears, and was for this 
reason soon afterwards put on the list of the pro- 
scribed. After this, the three men, Octavius, Antony, 
and Lepidus, were reconciled with one another, 
distributed the provinces among themselves, and 
sentenced to death by proscription two hundred 
men. Among those put to death was Cicero. 

XXVIII. Accordingly, when tidings of these 
events were brought to Macedonia, Brutus felt 
compelled to write to Hortensius commanding him 
to kill Caius Antonius, on the plea that he was thus 
avenging Cicero and Brutus Albinus, one of whom 
was his friend, and the other his kinsman. For this 
reason, at a later time, when Antony had captured 
Hortensius at the battle of Philippi, he slew him on 
the tomb of his brother. Brutus, however, says that 
he felt more shame at the cause of Cicero's death 
than grief at the event itself, and threw tlie blame 
upon his friends at Rome. He said their servitude 
was due to themselves rather than to their tyrants, 
and that they consented to be eyewitnesses of things 
of which they ought not even to hear. 

He now crossed into Asia with his army,^ which 
was already a splendid one, and equipped a fleet in 
Bithynia and at Cyzicus, while he himself, proceeding 
by land, settled the affairs of the cities and gave 
audiences to the potentates of the country. He 
also sent to Cassius in Syria, recalling him from his 
expedition to P^gypt; for it was not to win empire 

^ About the middle of 43 b.o. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTov<^, dX>J iXevOepovvra^ rrjv irarpiha ttjp Evva- 
fiiVy y fcaraXvcrovcrc rov^ Tvpdvvov<;, avvdyovra^; 
irXavdaOar Betv ovv fie/jLvrj/juevovf; koX ^vXarrov- 
ra? rr)V virodeaiv fjurj fjuaKpdv aTn^prrjcrOaL tt)? 
'IraXta?, aX,V ifcetae aTrevheiv koI IBorjdelv roU 
TToXiraL^. 

4 'T7raKovaavTO<s Be rov Kaaaiov /cal fcara^ai- 
vovTO<; dirrjVTa' Koi Trepl X/jLvpvav a\X'>]\oi<; 
ivervyx^avov a^' ov rrpcorov iv Tieipaiel %&)^£- 
aOevT€<; copp-ija-av 6 /juev et? Xvplav, 6 Be et? Ma^re- 
Boviav. rjv ovv rjBovij re fieydXr} koI Odpao^ 
avTOL<; eK rrj^ Trapovarj^ marepM Bypd/ieco^. 

5 6p/jL7]aavT€<i yap ex t>}9 \ra\ia^ 6/iioia (pvydBcov 
T0t9 dri/jbOTdrot^ d'^p^/jbaroL /cal dvoirXoi, fit} vavv 
evrjpr], fii] o-TparL(OTr]v eva, fit) ttoXlv €^ovTe<;, ov 
TToWov irdvv 'X^povov Btayevofxevov avvrjXOov et? 
ravTO KoX vaval Koi ire^w kol lttttoi,^ kuI XPV~ 
fjiaaLv d^i6fMa-)(^oi BiaycoviaaorOai irepl rrj? 'Poj- 
fjiaioiv r)ye/Movia(; oWe?. 

XXIX. 'E/3ouXeTO fieu ovv taov eyeiv rifirj<; 
Kal Trapex^cv 6 KdaaL0<;, e(l)dav€ B' o BpoOro? 
CO? rd TToXXd (jiOLTMv TTyao? avrov rjXtKLa re Trpov- 
Xpvra fcal (Tco/Jbarc irovelv ofioico^ firj Bwa/ievw 
Xpcofievov. rjv Be Bo^a Kdaatov fiev elvai Beivov 
iv TOL<; 7roXefit,Ko2<;, opyfj Be rpa^vv koI ^d/So) 
fidXXov dpxpvratirpo^ Be rov<; auvrjOei'^ vyporepov 
2 Tw yeXoi(p koX (l)tXo(TK(07m]v' J^povrov Be Xeyovai 
Bl* dp€T7]v (pLXelcrOai pev vtto twv ttoXXmv, 
epdaOat S' viro tcov (ftlXcov, Oav/id^eaOai 5' vtto 
Tcov dplarcov, p^iaelaOai Be /jltjB' vtto tcov ttoXc- 
fMLCDVy on 7rpao<; 6 dirjp Bi,a<pep6vTco<; koI fieya- 



i88 



I 



BRUTUS XXVIII. 3-XXIX. 2 



for themselves, he said, but to give liberty to their 
country, that they were wandering about and col- 
lecting forces with which to overthrow the tyrants ; 
they must therefore keep their purpose carefully in 
mind and not get far removed from Italy, but rather 
liasten thither and give aid to their countrymen. 

Cassius obeyed, and as he was returning, Brutus 
went to meet him. Their interview at Smyrna was 
the first they had had since they parted at Piraeus 
and set out, the one for Syria, the other for Mace- 
donia. They therefore derived great pleasure and 
courage from the forces which each now had. For 
they had set out from Italy like the most wretched 
of exiles, without money, without arms, having not 
a ship equipped with oars, not a single soldier, not a 
city ; but before very long they had met, having a 
fleet, an army of foot and horse, and money, which 
made them worthy antagonists in the struggle for 
supremacy at Rome. 

XXIX. Now, Cassius was desirous that Brutus and 
he should have equal honour, but Brutus forestalled 
this by coming to him generally, since he was an 
older man and unable to endure the same amount of 
hardship. Cassius had the reputation of being an 
able soldier, but harsh in his anger, and with an 
authority based largely on fear, although with his 
familiars he was rather prone to laughter and fond 
of banter. But the virtues of Brutus, as we are told, 
made him beloved by the multitude, adored by his 
friends, admired by the nobility, and not hated even 
by his enemies. For he was remarkably gentle and 

189 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xocfypcov Kol TTyOO? TTCiaav opyrfv koL rjBovrjv Kol 
ifKeove^iav airaOrjf;, opOiov Be rrjv ypMfjLrjv kol 
aKafiirrov earSxrav virep rod koXov koI Si/caiov 

3 BiacfyvKarrcov. koX fieytaTov virrip^^ev avTO) Tr/ao? 
evvoiav /cat Bo^av rj t^9 irpoaLpeaew^ iricm^;. 
ovr€ yap €Kelvo<; 6 jxeya^ TTo/zTTTjio?, el Kaiaapa 
/caOetXev, rfXiri^ero (36^aiw<; irporiaeddai rot? 
voiioi^ rrjv BvvapLV, a)OC aeX ra Trpdyfiara Kade- 
^€Lv, VTrarela'; ovop^ari Kal BucTaropia^ rj tlvo^ 
aXX,i]<; /iia\aK(OT€pa<i ^/o%^? 7rapap.v0ovp.€vo<; rbv 

4 Brj/Mov K^daaiov Be rovrov, a(j)oBpov dvBpa Kal 
OvfjioeLBr) Kal iroWaxov 7rpo<^ to KepBaXeov eK- 
(f}€popevov Tov BiKaiov, Traz^ro? /ndWov (oovto 
TToXe/ut-elv Kal TrXavdadai Kal KLvBvveveiv avrw 
Tiva Bwaareiav Karaa/ceua^o/jLevov, ovk eXev- 
Oepiav rot? 7roXLTai<;. ra puev yap ert rovrcov 
TTpea^vrepa, J^lvpat Kal Mdpiot Kal Kdp^(ove<it 
dOXov ev fjiearp Kal Xeiav irpoOepevoL Ti^vrrarpiBa, 
fiovovovxl P7TW? uTrep rvpavviBo<; eiroXepirjcrav. 

5 B/?oyrft) Be Xeyovai p.ijBe tou? e^Opov^ irpoa^dX- 
Xeiv TOLavTTjv pera^oXijv, dXX* ^ Kvrwviov ye 
Kal iroXXovff aKovaat XeyovTO<i q)<; piovov ol'oiro 
^povrov eirideaOat Kalaapi Trpoay^Oevra ry Xapu- 
irpoTrfTL Kal tw (patvopevo) KaXw t?}? Trpd^ecof;, 
T0U9 B^ dXXov<; €7rl tov dvBpa avaTrjvai pL(JovvTa<; 

6 Kal (j)OovovPTa<;. odev B/joOro? ov ttj Bvvdpiei 
TocrovTov oaov Ty dpeTrj 8^X09 eaTiv e^ o)v ypdcpei, 
7r€7roi6d)<;. ypdcpet Be irpo^ *Attikov yBrj tcG 
KivBuvw TrXrjacd^wv ev rw KaXXlaTO) Trj^ tvxv^ 
190 



I 



BRUTUS XXIX. 2-6 



large-minded, free from all anger, pleasurable indul- 
gence, and greed, and kept his purpose erect and 
unbending in defence of what was honourable and 
just. And the strongest reason for the favour and 
fame which he achieved was the confidence felt in 
his principles. For no one had expected that Ponipey 
the Great, if he overthrew Caesar, would insist on 
dismissing his forces in obedience to the laws, but 
all thought that he would continue to retain his power, 
appeasing the people by using the name of consul- 
ship or dictatorship or some other less obnoxious 
form of government. And now it was thought that 
Cassius, vehement and passionate man that he was, 
and often swept from the path of justice by his 
passion for gain, was incurring the perils of wars 
and wanderings principally to establish some great 
power for himself, and not liberty for his country- 
men. For the men of a still earlier time than Pompey 
and Cassius, men like Cinna and Marius and Carbo, 
made their country the booty or prize round which 
they fought, and they all but confessed that they 
waged war to establish a tyranny. But Brutus, we 
are told, was not accused even by his enemies of 
such a departure from his principles; nay, Antony 
at least, in the hearing of many, declared that in 
his opinion Brutus was the only conspirator against 
Caesar who was impelled by the splendour and by what 
seemed to him the nobility of the enterprise, whereas 
the rest banded together against the man because they 
envied and hated him. Wherefore Brutus relied not 
so much on his armies as on his virtuous cause, as is 
clear from his letters. When he was already nearing 
the perilous crisis, he wrote to Atticus that his cause 
had the fairest outlook that fortune could bestow, 

191 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

elvat TOL KaO^ avrov rj yap viKrj(ja<^ eXevOepayaetv 
TOP 'Vco/jLatcov BrjfjLOV rj BovXela^; aTToOavoiv airoK- 
XayrjaeaOai' Koi ratp aXkoDv aa(^a\(a<; avTOL<; 
KOI ^ePaiod^ €)(6vtcov €v ahrfkov elvat, irorepov 
7 PioxTovraL fier iXevOepia^ rj TeOvrj^ovTav. Ma/3- 
, KOv 5' ^AvTCOviov a^iav (prjal rrj^ avoia^ hihoiai 
Blktjv, 09 eV B/30UTOi9 Kal K.aaaLoi<; koI Kdrcjcrt, 
(TVvaptO/jLela-OaL Bwafievof; TrpocrOrjfcrju eavrov 
*0/cTa/9tft) BiB(i)K€' Kav fir) vvv ^rrrjdfj fier eVetVof, 
fiLKpov varepov eKsivM fjia)(€lrai. ravra fxev ovv 
aiToOecnricTai, Ka\a)<; tt/jo? to fxeWov eoLicev. 

XXX. 'Er Be rf) ^/jLvpvrj rore twv 'x^prjfiaTwv, 
a TToWa avveiXo^ei Kd(Taio<;, rj^iov fieraXa^elv 
TO, yap ovra KaraPTjXcoKevai vav7r7jyov/jLevo<; aTO- 
\ov ToaovTov w TTCLcrav v(f)^ eavroL^ e^ovai Tr]V 
evTO^ doKaaaav. ovk elwv fiev ovv rov JLdaaiov 
ol cfyiXoL BiBovai, Xeyovre^; to? ov BiKaiov, a cv 
(pecBofievo^i BiacjivXdrreLf; Kal (pOovq) (TvvdyeL<;, 
CKelvov XajBovra Brj/iayoyyelv Kal ')(api^e(Tdai to?? 
(TT par LOOT ai'^' ov firjv dXX* eBwKev avro) rplrov 

2 fiepo^i dnrdvTWv. Kal irdXiv BiaardvTe^i eirl Ta<i 
irpo(T7]Kovaa<i eKarepay 7rpd^6i<;, K.d<T(n,o<; fikv eXobv 
'I*6Bov OVK eTTLeLKO)^ ix^prjro TOt? rrpdy/jiaai, Kal 
ravra irepl rrjv etaoBov rolf; Trpoaayopevovcriv 
avrov ^aaiXia Kal Kvptov diroKpLvdfjievo^' '* Ovre 
pa(TLXev<^ ovre vvptof;, rov Be Kvpiov Kal /Saa-LXiox; 
(f>ovev<; Kal KoXaarrj^r ^povro<; Be Avklov<; rjrei 

3 'X^prjfjLara Kal arparov. errei Be NavKpdnj^; 6 
Br]/jLay(oy6<; dviirecae ra<: iroXei^ d^iaraaOai Kal 

[92 



BRUTUS XXIX. 6-xxx. 3 

for he would either conquer and give liberty to the 
Roman people, or die and be freed from slavery; 
and that amid the general security and safety of 
their lot one thing only was uncertain, namely, 
whether they were to live as freemen or die. He 
says also that Mark Antony was paying a fitting 
penalty for his folly, since, when it was in his power 
to be numbered with such men as Brutus and Cassius 
and Cato, he had given himself to Octavius as a 
mere appendage; and that if he should not now 
be defeated with him, in a little while he would be 
fiirhting him. Herein, then, he seems to have been 
an excellent j)rophet. 

XXX. At the time when they were in Smyrna, 
Brutus asked Cassius to give him a part of the large 
treasure which he had collected, since he had ex- 
pended what he had himself in building a fleet large 
enough to give them control of all the Mediter- 
ranean. The friends of Cassius, then, tried to dis- 
suade him from giving anything to Brutus, arguing 
that it was not right that what he was keeping by 
his frugality and getting together at the price of 
men's hatred should be taken by Brutus for the 
winning of popular favour and the gratification of 
his soldiers. Flowever, Cassius gave him a third of 
the whole amount. Then they parted again for their 
respective undertakings. Cassius took Rhodes, but 
managed matters there with undue rigour, and that too 
though he had replied to those who hailed him, when 
he entered the city, as their lord and king, " Neither 
lord nor king, but chastiser and slayer of your lord 
and king." Brutus, on his part, demanded money 
and soldiers from the Lycians. But Naucrates, the 
popular leader, persuaded the cities to revolt, and 

193 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\o(^of9 riva(; 0)9 6Lp^ovT€<; irapoBov rbv l^povrov 
KareXd^ovTO, irpcorov fiev dpL(Tro7roiov/JL€vot<; av- 
TOi? iTreTre/jL'yfrev iTTTreU, v(f)^ ojv e^aKoaioi StecpOd- 
p^]aav, eireira ra ')((i3pia koI iroXixva^ \a/ifidvcov 
direXvev avev XvTpwv dTravra^; (*)<; 7rpoaa^6/ievo<; 

4 evvoia to e6vo<;. ol 8' r)a<iv avOdheL^, a jxev 
e^XdrcTOVTO 7rpo<i 6pyr)v TiBefievoL, rr}? 8' eTTiet- 
Keia^ Koi ^CXavO pwiTia<^ KaTa(j)povovvTe<;, d-)(pi 
ov (TvveXdaa<; et? HdvOov avrayp tov<; //.a^i/iwra- 
Tou? iTToXiopKet. rod Be TTora/JLOv irapa Tt]V iroXiv 
irapappeovTo^ vTTOvr]')(^oiievoi BieSlSpaa/cov. r)Xi- 
(TKOVTO he SiKTvcov Std TTopov Ka6ie/bLev(ov et? 
fivOov, (A)V ra d/cpa KcoSMcn 7rpo(T7]pTr]/ji€voi<; Sie- 

5 (Trj/Maivev eWv^ rbv evcr^edevra. fxr^'^aval^; Si nai 
TOiv B^avdicov vvKToyp eTriBpa/jLovrcov fcal irvp 
e/JL^aXoPTcov, co? direKXeiadrjaav aladoixevwv roiv 
*Va)/iai,o)V 7r/3o? to T6t;^09 fcal Trvevfia Xafxirpov 
dveppiin^ev eirl rd^ e7rdX^ec<; ttjv (f)X6ya tcjp 
i<yyi;<; ol/cicov dvTiXa/jL^avofiivrjv, Seto-a9 Bpovro<; 
virep T^9 7roXew9 eKeXevae Karaa^evvvvuL koI 
^orjOelv. 

XXXI. Toi'9 Be AvKLOV<; BeiVT] ri,<; i^aL(f)vi]<; 
7ryoo9 diTovoiav op/jurj zeal Xoyou Kpeiaawv fcare- 
o-%ej/, rjv dv t*9 epMri Oavdrov fidXiara irpoaei- 
Kdaeiev 01 ye fjLerd iraiBwv koI yvvavKwv eXev- 
OepoL re /cal BovXoi koI •wdaa rjXiKLa toi'9 fiev 
TToXe/jLLovt; Trpo^; rrjv (pXoya ^oyj0ovpra<; dirb rcjv 
ret,\(>3v e/SaXXov, avrol Be KdXa/iov /cat ^uXa /cal 
rrdv vneKKaufia irpoa^epovre^ rjyov iirl rrjv iroXiv 

194 



I 



BRUTUS XXX. 3-x\xi. i 



the inhabitants occupied certain commanding hills in 
order to prevent the passage of Brutus. Brutus, 
therefore, in the first place, sent horsemen against 
them while they were at breakfast, and these slew- 
six hundred of them ; next, he took their strong- 
holds and villages, but dismissed all his captives 
without ransom, in order that he might win the 
people over by kindness. They were obstinate, 
however, feeding their anger upon their injuries, 
and despising his clemency and kindness, until he 
drove the most warlike of them into Xanthus and 
laid siege to the city. They tried to escape by 
swimming under the surface of the river which 
flowed past the city. But they were caught in nets 
which were let down deep across the channel ; the 
tops of these had bells attached to them which in- 
dicated at once when any one was entangled. Then 
the Xanthians made a sally by night and set fire to 
some of the siege-engines, but they were perceived 
by the Romans and driven back to their walls ; and 
when a brisk wind fanned the flames back towards 
the battlements and some of the adjoining houses 
took fire, Brutus, fearing for the safety of the city, 
ordered his men to assist in putting out the fire. 

XXXI. But the Lycians were suddenly possessed 
by a dreadful and indescribable impulse to madness, 
which can be likened best to a passion for death. At 
any rate, all ages of them, freemen and slaves with 
their wives and children, shot missiles from the walls 
at the enemy who were helping them to combat the 
flames, and with their own hands brought up reeds 
and wood and all manner of combustibles, and so 
spread the fire over the city, feeding it with 



195 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TO TTVp, opeyovre^ avrw iraaav v\r)v koX irdpra 

2 rpoTTov i^epe6i^ovT6<; koX (TVPe/crpecpovTe^;. co? S' 
T) (f>\b^ pveicra koX Bta^coaaaa Trapra^oOev rrjv 
TToXiv 8l€\a/JL^|r€ iToWri, TrepLiradcov evrt toI<; 
ytvofjLevoif; 6 B/jouto? e^wOev TrapLTnreve irpodv- 
/jlov/jL€vo<; /SoTjOecv, koI Ta<; )(^e7pa<; opeywv toI^ 
Sav0LOL<; eBelro (pelBeaOai kol acii^eiv rrjv ttoXlv, 
ovhevo<i avTW irpoaexoPTo^;, dXka irdpra Tponop 

3 eavTov<^ diroWvPTCop, ov fiopop dpBpcop re kuI 
yvpaiKMP, dWd koX tcl Traihia rd fxiKpa fierd 
Kpavyrj<i koI dXdkayfMOV rd fiep et? to irvp 
rjWeTO, rd S' dpwOep diro T(op T€C)(^mp i^erpa- 
'^rfKi^ep avrd, rd Se T0t9 ^t^ecrt rayp irarepwp 
vire^aWe rd<; a(f)ayd<^ yvfipovpra koI /ceXevopra 
TTaieiv. Ot)(^6rj he t/}? ttoXcco^ Biac^iOapeiaTjf; yvpr) 
Kpefiafiipr] puep ef dyyopj)^, iraihlop he peKpop 
i^7]prr)fi€pr] rov t pa')(^riXov , Xafiirdhc Be Kaio/iepr) 

4 TTjp OLKLUP ix^diTTOvaa. Kal rov OedjjLaro<; rpayc- 
Kov (papePTO(; ISetP fM€P ow;^ vire/ieipep 6 BpovTo<;, 
iSdfcpvae Be dfcovaa^;' Kal yepa^ i/c7]pv^e rcov 
arpaTLCOTWP ocftl^ dp Bvprjdrj Kvklop dpBpa irepi- 
croiaai. (f>aal Be /jl6i'OV<; eKarop TreprrJKOPTa yepe- 

{> aOai Tov<; fir) Bia<^vy6pTa<i to acoOfjpai. adpOtoi 
fjLep ovp Bid TToXXcop -ypopwp Mairep eifiappieprjp 999 
irepioBop Bca(f)Oopd<i d7roBiB6pTe<i rrjp tcop irpo- 
yopwp dpepecoaapTO rfj ToXjxr) rv)(^r)p- Kal ydp 
t'Kelpoi Tr)p TToXip 6/jiOLco<; irrl tcop UepcriKcov 
KaraKavaapre^ eavTov<i Bie(f)6etpap. 

XXXII. BpoOro? Be rrjp Harapewp ttoXlp opoip 
d7ria')(^vpi^ofi€Pt]p '7rpo<; avTop, MKpei fxep eTTL^eipeip 
Kal StijiropelTOf ttjp avryp BeBioo^; diropoiap, €')((t)V 

196 






BRUTUS XXXI. i-xxxii. i 



all sorts of material and increasing its strength 
and fury in every way. When the flames had 
darted forth and encircled the city on all sides, 
and blazed out mightily, Brutus, distressed at what 
was going on, rode round outside the city in his 
eagerness to help, and witli outstretched hands 
l)egged the Xanthians to spare and save their city. 
No one heeded him, however, but all sought in every 
way to destroy themselves, men and women alike ; 
nay, even the little children with shouts and 
shrieks either leaped into the fire, or threw them- 
selves headlong from the walls, or cast themselves 
beneath their fathers' swords, baring their throats 
and begging to be smitten. After the city had been 
thus destroyed, a woman was seen dangling in a 
noose ; she had a dead child fastened to her neck, 
and with a blazing torch was trying to set fire to her 
dwelling. So tragic was the spectacle that Brutus 
could not bear to see it, and burst into tears on 
liearing of it ; he also proclaimed a prize for any 
soldier who should succeed in saving the life of a 
Lycian. But there were only a hundred and fifty, 
we are told, who did not escape such preservation. 
So then the Xanthians, after long lapse of time, as 
though fulfilling a period set by fate for their de- 
struction, had the boldness to renew the calamity 
of their ancestors ; for these too, in the time of the 
Persian wars, had likewise burned down their city 
and destroyed themselves.^ 

XXXII. When Brutus saw that the city of Patara 
was holding out strongly against him, he hesitated 
to attack it, and was in perplexity, fearing that it 
would be afflicted with the same madness ; but as 

» Cf. Herodotus, i. 176. 

197 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be yvvaiKa<; avrcov al')(^/j,a\ot)rov(; d(f)P]fC€V avev 
Xvrpcov. at 8' dvBpcov re koI irarepcov ein^avoiv 
ovaai Btr]yov/jL€iaL top BpoOro^', 609 dvrjp etr] 
aco(ppov6(TTaTo<; kol BiKaLOTaro^, erreiaav el^ai 
2 KOI TTapahovvai rrjv ttoXlp. eK Be rovrov fcal 
Trdvre^ 01 XolttoI 7rpoae)(^a)pr)aap eTTiTpe-^avre's 
eavjov^ i/c6LV(p, TV)(^ovTe<^ Be ^PV^'^ov Kal Trap' 
iXTTiBa^; evyvct)/j,opo<;, 09 ye, Kaaalov 'VoBiov; viro 
TOP avTOP 'X^popop cLpayKaaapTo^ IBia pep op 
eKeicTr^pTo ')(^pvcr6p zeal dpyvpop elaepeyKelp dirap- 
ra<; (ef ov (rvprjy^Or] irepl OKTatciayiXLa rdXapra), 
Br}poaia Be ri^p ttoXlv d\\oL<; irevTaKoaioL's ^r)p,Lco- 
aapro^, avro^ eKarop /cat TrePTTj/copra rdXapra 
AvKLOv^ irpa^dpepo^, dXXo Be ovBep dBtKi]aa<;, 
ape^ev^ep err icopia<;. 

XXXIII. IloWa fjL€P ovp d^ia p,P7]pr](; epya Kal 
Tifiai^ direBei^aro Kal KoXdaeai tmp d^iwp' o5 8' 
avro<i re rja-Orj p^dXiara Kal 'Pcopaicop ol Kpd- 
TiaroL, rovTO Birjyrjaopai. Ylop.irt^tov ^Idypov 
irpoa/SaXoPTOf; AlyvTrrco Kara IlrjXovaiop, ottt)- 
PLKa rrjp p.eydXijp dpxrjp diro^aXcop viro Kaiaapoi; 
e(j)vyep, ol tov ^aaiXew<i en TracBo^ opto^ eiTLrpo- 
7revoPTe<; ep ^ovXfj p^erd tcop (fiiXcop Vjaavy ov Kara 

2 ravra ral^ yp(op,aL<; 4)ep6pepoL. toI<; p,ep yap 
iBoKei Bex^crdat, TOL<i S' drrcoOeiP Alyvirrov top 
dpBpa. Se6BoTo<; Be tk; Xlo<;, eirl paaOw prjropi- 
KO)p Xoycop BiBdcTKaXo'i rw ^aaiXel avpwp, rj^Lco- 
p,epo<i Be TOTS TOV avpeBpiov Bl eprjpiap dpBpcop 
fieXriopcop, dp,(f>oTepov^ BiapLaprdpoPTa^ dire- 
<f)aipe, Kal tol'9 dpaXa^elp Kal tov<; dcjielpai 

3 KeXevopTa<: top Ilop,Trytop' ep yap elpai (rvp,(l>€pop 

198 



I 



BRUTUS XXXII. i-xxxiii. 3 



he held some of its women prisoners of war, he 
released them without ransom. They were the wives 
and daughters of prominent men, and by rehearsing 
the praises of Brutus, calling him a man of the 
greatest moderation and justice, they persuaded them 
to yield and surrender their city. Consequently all 
the rest of the Lycians came and entrusted them- 
selves to him, and found that his goodness and kind- 
ness exceeded their hopes. For whereas Cassius, 
about the same time, compelled the Rhodians indi- 
vidually to pay in to him all the gold and silver they 
possessed (thus accumulating about eight hundred 
talents), and fined the city as a whole five hundred 
talents more, Brutus exacted only a hundred and 
fifty talents from the Lycians, and, without doing 
them any other injury, set out with his army for 
Ionia. 

XXXIII. Many were his memorable achievements 
in meting out rewards or punishments to those who 
deserved them, but I shall here describe only that 
in which both he himself and the chief men of Rome 
took especial pleasure. When Pompey the Great, 
after he had been stripped of his great power by 
Caesar, put in as a fugitive at Pelusium in Egypt, 
tlie guardians of the boy king were holding a council 
with their friends, at which opinions differed. Some 
thought they should receive Pompey, others that 
they should repulse him from Egypt. But a certain 
Theodotus, of Chios, who was attached to the king 
as a paid teacher of rhetoric, and was at this time 
deemed worthy of a place in the council for lack of 
better men, declared that both were wrong, both 
those who would admit and those who would reject 
Pompey ; for there was but one advantageous course 

199 



t>LUTARCH*S LIVES 

€K rwv irapovrcoVy 86^a/j,€vov<; diroKTehat, Kal 
TTpocreTTeliTe rod Xoyou Trauo/xez/o?, ore veKpo<; ov 
hoLKvei. 7rpoa6€fjL6VOV Be rfj yvcofirj rou avvehpiov 
TrapaSetyp^a rwv aiTLarwv koX airpoahoKrjTwv 
6KeiT0 Tiop,7rr)io<i Mayz^o?, tt)? %€oB6tov pr)ropeia<^ 
Kal SeivorrjTo^; epyov, &)? avTO<; 6 (TO(f)io-rr}<; eXeye 

i p,eyaXav'^ovp,€vo^. o\iy(p K vcrrepov iireXOovrof; 
Kalcrapof;, ol pev StVa? tlvvvovtc^ aTrcoWvvTo 
KUKol Ka/ccof;, ©eoSoro^ Be irapa r?)? tv^V^ xP^^^^ 
et9 clBo^ov Kal airopov Kal irXdvrjra ^iov etn- 
Bavei,adp,evo<; rore Bpovrov iiriovra rrjv ^Aalav 
ovK eXaOeVt a)OC avaxO^U real KoXaaOel^i 6vop>a 
Tov Oavdrov irXeov eax^v rj tov filov, 

XXXIV. K.daatov B^ B/ooOro? 6i? ^dpBei^ 
CKdXei, Kal Trpoaiovn p^erd tmv (jilXcov aTTrjVTrjae' 
Kal ird^i 6 arpaTO^ wirXLcr p.evo'^ avroKpdropa^; 
dp,(f>oTepov<; Trpoarjyopevcrev. ola B iv irpdypbacn 
peydXoi<i Kal (f)lXoi<; TroXXot? Kal rjyepoaLV alncov 
avTo2<; tt/jo? dXXrjXovf; eyyevop,epcov Kal Bia^oXoJv, 
TTplv erepov ri rroLelv, €vOv<; €K iropeia^ KaB* av- 
Tov^ iv olK7jp,aTi yevopevoi KeKXcLcrpevcov rwv 
Ovpwv Kal pL7]Bevo<; irapovro^, e^pwi^TO p,ep,yjr€cn 

2 irpoiToVj euT eXeyxoi^ Kal KaTrjyoplac^;. €k Be 
TOVTOv 7r/oo9 BdKpva Kal irapprjcriav perd Tra^ou? 
eK<^epop,evwv, Oavpd^ovre^ ol (j)iXoL rrjv rpa'xy- 
rr}Ta rrj<; opyrjf; Kal tov tovop, eBeiaav p-rj n €K 
TOVTOV yevrjTar irpoaeXOelv Be direiprjTO. Mayo/co9 
Be ^ad)VL0<;, epaaTrj^; yeyovoDf; Karoji/o?, ov X6y<a 

200 



I 



BRUTUS XXXIII. 3-xxxiv. 2 



in view of the circumstances, and that was to receive 
him and put him to death. And he added, as he 
closed his speech, " A dead man does not bite." 
The council adopted his opinion, and Pompey the 
Great lay dead, an example of the unexpected and 
incredible in human life, and it was tlie work of 
Theodotus and his clever rhetoric, as that sophist 
himself was wont to say with boasting.^ A little 
while afterwards, however, when Caesar came, the 
other wretches paid the penalty for their crime and 
perished wretchedly; as for Theodotus, after borrowing 
from Fortune enough time for a wandering, destitute, 
and inglorious life, he did not escape the notice of 
Brutus, who at this time traversed Asia, but was 
brought to him and punished, and won more fame 
for his death than for his life. 

XXXIV. Brutus now summoned Cassius to Sardis,^ 
and as he drew near, went to meet him with his 
friends ; and the whole army, in full array, saluted 
them both as Imperators. But, as is wont to be the 
case in great undertakings where there are many 
friends and commanders, mutual charges and accusa- 
tions had passed between them, and therefore, imme- 
diately after their march and before they did anything 
else, they met in a room by themselves. The doors 
were locked, and, with no one by, they indulged in 
fault-finding first, then in rebukes and denunciations. 
After this, they were swept along into passionate 
speeches and tears, and their friends, amazed at the 
harshness and intensity of their anger, feared some 
untoward result ; they were, however, forbidden to 
approach. But Marcus Favonius, who had become a 
devotee of Cato, and was more impetuous and frenzied 

^ Cf. Pompey, chapters ixxvii.-lxxx. 
■ In the early part of 42 B.C. 

201 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

jxaXXov 7) <popa nvi koI irdOei fiavcfCM (f)L\o(ro(j>G>Vf 
efidSt^ev €L(rco 7rpo<; avTOv<; /€0)\v6/jl€vo<; vtto tcov 

3 oIk€tcjv. aX)C spy op r)v eirLkajBecrdaL ^awvlov lOOC 

TTyOO? OTLOVV 6pOV(TaVTO<i' (TCpoSpO^i yCLp YjV €V TTttai 

Kol irpox^i'po^' eVet to 76 ^ovXevrrjv elvat 
*F(0/xaL(ov eavrov ovSevo^ d^iov rjyelTO, rw he 
Kvvifco) T?}9 7rapp7)aLa<; iroWaKi^ dcjy'^peL rrjv 
XdXeTTOTrjra, koI to cLKaipov avrov fierd 7rathid<; 
Be-x^ofjLevcov. ^ia Brj Tore rcov irapovTcov Btwad- 
/jL€vo<; Ta? Ovpa^ elarfkOe, /nerd 7r\dafiaT0<^ (jicovrj^; 
eirr) irepaivoav oU tov Nearopa ')(^p(o/j,€vov '0/j,7jpo<i 
ireTToirjicev' 

dWd TTiOeaO^' dfji,<f)co Be vecorepco iarop efieto, 

4 Kal rd €^rj<;. 6^' ol<; 6 fiep Kdaaio<; iyeXaaep, 6 
Be BpovTO^ e^epaXep avrop dirXoKVpa Kal ^jrevSo- 
Kvpa TTpoaayopevcop. ov pbr^p dWd Tore rovro 
T?)? 7rpo9 dXX^\ov<; 8La(f)opd<; TroLyjo-dfiepoL 7repa<; 
evOv<; Bt,eXv6r)aap. koI Kaaalov Belrrpop irape- 
'X^oPTO'i ixdXet tov<; (piXov^; BpouTO<;. rjBri Be 
KaTaKeijxevwp ^acoPLO<; rjice XeXovpiepo^' fiap- 
Tvpo/jiipov Be l^povrov /jltj KeKXrjpLepop avrop rjKetv 
KoX KeXevoPTO^ dirdyeiv iirl rrjv dvcordro) kXlptjv, 
^ia irapeXOoop eh rrjp /learjp KareKXiOrj' Kal 
ira.Bidp 6 iroTO^ ^<^X^^ ^^'^ d^dpLV ovB^ d(f)LX6- 
ao(f>ov. 

XXXV. T^ S' vcrrepaia B/doOto? dpBpa 'Po)- 
fialov earpaTTjyrjKOTa Kal 7r€7naTevp.epop vir 



BRUTUS XXXIV. 2-xxxv. i 

than reasonable in his pursuit of philosopliy, tried to 
go in to them, and was prevented by their servants. 
It was no easy matter, liowever, to stop Favonius 
when he sprang to do anything, for he was always 
vehement and rash. The fact that he was a Roman 
senator was of no importance in his eyes, and by the 
"cynical" boldness of his speech he often took away 
its off'ensiveness, and therefore men put up with his 
impertinence as a joke. And so at this time he 
forced his way through the bystanders and entered 
the room, reciting in an affected voice the verses 
wherein Homer ^ represents Nestor as saying : — 

" But do ye harken to me, for ye both are younger 
than I am," 

and so forth. At this Cassius burst out laughing; 
but Brutus drove Favonius out of the room, calling 
him a mere dog, and a counterfeit Cynic.^ However, 
at the time, this incident put an end to their quarrel, 
and they separated at once. Furthermore, Cassius 
gave a supper, to which Brutus invited his friends. 
And as the guests were already taking their places at 
the feast, Favonius came, fresh from his bath. Brutus 
protested that he had come without an invitation, 
and ordered the servants to conduct him to the 
uppermost couch ; but Favonius forced his way past 
them and recHned upon the central one. And over 
the wine mirth and jest abounded, seasoned with wit 
and philosophy. 

XXXV. But on the following day Lucius Pella, 
a Roman who had been praetor and had enjoyed 

» Iliad, i. 259. 

* A follower of Antisthenes was called a " Cynic," or dog- 
like, probably from the coarse and brutal manners affected 
by the school. 

203 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTOv, AevKiov HeWav, %apSiavcov Karrjyopovv- 
Tcop iwl KXoiraU Sij/ioaia Karayvov'; r/rL/j^coae' koX 
TO irpci'y^a KdacTiov ov jxeTpicd^ iXvirrja-ev. avTO<; 
ryap 6Xiyat<; r}/jL6pai<; ef-tirpoadev eVl Tot9 avToU 
iX€y')(OevTa<; dSiKyj/xaaL Svo (^i\ov<} Ihia vovOerrj- 

2 <ra? ^avepS)^ acjyrjKe koI ScereXei XP^H'^^o^' oOev 
ipTiCLTO TOP Bpovrov o)? ciyav ovra vofiifiov Koi 
hiKaiov ev Kaipw iroXiTeia'^ Beofievo) koX (pcXav- 
Opco7rla<;. 6 Be r(bv elScov tcoi^ Mapriojv e/ceXevev 
avTov fivT) fioveveLv ifceivcov, ev at? Yi.aiaapa 
efCTSLvav, ovk avrov ayovra koX (pepovra rravra'^ 
dvOpdyjrovf;, dXX^ eripcov Bvvafitp ovra ravra 

3 TTpaaaovTcov' &)?, €l ti<; can irpo^aai^; kuXtj 
jied' r}<; d/jLeXeLrai to Bl/caiov, afietvov rjv tou9 
K.aLO-apo<; (f)lXov<; vTrop-ireiv 17 tou? eavTwv irepio- 
pdv dBiKovvTa^. "'Kk6lvois fiev yap dvavBpla^, 
dBiKi,a<; Be Bo^a peTo, kivBvvcdv rjplv koi ttovcov 
TTpoaeaTiJ'^ ToiavTrj fiev rj tou JipovTOV irpoai- 
pedL^ Tfv. 

XXXVI. *E7ret Be Biafialveiv e'f 'xVcta? e/ieX- 
\ov, XeyeTUi tw BpouTU> fxeya (rrjfielov yeveaOaL. 
(j^vcrei fiev yap rjv i7r€ypy]yopo<; 6 dvr)p Ka\ tov 
VTTvov ei<i oXiyov ')(^p6vov fiopiov dcTKiqaei Kal 
cr(0(j)poavvrj avvrjyev, rjfjLepa^; fiev ovBeiroTe Koifx(o- 
fievo^, vvKTcop Be toctovtov oaov ovtc ti irpaTTeiv 
ovTe T(p BiaXeyecrOaL, rrdvTwv dvairavo/ievoyv, 
2 Trapelx^' Tore Be tov iroXefxov avpeaTO)To<; ev 
Xepo-lv e^^fov ra? virep tcov oXcov irpd^eL^, Kal 
T€Ta/jLevo<; Ty ^povTiBi tt/jo? to p-iXXov, OTrrjvLKa 
irpoyTOv d(j> eairepafi einvvcTTd^eLe Tol<i aLTioL<i, 
17877 TO XoiTTov e^pijTO Ty vv/ctI 7rpo9 TO, KaTeirei- 
yovTa TO)v irpayfiaTcov. el Be avveXot Kal kutoi- 
204 



BRUTUS XXXV. i-xxxvi. 2 

the confidence of Brutus, being denounced by the 
Sardians as an embezzler of the public moneys, was 
condemned by Brutus and disgraced ; and the matter 
vexed Cassius beyond measure. For a few days 
before, when two friends of his had been convicted 
of the same misdeeds, he had privately admonished 
them but publicly acquitted them, and continued to 
employ them. He therefore found fault with Brutus 
on the ground that he was too observant of law and 
justice at a time which demanded a policy of kind- 
ness. But Brutus bade him remember the Ides of 
March, on which they had slain Caesar, not because 
he was himself plundering everybody, but because 
he enabled others to do this ; since, if there is any 
good excuse for neglecting justice, it had been better 
for us to endure the friends of Caesar than to suffer 
our own to do wrong. ^' For in the one case," said 
he, "we should have had the reputation of cowardice 
merely ; but now, in addition to our toils and perils, 
we are deemed unjust." Such were the principles 
of Brutus. 

XXXVI. When they were about to cross over from 
Asia, Brutus is said to have had a great sign. He 
was naturally wakeful, and by practice and self- 
restraint had reduced his hours of sleep to few, 
never lying down by day, and by night only when 
he could transact no business nor converse with any 
one, since all had gone to rest. At this time, how- 
ever, when the war was begun and he had in his 
hands the conduct of a life and death struggle, and 
was anxiously forecasting the future, he would first 
doze a little in the evening after eating, and then 
would spend the rest of the night on urgent business. 
But whenever he had fully met the demands of such 

205 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KOVo/jLtjcreie tt)V Trepi ravra '^(^peiav, dveyivcoaKe 
fii^Xiov fiexpt- TpiTr)<; (j)v\aK7J<;, Kad' rjv eldiOeaav 
eKarovrapxoi koI %iXtap^oi (potrdv tt/oo? avrov, 

3 ft)? ovv e/xeWev e^ 'Ao-ta? Sia^c/Sd^etv ro arpd- 
T€V/jLa, vv^ fJiev r)V ^aOvrdrrj, ^0)9 5' el^^e/^ ov 
irdvv Xajjurpov r] GKr\vr), irav 5e to (rrpaTOire^ov 
aicoTTT) KareLX^^- o Be avWoyo^o/ievoi; ri koI 
aKOTTOiv irpo^ eavrov eho^ev alaOeadai tivo<; elai- 
ovTO^. aTTO/SXe'v/^a? he irpo^ rrjv el'aoBov opd 
heivrfv Koi dWoKorov oyfnv iK(f)v\ov act)/jLaTO<; Kal 

4 fj)o0epov, aiWTrfi irapearwro^ avTw. roX-yLtT/Va? 
Be epecrOat, " Tt? iror wi^," elirev, " dvdpdnrwv ^ 
OeSiVy rj Tt ^ov\6fxevo<; 7]K€i<i co? rj/id<;;^^ ' T7ro(f)0 ey- 
yerat 8' avrw to (^dafxa' " 'O cro9, w BpoOre, 
Baifiwv KaKog' oxjrei. Be fie Trepl <I>iXt7r7roi»9.'' Kal 
6 BpovTO^ ov BiarapaxOei'i, ''"O-v/ro^a^" elirev. 

XXXVIL ^A(f)apiaO€vro<; B^ avrov tol'9 iralBa^ 
exdXer fxrjre 8' aKovaal riva (pcovrjv jx^r iBelv 1001 
oy^nv (paaKOVTCov, rore fxev eTrr^ypvirvtiaev dfJLa 5' 
T}/Ji€pa Tpairofjievo^ irpos Kdacrtov ecfipa^e rrjv 
oyp-LV. o Be Tot9 ^^Tri/covpov \6yoi<; ;Y/°c6/z.ez^09 Kal 
irepl T0VT(t)V eOo<i exdyv Biacjiepeadai 7r/?09 top 
IBpovTov, " 'YifxeTepo^ outo9," elirev, " co l^povre, 
X0709, ft)9 ov irdvTa Trdaxopiev dXr]0(o<; ovB* 
opodfiev, dXX vypov fiev tc XPV/^^ f^^^ diraTyjXbv 
rj atadrjai^;, cti 5' o^vrepa rj Bidvoia Kivelv avTO 
Kal fieTa^dXXeiv air ovBevo<^ v7rdpxovTO<; eirl 
2 irdaav IBeav. Krjpo) fiev yap eoLKev ^ t) TvirwaL^, 
"^VXV ^* dvOpconov, TO TrXaTTOjjLevov Kal to TrXar- 
Tov exovar] to avTo, paara iroLKiXXeiv avTrjv 

^ eoiKev Bekker adopts the early anonymous correction to 
e^uOev {on loax the impression is outside, but the soul, etc.). 

2o6 



BRUTUS XXXVI. 2^ 

►usmess in sliorter time, he would read a book until 
the third watch, at which hour the centurions and 
tribunes usually came to him. Once, accordingly, 
when he was about to take his army across from 
Asia, it was very late at night, his tent was dimly 
lighted, and all the camp was wrapped in silence. 
Then, as he was meditating and reflecting, he thought 
he. heard some one coming into the tent. He turned 
his eyes towards the entrance and beheld a strange 
and dreadful apparition, a monstrous and fearful 
shape standing silently by his side. • Plucking up 
courage to question it, "Who art thou," said he, 
"of gods or men, and what is thine errand with 
me } " Then the phantom answered : " I am thy 
evil genius, Brutus, and thou shalt see me at Phi- 
lippi." And Brutus, undisturbed, said: "I shall see 
thee." 1 

XXXVII. When the shape had disappeared, Brutus 
called his servants ; but they declared that they had 
neither heard any words nor seen any apparition, 
and so he watched the night out. As soon as it was 
day, however, he sought out Cassius and told him of 
tlie apparition. Cassius, who belonged to the school 
of Epicurus, and was in the habit of taking issue on 
such topics with Brutus, said: "This is our doctrine, 
Brutus, that we do not really feel or see everything, 
but perception by the senses is a pliant and deceitful 
thing, and besides, the intelligence is very keen to 
change and transform the thing perceived into any 
and every shape from one which has no real exist- 
ence. An impression on the senses is like wax, and 
the soul of man, in which the plastic material and 
the plastic power alike exist, can very easily shape 
* Cf. Caesar, Ixix. 5-7. 

207 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kol <T%77/xaTtfe«2^ Bt eavTrj<; vTrapx^i. S7}\.ovcrL Be 
at Kara tou? virvov^ rpoiral rcbv oveLpwv, a? 
TpeTrerat, to (t)avTaaTiKov ef ap^7]<; ^pa')(eia<i 
TravroBaira kol rrdOrj koI elBafka fyLvojxevov. 
KivelcrOaL 8' ael 7re<pvK6' Kiv7]cn<; 8* avTw cj)av- 

3 raala Ti? rj v67]o-l<;. aol Be koI to acopa 
TaXaLTTcopov/jLevov cpvaei ttjv Bidvoiav alwpel kol 
irapaTpeirei. Baip,ova<; 8* ovt elvai mOavov out 
ovTa^ dvO pcoTTCov e')(€iv etSo? t) (f)a)V7]v rj Bvvafitv 
eh r)ixa(; BirjKovcrav' &)? e'ywy av i^ovXo/jirjv, Xva 
fit] /jLovov 07rXo£9 Kal tTTTroi? xal vavcrl ToaavTat^, 
dWd Kal Oeoiv dpcoyat<; eTreOappovpuev, ocTLWTd- 
T(DV epycov kol KaXXtaTcov rjjepove^ ovTe^i^ 
TOLOVTOL^ fjL€v 6 Kd(T(Ti,o^ iirpavve \6<yoi,<; top 

BpOVTOV. 

4 ^^fi^aivovTcov Be tmv (TTpaTtcoTcov eVt ra? 
Trpcora? (TTjfiaia^ deTol Bvo avyKaTaaKYj'^avTe'^ 
ofiov (TvvBieKopl^ovTO, Kal 7rap7]Ko\ovOovv vtto 
Twv (jTpaTLWTMV Tpe(f)6pevoL P'^XP^ ^LXiiriroov. 
eKel B^ VH'^P^ /^^^ '^P^ '^V^ H'^XV'i co;j^oi/TO 
d7ro7rTdp.evoL, 

XXXVIII. Ta p,ev ovv ifkelaTa tmv ev iroaiv 
edvMv eTvyxct'^^v o B/joOto? vinJKoa 'Tr€7roLr]/j.evo<;. 
el Be Ti? 17 7roX£9 rj BvvdaT^i^ irapelTo, TOTe 
7rdvTa<; nrpoaayopevoi p^e^pi tt)^ KaTcu Sdcrov 
6aXd(Tcrr)<; irporjXOov. eKel Be tmv irepl Nop- 
^avov ev toI^ '^t€vol<; Xeyop.evocf; Kal irepl to 
Xvp,fio\ov (TTpaT07reBev6vT(ov, 7repi,e\06vT€<; av- 
Tov? rjvdyKaaav aTroo-Trjvai Kal irpoeadai to, 
2 ^&)/)ta. fjLtKpov Be Kal ttjv Bvvapiv avTcop Xa^elv 
eBerjaav, vTroXenrop^evov Bed voaov Kalaapof;, el 
/JLT) irpocye^orjOr^dev ^Avtcovlo^; o^vitjti $avp,aaT]] 
208 



BRUTUS XXXVII. 2-xxxviii. 2 

and embellish it at pleasure. This is clear from the 
transformations which occur in dreams, where slight 
initial material is transformed by the imagination 
into all sorts of emotions and shapes. The imagina- 
tion is by nature in perpetual motion, and this motion 
which it has is fancy, or thought. In thy case, too, 
the body is worn with hardships and this condition 
naturally excites and perverts the intelligence. As 
for genii, it is incredible either that they exist, or, if 
they do exist, that they have the appearance or the 
speech of men, or a power that extends to us. For 
my part, I could wish it were so, in order that not 
only our men-at-arms, and horses, and ships, which 
are so numerous, but also the assistance of the gods 
might give us courage, conducting as we do the 
fairest and holiest enterprises." With such discourse 
did Cassius seek to calm Brutus. 

Furthermore, as the soldiers were embarking, two 
eagles perched upon the foremost standards and were 
borne along with them, and they kept the army 
company, being fed by the soldiers, as far as Philippi. 
There, only one day before the battle, they flew 
away. 

XXXVIII. Most of the peoples encountered on 
the march Brutus had already brought into subjec- 
tion ; and now, whatever city or potentate had been 
omitted, they won them all over, and advanced as 
far as the Thasian sea. There Norbanus and his army 
were encamped, at w hat were called The Narrows, and 
near Symbolum ; but they surrounded him and com- 
pelled him to withdraw and abandon his positions. 
They almost captured his forces, too, since Octavius 
was delayed by sickness ; and they would have 
done so had not Antony come to his aid with such 

209 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

')(pTjadiJL€vo<;, wctt' airLarelv tou? irepl Bpovrov, 
r]\6e 8e Kalaap varepov r)pepaL<; BcKa, Koi Kare- 
arpaTOTriSevcrev ivavrtov Bpovrov, Kaaaiov Be 

3 Ta 8' €V fxeaw tmv arpaTOTreSwv ireBia 'Vcopaloi 
KaiiTTOVf; (Pi\L7r7rov<i /caXovar koi fjLe'yLarai Tore 
^Vwpaiwv Bvvd/jLei<i aXX?;Aat9 avv6(f)€povTo. ttX?;- 
OeL fiev ovv ov irap oXiyov iXeiTrovro twv irtpX 
Kaiaapa, Koapw 8' oirXwv koI Xa/jLTrporrjTL 6av- 
/jLaorov i^eipdvr] to Bpovrov arpdrevfia. ')(^pvao<; 
'yap r/v avTOi<i rd TrXelara TOiv ottXwv koX dpyvpo<; 
d(p€th(b(; Karwx^oprjyijOetf;, Kaiirep eh rdXXa rod 
BpovTOv (Tu>(f)povL Biairr) koI K6KoXaa ixeir) ^pi]aOac 

t TOL/? r)y€p6va<^ iOit^ovTO^. rov B' ev %e/3crl KaX 
irepl TO (TOdfxa ttXovtov w€t6 ti koX (^povi]paTo<; 
irapex'^t-^ 7"ot9 (j)LXoTtfioTepoif;, tou? Be (piXoKepBel^; 
Kal /juax^P'dJTepov'; iroLelv, wairep KTij/jidTcov tcov 
ottXcov irepLE'X^opevov's. 

XXXIX. 01 fiev ovv rrepl K.aLo-apa xadapfibv 
ev T(p ')(^cipaKL 7roir)adfi€voi,, pt/cpov tl ctltov kuI 
Bpa')(^pd<^ KaT dvBpa irevTe Bieveipav 6l<; Ovaiav, 
ol Be irepX BpovTov KaTayvovre^ avTwv t% diTopLa<^ 
T) pLKpoXoyLa<^, TrpojTov pev ev viraiOpw tov arpa- 
Tov, coairep e^o? ecTTiv, eKdOr^pav, eireid^ lepeLcov 
ttXtJOt) Kara X6)(^ov<i /cal Bpa'^p.d^ eKdaTW TrevTrf- 
KovTa BiaBovTe^i, evvoia koi irpoOvpla r^/? Bvvd- 

2 yu-eco? rrXeov elxov. ov pr)V dXXd arjpelov ev tw 
KaOappbw pox6)]p6v eBo^e KaaaUo yeveadat. tov IOC 
f^dp aTe<pavov avTcp KaTeaTpap,pevov 6 pa^Bov'yo^ 
TTpoaijveyKe. XeyeTai Be koI irpoTepov ev Oea 
Tivl Kol TTOfjuTTTJ ^pvarjv K-uaaLOV Nlktjv BiacpepO' 



2IO 



BRUTUS XXXVIII. 2-xxxix. 2 

"astonishing swiftness that Brutus could not believe 
in it. Octavius came, however, ten days later, and 
encamped over against Brutus, -while Antony faced 
Cassius. 

The plains between the armies the Romans call 
Campi Pliilippi, and Roman forces of such size had 
never before encountered one another. In numbers 
the army of Brutus was much inferior to that of 
Octavius, but in the splendid decoration of its arms 
it presented a wonderful sight. For most of their 
armour was covered with gold and silver, with which 
Brutus had lavishly supplied them, although in other 
matters he accustomed his officers to adopt a tem- 
perate and restricted regimen. But he thought that 
the wealth which they held in their hands and wore 
upon their persons gave additional spirit to the more 
ambitious, and made the covetous even more war- 
like, since they clung to their armour as so much 
treisure. 

XXXIX. Octavius and Antony now made a lustra- 
tion ^ of their armies in their camps, and then dis- 
tributed a little meal and five drachmas to every man 
for a sacrifice ; but Brutus and Cassius, despising 
their enemies' poverty or parsimony, first made lus- 
tration of their armies in the open field, as the custom 
is, and then distributed great numbers of cattle for 
sacrifice among their cohorts, and fifty drachmas to 
every soldier, and thus, in the goodwill and zeal of 
their forces, they were at an advantage. However, 
it was thought that Cassius had a baleful sign during 
the lustration ; for the lictor brought him his wreath 
turned upside down. And it is said that before this, 
also, in a procession at some festival, a golden Victory 
belonging to Cassius, which was being borne along, 
* A solemn review, with ceremonies of purification. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 fjL6vr}v ireaelvy 6\ia66vTo<; rov <f)epovro<;, en 8' 
opved re o-apKO(f)dya TroXXd Ka6' rjixipav €7re0at- 
vero ru> (TTparoTreSfp, Koi pLeXtaawv Mcf^Orjaav 
e(jp,ol o-vvLardfievoL TvepX roirov Tiva rod 'X^dpaKO^; 
evTo^i, ov i^eKkeiaav ol pidvTei<i cK^oaiovjievot ttjv 
EeiaiSaLfiovlav drpi/jLa kol top K^daaiov avrov 
uTTOcpipovaav ck rcav ^^iTLKOvpov \6yo)v, tov<; Be 
(7Tpart(OTa<; iravrdiraai BeSovXoypii tjv. 

4 "OOev ovS* r}v irpoOvfio'^ Sia P'd^^^ eV ru> 
TrapovTL yevkaQai ti]v Kpiaiv, dXXd rpi^eiv r}^iov 
Xpovfp TOP TToXe/jLov, ippcofievov<; XPVM-^^'-^* oirXwv 
he KOL aco/idrcov irXr/Oei XeiTropevovi. 3povTO<i 
Be KoX TTporepov eairevhe tw ra^iarM tojv kiv- 
Bvv(jdv BtaKptOeU V ttj irarpiBi rrjv eXevOeplav 
dvaXa^elv rj irdvra^ dvO pooTrovf; evo)(Xov/jL€vov^ 
Bairdvai^; xal (TTpaTeiai^ kol nrpoardyp^acnv 

5 diraXXd^ai KaKwv, /cal Tore tou? irepl avrov 
iTTTreU opcop 6P rol^ irpodywai Kai rat? dxjrt /lax^'Ci't^^ 
€vr}p,epovpra<i koI fcparovrra^ e^rjpTO ro (fypoprj/ia' 
Kai riP€<; avrop^oXiai yevop^evat iTpo<; tou? rroXe- 
p,Lov<i Kal Sia^oXal Ka6' erepcov kuI viropoLai 
iToXXov^ rcov K.aaaiov (J)lX(op p^erearrjaav eV rep 

6 avveSpLw 7r/309 Bpovrop. eU Be tcop Bpovrov 
(piXcop 'ArtXXfo? TjpavrLOVTOy rov ye x^ipiOipa 
irepipelvai KeXeucov. epopevov Be rov l^povrov 
rlvL peXriwv ecreadai popi^ei per eviavrop, " Et 
p,r)Bep,'^ elirev, ** dXXo, irXeiw /SicoaopaL xpovov'' 
7rpo9 rovro Kacrcrfo? eBucrx^pave, fcal toI<; dXXoL<^ 
TTpocre/cpovcrep ov perpicof; 6 ^ArLXXio<;. eBeBo/cro 
Brj pd'X'^crOaL rfj varepaia. 

XL. Kal B/joOto? pLev iv eXTricri KaXal<; Kal 



212 



BRUTUS XXXIX. 2-xL. i 

Fell to the ground, its bearer having slipped. And 
besides, many carrion birds hovered over the camp 
daily, and swarms of bees were seen clustering at a 
certain place inside the camp ; this place the sooth- 
sayers shut off from the rest of the camp, in order 
to avert by their rites the superstitious fears which 
were gradually carrying even Cassius himself away 
from his Epicurean doctrines, and which had alto- 
gether subjugated his soldiers. 

For these reasons Cassius was not eager to have 
the issue decided by battle at present, but thought 
it best to protract the war, since they were strong 
financially, although inferior in the number of their 
arms and men. Brutus, however, even before this 
had been anxious to have the issue decided by the 
speediest of hazards, that he might either restore 
freedom to his country, or relieve mankind of cala- 
mitous expenditures and requisitions for military 
service. At this time, too, he saw that his horse- 
men were successful and victorious in the preliminary 
skirmishes, and was therefore lifted up in spirit. 
Besides, sundry desertions to the enemy, and sus- 
picions and assertions that others would follow, 
brought many of the friends of Cassius in the council 
over to the side of Brutus. But one of the friends 
of Brutus, Atillius, opposed his wishes, and urged 
delay till winter at least was past. And when Brutus 
asked him how he thought he would be better off 
another year, " If in no other way," said Atillius, " I 
shall have lived longer." At this answer Cassius was 
vexed, and the rest also were not a little annoyed by 
Atillius. So it was presently decided to give battle 
on the next day. 

XL. Brutus was full of hopefulness at supper, and 

213 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

\oyicr/jLot<; ^L\oa6(f)Oi,<i y€v6/jL€V0<; irapa lo Selirvov 
aveTTaveTO' K^daaiov Se MectraXa? (f>7]al heliTvelv 
T€ KaO^ eavTOv oXlyov^; tcov avvrjOwv rrapaXa- 
^ovra, Koi crvvvovv opaaOai. koX aiwirrfkovy ov 
(jyvaet tolovtov ovra' Travaajxevov he rod heiirvov 
\al36jjL€vov tt}? ')(€Lpo<i avTov a(f)68pa rocrovrov 
elirelv, coairep elooOeL <f)L\ocj)povoufx€vo^, 'KWi^vlk^ 

2 <fiwvfi' " MapTvpofial ere, MeaadXa, ravra Hojjl- 
iriytw lslid<yv(p Trda-^eiV, dvayKa^o/nevo^; Slcl /xia? 
fid^T]^ dvapplyjraL rov irepX t?}? TrarpiSof; KvjSov. 
dyadr)V puevTOi '^VXV'^ e^wfxev eh rrjv TV')(^r]v d^o- 
pwvre^i, fj, KCLV /3ov\€vad)fi€0a Aca/cw?, dirLarelp ov 
hiKaiov.^^ ravra elirovra (pijalv 6 MeaadXa^i 
rekevrala irpo<; avrov dcnrdaaaOai rov Kdaawv 
elvai Se K€K\r]/jL€vo<; eh rrjv varepaiav iirl helirvov 
vir avrov yeveOXcov ovaav. 

3 " Kfxa 8* Tjfiepa rrpovKeiro fiev rep ^povrov 
'X^dpaKi Koi rep K.acraL0V av/jb/SoXov dy(Jdvo<^ ^oivi- 
KOV<; "y^iroov, avrol Be avvrjXdov eh to fieaov rcav 
(TrparoTrehcov Ka\ Xeyei Kd(raL0<;' " FjLT) fiev, w 
B/joOre, viKav /cal avvelvai rov rrdvra ')(p6vov 
dXXT]\oi<; ev irpd^avra^;' iirel Be ra fieytara rwv 
dvOpcoTTLVcov dSrjXorara, Ka\ tt}? pLdxr)<; irapd 
yvd>fjLr]VKpi6eL<J7)^ ov pdStov avdi'^ dX\rjXov<; IBelv, 

4 rl yLvd)(TKei^ rrepX (j)vyfj<; Kal reXefT^?;" xal 6 
B/)oi)to? direKpivaro' " Neo? cov eyd}, Kdaaie, Kal 
irpay/jidrcov aTretpo?, ovk olB' oirw^ ev (piXoao(f)La 
Xoyov d<f)rJKa p-eyav. rjrcacrdpLrjv K^drcova 8ia- 
'X^prjadp^evov eavrov, d><; ov^, oaiov ovB^ dvBpb<i 
epyov vTTox^^pelv rq> BalpbovL Kal p^rj Bex^o-Oai to 

6 avpLirLTrrov aSew?, aXX,' drroBiBpdcyKeLv, vvvX S' 



214 



^K^Xi. 



BRUTUS XL. 1-5 



^fter engaging in philosophical discussion, went to 
rest; but Cassius, as Messala tells us, supped in 
private with a few of his intimates, and was seen to 
be silent and pensive, contrary to his usual nature. 
When supper was over, he grasped Messala's hand 
warmly, and, speaking in Greek, as was his custom 
when he would show affection, said : " I call thee to 
witness, Messala, that I am in the same plight as 
Pompey the Great, in that I am forced to hazard the 
fate of my country on the issue of a single battle. 
With good courage, however, let us fix our waiting 
eyes on Fortune, of whom, even though our counsels 
be infirm, it is not right that we should be distrust- 
ful." With these last words to him, Messala says, 
Cassius embraced him ; and he had already invited 
him to supper on the following day, which was his 
birthday. 

As soon as it was day, a scarlet tunic, the signal for 
battle, was displayed before the camps of Brutus 
and Cassius, and they themselves came together 
into the space between their armies. Here Cassius 
said : '* May we be victorious, Brutus, and ever after- 
wards share a mutual prosperity ; but since the most 
important of human affairs are most uncertain, and 
since, if the battle goes contrary to our wishes, we 
shall not easily see one another again, what is thy 
feeling about flight and death ? " And Brutus made 
answer : " When I was a young man, Cassius, and 
without experience of the world, I was led, 1 know 
not how, to speak too rashly for a philosopher. 
I blamed Cato for making away with himself, on the 
ground that it was impious and unmanly to yield to 
one's evil genius, not accepting fearlessly whatever 
befalls, but running away. In my present fortunes, 

VOL. VI. H ^'5 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aWoto(; iv rat? rvxat^ yivojiav fcal Oeov KoXta^ 
ra irapovra /jlt) ^pa^evaavro^ ov heofiai irakiv 
aX\a^ iXTTiBaf; e^eke^yxeiv kqI irapaaKevd^, cOOC 
cLTraWd^ofiaL tt)p rv)(^r]v eTratvoiv Mapriai.<;^ 
€lSoL<i Bov<; rf) nrarplhi rov ifiavrov ^iov dXkov 
6^r)aa hi €K€ivrjv iXevOepov koI evSo^ov" eVl 
TOUTOfc? K.d(Tato(; i/jbeLSiacre koi tov Bpovrov daira- 100 
ad/jL€Vo<;, ^'TaOra," e^^, " (f)povovvTe<; ccopev eVl 
TOV<; 7ro\€/j,LOv<;. rj yap viK/]ao/ui€P rj viK(ovTa<; ov 
<^opY)6r](T6iie6ar 

6 Mera ravra irepX rd^ecof; avroL<; X0709 iyevero 
Toiyv (f)L\(t)V irapovTcov. koi BpoOro? rjrelro Kacr- 
(TLOV avTO^ rjyecaOaL rov Se^tov K€paTO<;, 8l 
ipLireipiav koi rfkLKiav pbdWov fvovTO J^aaaicp 
TTpoarjKeiv. ov firjv dWa Kal rovro Kd(j(7L0<; 
ehwKe, fcal twv ray/jbdrcov rb fia-^^^cp^corarov e^ovra 
MecTo-dXav eKeXeuaev iirl rod Be^tov KaraarfjvaL. 
Kal l^pnvro<; ev6v<^ i^rjye rov<; i7nr6L<i /ceKoafiT)- 
fievov^ BLa-TTpeiro)^, koI to ire^ov ov (T^oXairepov 
irapevepaXXev. 

XLI. "Etu^oi^ S' ol Trepl AvTcoviov diro twv 
eXoiVy 069 TrepLearpaTOTriSevov, efi^dXXovT€<; rd- 
(jipovi et? TO TTehiov koI rd<^ eirl OuXaaaav 6hov<i 
rov Kaaaiov irepLKoirrovre^. e(f)7]8p€ve Be Kal- 
aap, ov irapoDV avro^ BC daOeveiav, dXX^ rj Bvva- 
/i-t?, ov irdvv fia'X^elaOaL izpoaBoKwaa rov<; ttoXc- 
/JLL0V<;, dXXd fiovov eKBpo/iaL<; '^ptjaOat 7rpo<; ra 
epya Kal ^eXeatv €Xa(f)poL<; Kal 6opv/3oi<; rov<s 

2 opvaaovra^ iirirapdaaeLV Kal roL<i dvnrera- 
y/jb€Voi<; ov 7rpoa6')(^ovr€^ edavfia^ov rrjv Trepl ra<; 

^ eTTaivcau- Maprlais Coraes and Bekker have iiraivuv Srt 
(because) MapTiais kt\., after Reiske. 

216 



BRUTUS XL. 5-xLi. 2 

however, I am become of a different mind ; and if 
God does not decide the present issue in our favour, 
I do not ask once more to put fresh hopes and pre- 
parations to the test, but I will go hence with words 
of praise for Fortune ; on the Ides of March I gave 
my own life to my country, and since then, for her 
sake, I have lived another life of liberty and glory." 
At these words Cassius smiled, and after embracing 
Brutus, said : " Thus minded, let us go against the 
enemy ; for either we shall be victorious, or we shall 
not fear the victors." 

After this, they conferred together about the order 
of battle in the presence of their friends. And Brutus 
asked Cassius that he might have command of the 
right wing himself, although his years and experience 
made this post seem more appropriate for Cassius. 
However, Cassius not only granted him this favour, 
but also ordered Messala with the most warlike of 
the legions to take position on the right. Brutus 
at once led out his horsemen magnificently equipped, 
and with no less promptness put his infantry also in 
array. 

XLI. The soldiers of Antony were engaged in 
running trenches from the marshes, at which they 
were encamped, into the plain, thus cutting off Cas- 
sius from access to the sea. Octavius was quietly 
watching the course of events, — not being present 
in person, owing to sickness, but his forces for him ; 
they had no expectation at all that their enemies would 
give battle, but thought they would merely sally out 
against the works and with light missiles and cla- 
morous cries try to disturb the workers in the 
trenches. So paying no attention to their oppo- 
nents, they were amazed at the loud and confused 

217 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Td<j)pov<; Kpavyrjv daijfiov ovaav koX iroWrjv 
7rpO(T(f)€pofiep7]v. ev tovtw ypajJLiiareiwv re irapa 
B/JouTOf TOfc? rjye/jLoa-L <l>OLr(t)VT(ov, iv ol<s r}v ro 
avvOrj/JLa <yey pa fi/juevov, avrov re irape^tovrofi iV- 
TTft) ra rdy/iaTa koI irapaOappvvovro';, oXljol fiev 
€<pOaaav aKovaai to avvdrj/jua Trapeyyvcofjiei'ov, ol 
he irXelaroL firj irpoafieivavre^ ^PP'f) P-^^ '^ott a\a- 

3 \ay/Jiw 7rpo(T€cf>epovTO roU iTo\ep,ioL<;. yevofxevr)<; 
he Si dra^iav ravrrjv di'cop.a\La<; koI SLacrTraa/jLOV 
Twv rayp^drcov rb Mecro-aXa Trpayrov, elra rd 
(Tvve^evyp,eva Trap^Warre to 'K.aiaapo^^ dpiare- 
pov fcal fipa)(^€a tmv iaxdrwv Oiyovref; fcal 
Kara^akovre^ ou ttoWov^;, aXV vTrepKcpdaavre^, 

4 e/xTriTTTOvo-LV €i9 TO (TTparoTreSov. kuI Kalaap 
fieVy ft)9 avTO^ iv rol<i vTrofivij/jbaaiv laropel, tmv 
(f)i\(DV Tivb^ ^Aprcopiov M.dpKov Ka9^ vttvov IB6vto<; 
oyjriv KeXevovaav ifcarrjvaL K.alaapa koI fiereX- 
6elv Ik rov ')(^dpaKO<^, ecfiOaae p.iKpov vTreKKOfxiaOel^ 
eSo^e re reOvdvai, ro yap ^opelov Kevov aKouTtoi^; 
Kul v(jaol<i ^dWovre^ hujfkaaav. rjp Be (f)6vo<; ev 
ra> arparowehw roiv ci\,LaKop.ev(tiv, Kal hiay^iXioi. 
AaKeBaL/jLovicov rjKovre^ eiTLKovpoL vewarl avyKar- 
eKoirriaav. 

XLIL Ot Be p,r) KVKkaxrdpevoL rov^ K.aLaapo<;f 
dWd (Tvp,7re(T6vre<;, paBiw^ jnev direr pe'^jravro rera- 
paypevov^, Kal Bie^dei-pav ev ')(^epa\v ^ rpia rd- 
yiJLara, Kal avvetaeTreaov et? to arparoireSov to?? 
(fyevyovaiv viro pv/jL7}<; rov Kparelv avveve^Oevre^;, 
p,e6^ eavrcjv e')(ovre^ rov ^pourov o S' ov crvvelBov 
2 ol viK(bvre<; eBeiKvve rol's r]rTrj/jL6voi<; 6 Katp6<;. eh 

^ Xfp(r\v conjectured by Sintenis and Bekker : x^P^"^*' 
2l8 



BRUTUS xLi. 2-xLii^ 

mtcries wliich came to them from the trendies. At 
this point, while tickets with the watchword written 
upon them were being carried to his officers from 
Brutus, and while Brutus himself was riding along 
past the legions and eiicouraging them, few of his 
men succeeded in hearing the watchword as it was 
passed along, but most of them, without waiting for 
it, with one impulse and with one war-cry, rushed 
upon the enemy. This disorder threw the legions 
out of line and touch with one another, and first 
that of Messala, then those that had been drawn up 
with it, went beyond the left wing of Octavius ; they 
had only a brief contact with its outermost lines, and 
slew only a few men, but outflanked it and burst 
into their camp. And Octavius, as he himself tells us 
in his Commentaries, in consequence of a vision which 
visited one of his friends, Marcus Artorius, and 
ordered that Octavius should rise up from his bed 
and depart from the camp, barely succeeded in 
having himself carried forth, and was thought to 
have been slain. For his litter, when empty, was 
pierced by the javelins and spears of his enemies. 
Those who were taken prisoners in the camp were 
slaughtered, and two thousand Lacedaemonians who 
had recently come as auxiliaries were cut to pieces 
along with them. 

XLI I. The legions of Brutus which had not out- 
flanked the forces of Octavius, but engaged them in 
battle, easily routed them in their confusion and cut 
to pieces three legions at close quarters ; then they 
dashed into their camji with the fugitives, borne on 
by the impetus of their victory and carrying Brutus 
with them. But here the vanquished saw an oppor- 
tunity of which the victors were not aware ; for they 

2IQ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fyap ra yv/jLva kol irapapprjyvv/Jieva r^? ivavria^ 
<f>d\ayyo<i, rj to Be^ibv aireaTrdaOr) 7rpo<; rrjv Slco- 
^LV, Qiadfievoi to jiev fieaov ov/c i^ewaav, dXX! 
dywvL fjLeydXcp avvei^ovTO, to 3' evoovvfiov aTa^ia 
Koi dyvoLa tojv yevofxevwv eTpey^ravTO kol KaTa- 
hidi^avTe^ eh tov 'X^dpaKa BteiropOovv ovBeTepov 

3 Ta)v avTo/cpaTopcov irapovTO^. ^Avtcovio^ t€ ydp, 
(w? (paaLV, iKK\Lva<i iv dpxfj ttjv €(poBou €t9 to 
eX-09 dvexdyprjo-e, kol Kaiaap ovSafjuov (f>av€po<; r)v 
i/CTreaajv tov ^dpaxo^;, dXkd B/9out6) TLve<i cd<; 
dvyprjKOTefi avTOv iireBeiKwov r]piayfxkva ra ^i(l>r), 
(l)pd^ovT€<; ISiav rjv 6L')(e koi rjXi/cLav. ijSi] Be to 
fieaov €^€ct)K€i, <f>6vw TToWo) Tou? dvT IT eT ay ixevov<i, 
Koi iravTeXo)^ eBo/cec KpaTelv 6 ByaoOro?, (oairep 6 

4 Kao"ato9 KpaTctaOaL. kol tovto fiovov avTCOv 
BiecfiOeipe ra Trpdy/jLUTa, tov jiev o)? vlkcovti Kaa- 
<ji(p fir} ^or]0i]<TavTO<;, tov Be BpovTov o)? diroXay- 
XoTa fiT) 7r€ pLfjL€LvavTO<i' iirel rr)? ^e piKrjf; opov 6 
Meo-craXa? TiOcTac to rpet? dcTov^ fcal iroWa 
arjfieta Xa/Selv tcov iroXefxicop, eKelvov^ Be p.'i^Bev. 100^ 

^Avaxojpcov 5' o BpovTO<i r}Bri BLaTreTropdrj/ievcov 
T(ov K.aLaapo<; edav/xaae to K.aaalov crrpaTT^yLOv 
ovx opMv v\lrrjX6v, wajrep elcoOet, irepiipaivofievov, 
ovBe TaXXa kutu p^copai^* eprjpcTrTO yap €v6u<i to, 
TrXelcTTa Kal KaTeairaaTO twv TzoXefxicov e/juirecrov- 
6 T(i)v. dXX^ ol BoKovvT€<i o^vTepov PXeireiv to)v 
eraipcov ecf)pa^ov avTw iroXXa fiev opav Kpdvr) 
Xd/jLTTOvra, vroXJy.oL'? 8' dpyvpou<; Ovpeov^ ev Ta> 
^dpuKi TOV KaacTLOv Bi,a(f)epo/jL€vov<;' ovkovv Bo- 
Kelv avTol<; ovt dpiO/jiov ov6' onrXLapLov elvai twv 
diroXeXeLfji/jLepcov (pvXd/ccov ov /jlt]v ovBe TrXrjdo^ 



220 



BRUTUS xLii. 2-5 

charged upon the broken and exposed parts of their 
opponents' line, from which the right wing had been 
drawn away in pursuit. The centre did not yield to 
them, but fought them vigorously ; the left wing, 
however, owing to their disorder and ignorance of 
what had happened, they routed and pursued into 
their camp, which they sacked. Neither of the 
generals was with his men ; for Antony, we are 
told, turned aside from the attack at the outset and 
withdrew into the marsh, and Octavius was nowhere 
to be seen after he had forsaken his camp ; indeed, 
sundry soldiers declared that they had slain him, 
showing Brutus their bloody swords and describing 
his youthful appearance. But presently the centre 
drove back their opponents with great slaughter, and 
it appeared that Brutus was completely victorious, as 
Cassius was completely defeated. And one thing alone 
brought ruin to their cause, namely, that Brutus 
thought Cassius victorious and did not go to his aid, 
while Cassius thought Brutus dead and did not wait 
for his aid ; since Messala considers it a certain proof 
of the victory that he captured three eagles and many 
standards from the enemy, while they took nothing. 
As Brutus was returning from his victory, the 
camp of Caesar having been already destroyed, he 
was amazed not to see the tent of Cassius towering 
above the others, as usual, nor the other tents in their 
wonted place ; for most of them had been demolished 
at once when the enemy burst in. But the sharper 
sighted among his companions told him they could 
see many helmets gleaming, and many silver breast- 
plates moving about in the camp of Cassius ; they 
did not think that either the number or the armour 
was that of the garrison left behind ; however, they 

221 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iireKeiva (paiveadat veKpwv oaov €l/co<; rjv veviKT]- 
6 fxevwv Kara KpdTO<^ ray/jLarcov roaovrcov, ravra 
TTpMTOV evvoiav Kariarrjae rw ^povrw tov crvfi- 
irrdipiaTos' Kal KardXiTroov <^povpav iv roS arpa- 
TOireSuf Tcbv TroXefiicov civeKaXetro rov<i BL(OK0VTa<i 
Kal crvvr^yev co? K^acralq) ^orjOrjaayv. 

XLIII. ^KireTTpaKTO 8' ovto) t^ kut avrov. 
0VT6 rrjv TTpGorrjv iK8pop,r}v TOJif irepl ^povrov 
77866)? elBev avev avv6rjfjLaT0<; Kal Trpocrrd'yfMaTO'i 
yevofievrjv, ovd^ ore Kparovvre^ €v6v^ wp/iriaav e'^' 
dp7rayr)v Kal axpeXeLav, rod irepuevaL Kal kvkXov- 
aOai T0U9 iroKefiiov^i d/jL€\7]aavT€<;, rjpeaKev avray 

2 ra iTpaTTOfxeva. /xeW^aet, Be tlvl Kal hiarpL^f) 
fidWov Tj TrpoOvfiia Kal \oyi(T/jia) (Trparijywv vtto 

TOV Se^lOV TCOV TToXe/JLLCOV 7repL€\a/JL^djJ6T0' Kal 

TMV lirirewv €vOv<^ diroppayevrcov (pvyfj tt^oo? rrjv 
ddXaaaav opcov Kal rov<i irel^oix; evhihovra^ iirei- 
paro Karex^iv Kal irapaKaXelv. €vo<; he arjixeio- 
(f)6pov cj)€vyovTO(; d^ap7rdaa<i to aij/jLelop eirrj^e 
TTpb roi)V iroBcoVy p.r}8e rcov irepl to crco/jLa rera- 

3 yixevcDV avrov TrpoOv/jLWf; en avfXfjLevovrwv. ovrio 
Br) ^LaaOel'^i dve'^oyprjcre fier okiywv eirl \6(f>oi' 
exovra tt/jo? to ireBiov (TK07rd<;. aXV aiVo? fiev 
ovBev KarelBev rj p,6\i,<; top ydpaKa iropOovfjievov, 
rjv yap daOevrj^; rrjv osfrtv, 01 Be irepl avrov L7r7reL<i 
edypwv ttoXXou? irpocreXavvovra^, ou? 6 BpouTo? 
eirefjcylrev. eiKaae 8' 6 Kdacno<; TToXefilovf; elvai 
Kal BidiKeiv ew avrov. 6/jL(d<; Be rcov irapovronv 

4 eva Tltlvlov direareike Karoyjro/jLevov. ovrof; ovk 
eXaOe 70v<; linrea^ Trpoaicov, dX)C, o)? elBov dvBpa 
(piXov Kal Kaaalo) marov, d\aXd^avre<i u^' ijBo- 



222 






BRUTUS xLii. 5-XL111. 4 



said, there were not so many dead bodies visible 
there as might have been expected if so many legions 
had been overwhelmed. This was what first made 
Brutus aware of the calamity ; and leaving a guard 
in the captured camp of the enemy, he called his 
men back from the pursuit and united his forces with 
the purpose of assisting Cassius. 

XLII I. With Cassius matters had gone as follows. 
He had been disturbed to see the first sally of the 
troops of Brutus, which was made without watch- 
word or command, and when, being victorious, they 
rushed at once after booty and spoil, with no thought 
for the envelopment of the enemy, he was vexed at 
the way things were going. Besides, exercising his 
command with hesitation and delay rather than with 
readiness and decision, he was enveloped by the 
enemy's right wing. His horsemen at once broke 
away in flight towards the sea, and seeing his in- 
fantry also giving ground, he tried to rally them. 
He snatched the standard from a standard-bearer 
who was in flight, and planted it in the ground 
before him, although not even his body-guard were 
inclined to hold together any more. Thus, then, 
under compulsion, he withdrew with a few followers 
to a hill overlooking the plain. But he himself 
could see nothing, or next to nothing, of the sacking 
of his camp, for his vision was weak ; the horsemen 
about him, however, saw a great troop riding up 
which Brutus had sent. But Cassius conjectured that 
they were enemies, and in pursuit of him. Never- 
theless, he sent out one of those who were with 
him, Titinius, to reconnoitre. The horsemen spied 
this man as he came towards them, and when they 
saw that he was a trusted friend of Cassius, his in- 

223 



I>LUTARCH'S LIVES 

J/?}? ol /jl€v (TWijOei^ rjcTTrd^ovTo re /col iBe^iovvro 
KaTa7rr)B(ovTe<; drro tcov Xttttwv, ol K aWoL irepX 
avrov iv kvkKw 7r6pteXavvovre<i a/ua iraiavi Koi 
Trardyw 8ia ')(apd<; afxerpiau to fxe^yiarov dTreipyd- 
aavTo KaKov. 

5 "E8ofe yap 6 Kd(T(TLO(; d\r)06!)<; vtto tcov TroXe- 
/jLLcov ex€cr0ci.i' '^ov Tltlviov, koX tovto Bt) ^^aa<;, 
** ^Lkoylrv-)(ovvTe<s dvep^eivafjiev dvBpa (plXov dp- 
7ra^6/jL€vov VTTO Twv iroXep.idiv IBelvy^ d7re)(d)prja€V 
et? TLva aK-qvrjv eprj/jLov, eva twv aTreXevdepcov 
i(j)e\Kvadp€vo<;, YIuvBapov, ov ex twv Kara Kpdcr- 
(70V aTvyr^p.drwv eVl tuvttjv elx^ t^^ dvdjKTjv 

6 v(f)^ avrov TrapecrKevaapevov. dWd Tldp6ov<i p,€P 
Bi,i(f)vy€, rore Be rd<; '^XapvBa'; eVl rijv K€(f)aXr)p 
dvayaycov Kal yvp,v(oa'a<; rov rpd')(7JXov dTTOKoyjrai 
irapea-xev. evpeOr] yap rj Ke^aXr] Bi)(a rov dd)' 
paTO<^. rov Be TiivBapov ovB€L<i elBev dvdpdyTrcov 
p,€rd rov (fiovov, ef ov Kal irapeaxev ivLOi^ Bo^av 

7 dveXelv rov dvBpa p,7j KeXevaOei^. oXiycp S' 
varepov oX 6* iinTel<^ eycvovro (pavepoL, Kal Tirt- 
vio<i ear€<^av(Dpevo<i vir' avrcov dvyec 7r/?o? Kacr- 
acov. &)? Be K\av6/lu) Kal /Sofj ro)v <f)LXa)v 
6Bvpop,ev(ov Kal BvcKpopovvrcov eyvw ro 7rdOo<; rod 
arparrjyov Kal rrjv dyvoiav, eairdaaro ro ^L<f)o<i 
Kai TToXXd KaKiaaf; r/}? ^paBvrrjro^ eavrov 
d7rea-(f)a^€. 

XLIV. Bpovrof; Be rr)v p.ev rjrrav €yv(oKQ)<; rov 
K.acraLov TrpoaijXavve, rov Be Odvarov eYYU? i^Brf 
rov x^paKo^i i]Kovae. Kal ro p,ev aoifxa ire pi- 1005 
KXavaa<;, Kal irpoaayopevaa'i taxarov dvBpa 
*P(opaL(ov rov Kdaaiov, co? ovk en rf} TroXec 
rrfXiKovrov <^povi]puro<i eyyeveaQai Bvvap,€vov, 
224 




BRUTUS xLiii. 4-xLiv. i 

timates, shouting for joy, leaped from their horses 
and embraced him warmly, while the rest rode round 
him with shouts and clashing of arms, thus, in their 
boundless joy, working the greatest mischief. 

For Cassius thought that Titinius was actually 
taken by the enemy, and with the words " My love 
of life has brought me to the pass of seeing a friend 
seized by the enemy," he withdrew into an empty tent, 
forcing along with him one of his freedmen, Pindarus, 
whom, after the disaster which befell Crassus,^ he used 
to keep in readiness for this emergency. From the 
Parthians, indeed, he had made his escape ; but now, 
drawing his robes up over his face and laying bare 
his neck, he offered it to the sword. For his head 
was found severed from his body. Pindarus, how- 
ever, no man saw after the bloody deed, and there- 
fore some have thought that he slew his master 
unbidden. A little later it became evident who the 
horsemen were, and Titinius, whom they had crowned 
with garlands, came up to report to Cassius. But 
when the lamentable cries of his distressed and 
weeping friends made known to him the grievous 
fate of his general and his error, he drew his sword, 
reproached himself bitterly for his slowness, and slew 
himself. 

XLIV. When Brutus learned of the defeat of 
Cassius, he rode towards him, but heard of his death 
when he was already near his camp. He mourned 
over the body, and called Cassius "the last of the 
Romans," implying that such an exalted spirit could 
no longer arise in the city. Then he decked the 

\ 

* Cassius had been quaestor for Crassus on the disastrous 
Parthian expedition in 53 B.C. {Crassus, xviii. 5). 

335 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrepieareLke /cal aTreTre/Jiyjrev et? Sdaov, a)9 fJ'r, 

2 Gv^-^vcJiv avTodi irapdcrxoi' KrjSevofievov. avTO<i 
Be TOL'9 aTpaTia)Ta<i avvayaycov Trapefivdrfa-aTO' 
Koi TrdvTcov opcdv direaTeprjp.evov's twv dvayKaicov 
vireax^TO Kar dvopa Bi(T')(^L\ia^ hpa^P'O.'^ dvrl 
rcov dTTciXcoXoTcov. ol Be Trpo? re rov<s Xoyov; 
dveddppr]<Tav avrov koI Trj<i Bo)ped<; eOavpLacrav 
TO fjueyeOof;' /cat perd ySorj? 7rpoiJ7rep,\jrav dniovra, 
p,eya\vvovTe<; co? povov drjTTTjTov ev rfj P'd^J) tcop 

3 recradpwv avTOKparopcov yeyevrfpevov, epaprvpei 
Be TO epyov otl rfj pd^rj TrepLeaeaOat Ka\(o<; 
iiTicrrevev' oXlyoif; yap rdypaaiv diravra'^ erpe- 
ylraro tou? (^/i^Tfo-Tai^ra?. el Be iraaiv e)(prjaaTO 
7rp6^ T7)v P'd^r)v Koi p>r] 7rape\06vT€<; ol TrXelcTTOL 
tou? TToXeplovf; eVl rd rwv iroXeplaiv Mpp^rjaav, 
ovBev dv eBoKet piepo^; avTwv diroXLirelv d-qr- 
TTjrov. 

XLV. "KirecTov Be rovrwv pev 6icTaKL(r\IXt>oi 
(Tvv roL<; aTpaTevopLevoi<; olKeraL<^, ov<; BpLya<; 6 
UpovTO^ wvopate- rwv B* ivaprlcov MerrcraXa? 
(prjalv o'leaOai TrXetou? r) BcTrXaaLov^. Bio Koi 
pidWov rjOvpovv eKelvoL irplv rj K.aaaLOv depdirayv 
ovopLrt A7]p7]Tpio<; dcfiiKero Trpb*; ^Avtcovlov ea-rre- 
pa<;, ev6v<; diro tov veKpov ra? ')(\apivBa<; Xa^oov 
2 Kal to ^L(f)0^. 0}V KopaaOevTwv ovrco^; iddppijaav 
wcrre dp r/puepa irpodyeiv dyirXLcr pevqv eirl pd^rj 
rrjv BvvapLV. Bpovrro Be rcov arparoTreBcov cku- 
repov aakevovTo^ €7rLa(paX(o<; (to pev yap avrov 
KaraTreTrXrjapLevov alxpaXcorcov eBelro (^vXa'crj^ 
dKp{,^ov<i, TO Be Kaaalov rrjv pL€raj3oXr]v rod 
dpxovTO<i ov paBiw<i e^epev, dXXd Kal <j>66vov 



226 



BRUTUS XLiv. i-XLv^ 

body for burial and sent it to Thasos, in order that 
the funeral rites might not disturb the camp. He 
himself, however, assembled the soldiers of Cassius 
and comforted them ; and seeing that they were 
deprived of all the necessaries of life, he promised 
them two thousand drachmas the man, to make good 
what they had lost. They were encouraged by his 
words and amazed at the largeness of his gift ; and 
they sent him on his way with shouts, exalting him 
as the only one of the four commanders who had 
not been defeated in the battle. And the results 
bore witness that his confidence in a victory in the 
battle was well grounded ; for with a few legions he 
routed all those opposed to him. And if he had 
employed them all in fighting, and if the most of 
them had not passed by the enemy and set upon the 
enemy's possessions, it would seem that his victory 
must have been complete. 

XLV. There fell on his side eight thousand men, 
including the camp servants whom Brutus called 
Briges ; ^ but the enemy, in the opinion of Messala, 
lost more than twice as many. They were therefore 
the more dejected of the two, until an attendant of 
Cassius, named Demetrius, came to Antony in the 
evening, bringing the robes and the sword which he 
had taken at once from the dead body. This en- 
couraged them so much that at break of day they 
led their forces out arrayed for battle. But both the 
camps over which Brutus had command were in dan- 
gerous straits. His own was filled with prisoners of 
war and required a heavy guard; while that of Cassius 
was dissatisfied with the change of commanders, and 
besides, as vanquished men, they were full of hatred 

1 The name of a Thracian tribe (Herodotus, vii. 73). 

227 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tt Kol fiia-ov; r)TTr)iJLevoL<; ivfjv avTol<; irpo'; to 
vevtfcrjKOf;), oTrXiaat fxev eho^e to arpdrevfia, 

3 yaa;^*?^ ^' dTriarx^ro. rwv B^ al^fiaXcoTcov to /jlcp 
SovXlkov 7r\i]6o<; iveLkovfxevov l'ttottto}? to?? ott- 
\oi^ eKekevcrev dvaipeOrjvai, twv 5' iXevOepcdv 
Tou? fiev direkve <j)daK(ov viro t&v TroXefiicov 
jiaXkov r)\wKei>ai avTov<; ^ Kal Trap' eKeivoL^ 
al-^^fiaXcoTov^ elvai koI Bov\ov<;, Trap' avTw 5' 
i\€vOepov<; Kal irokira^' w? he tou? <f)i\ov<; ecopa 
Kal Tou? rjye/jLova^ dhtaWdfcrco^ e'Xpvra^f diro- 
KpvirToyv Kal avveKirejMirwv eaw^ev. 

4 'Hi^ he T^9 ^oXovfjLVLO^ filfjio^ Kal ^aKovkiwv ye- 
\ft>T07ro£09 TjXayKOTef;, ou? iv ovSevl Xoyw riSefievov 
rov BpovTov TTpoo-dyovre^i ol <J)lXol Karrjyopovv 
&)? ovBe vvv Tov Xeyeiv Kal crKcoTrreiv Trpo^ v^ptv 
avrayv d7re')(ppLevov<^. eVet he Bpovro<; fiev eaiya 
TTpo? erepaL^ cjv ^povrtai, Me<7(TdXa<; he Kop/Scvoff 
ehiKaiov irXrjyal^ KoXaaOevra^; eirl aKr}vr]<; yv- 
fivov^ dirohodrjvat Tot? (rTparr)yoL<; tmv TroXefiucov, 
OTTCoq elhoidiv oiwv heovrai (Trparevoixevot (tv/jl- 

5 TTOTcov Kal (TvvrjOcov, evLOL /lev tcov irapoprtov 
eyeXaaav, IIoTrXfo? he KdaKa<;, 6 tt/dwto? Kat- 
aapa irard^af;, " Ov KaX(o<;,'* ^(j)rj, " reOvrjKOTL 
K^acraLO) irai^ovre^ Kal y€X(i)T07roiovvT€<; evayi^o- 
jiev (TV he" elirev, ** w Bpovre, Setfei? ottw? e^ef? 
fjLVTjfjLT]^ TT/oo? Toz^ (TTpaTi]ybv T) KoXdaa<; rj ^v- 
Xd^a'^ rov<; ^(Xeuaao/xevov^; Kal KaKco<; epovvTa<i 

6 avTop.^' TTyoo? rovTO B/douto? ev fidXa hva'^^e- 
pdva<;, "Tl ovv," elirev, "e/Jiov irvvOdveaOe, KdaKa, 
Kal ov irpdrrere to ho^av vfilv^ ravrrjv eKelvoi 
Tr)v diroKpiaiv avyKardOeaiv TTOiTjadjievoi Kara 

* avTohs bracketed by Sintenis*. 
228 




BRUTUS XLV. 2-6 

and jealousy towards those who had been victorious 
Brutus therefore decided to put his army in array, 
but to refrain from battle. Moreover, the multitude 
of slaves among his captives were found suspiciously 
moving about among the men-at-arms, and he or- 
dered them to be put to death ; of the freemen, 
however, he released some, declaring that they had 
more truly been captured by his enemies, in whose 
iiands they were prisoners and slaves, while with 
him they were freemen and citizens ; and when he 
saw that his friends and officers were implacably 
hostile to them, he saved their lives by hiding them 
and helping them to escape. 

Among the prisoners there was a certain Volum- 
nius, an actor, and Saculio, a buffoon, to whom Brutus 
paid no attention ; but the friends of Brutus brought 
them forward and denounced them for not refraining 
even now from insolent and mocking speeches to 
them. Brutus had nothing to say, being concerned 
about other matters, but Messala Corvinus gave his 
opinion that they should be publicly flogged and then 
sent back naked to the enemy's generals, in order to 
let these know what sort of boon companions they 
required on their campaigns. At this some of the 
bystanders burst out laughing, but Publius Casca, the 
one who first smote Caesar, said : " It is not meet 
for us to celebrate the funeral rites of Cassius with 
jests and mirth ; and thou, Brutus, wilt show what 
esteem thou hast for the memory of that general 
according as thou punishest or shieldest those who 
will abuse and revile him." To this Brutus, in high 
dudgeon, said : " Why, then, do ye enquire of me, 
Casca, instead of doing what seems best to you ? " 
This answer was taken to be a condemnation of the 

329 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tcui/ aOXicov avOpcoTTCOv, hie^deipav avrov^ aira- 

XLYI. 'E/c TOVTOv TTjv hwpeav airiBcoKe toI<; 
a-TpaTLiOTai<;, kol /uiKpa fi€/j.yjrd/jL6vo^ iirl rw to 
avvOrjp^a fiT) \a^6vTa<; dvev 7rapayyeX/jLaT0<; 
dra/cTOTepop ivaXiadai rot? TroXe/itot?, vireax^ero 
KaXcxx; d'y(t)ViaaixevoL<; hvo 7r6\ec<; eh dpirayrjv 
Kal ccK^eXeiav avrjaeiv, ©eaaaXoviKriv koX AaKe- 1006 

2 Balfiova. tovto tm ^povrov ^lw fiovov evean 
Ta)v ey/cXrj/jidrcov dvaTToXoyrjrov, el Kal ttoXv 
TOVTCov heivorepa vL/crjr7]pia roh aTpaT€uo/ii6i'Oi<; 
*AvTcovio(; Kal K^alaap i^eTiaav, oXiyov hetv ird- 
<r779 'IraXta? Toij<i TraXatou? olKjjropaf; i^eXd- 
(TavT€^y Xva ydipav eKelvoi Kal iroXei^i rd<; fir) 

3 TrpocDjKovcra^ Xd^wcnv. dXXd rovToi<; fxev dp-)(€iv 
Kal Kparelv vTreKetro rov iroXe/iiov TeXo<;, l^povro) 
8e Bid Bo^av dperrj^; ovre vlkclv ovt6 aw^eaOac 
o"ui>e;)^ft)/?6tTO irapd tmv ttoXXwv r) fjuerd rov KaXov 
Kal BiKaiov, Kal ravra Kaaauov reOvrjKoro^s, o? 
alriav €l)(e Kal ^povrov ivdyetv et? €ina tmv 

4 ^Laiorepwv. dXX^ ojairep iv ttXw TrtjBaXiov 
(TVVTpL^evro^ erepa ^vXa TrpoarjXovp Kal TTpoaap- 
fjLOTTeLv iTTtx^Lpovatv, ovK €v jJLev, dvayKala Bi^ 
fiaxopevoi 7rpo<; rrjv ')(^peiav, ovtco BpoOro? iv 
BvvdfjL€i Tocravry Kal fiereaypoLf; 7rpdy/ia(Tiv ovk 
€\wv iaoppoirovvra arpari^yov rjvayKd^ero XPV' 
aOat T0t9 irapovcTL Kal iroXXd irpdao-eiv Kal 

6 Xeyeiv TOiv eKeivoi<^ Bokovvtcov. iBoKct, B^ oaa 
TOV<; K^acraiov aTparLcora^; (povro ^€Xtlov<; irape- 
^etv Bvafieraxeipt'OrToi yap rjaav, iv fiev rat 
arparoireBa) Bi dvapxictv OpaavvofievoL, rrpo^; Be 
T01/9 TToXefxiov^ Bid rrjv rJTrav diroBetXiayvTe^;, 
230 



BRUTUS XLV. 6-xLvi. 5 

poor wretches, and they were led off and put to 
death. 

XLVI. After this, he gave the soldiers their pro- 
mised rewards, and after gently chiding them for 
not getting the watchword and for rushing upon the 
enemy without command and in great disorder, he 
promised that if they now fought well, he would 
turn over to them two cities for plunder and booty, 
Thessalonica and Lacedaemon. This is the only accu- 
sation in the life of Brutus against which no defence 
can be made, even though Antony and Octavius 
practised far greater cruelty than this in rewarding 
their soldiers, and drove her ancient inhabitants out 
of almost the whole of Italy, in order that their 
followers might get land and cities to which they 
had no riglit. But in their minds conquest and do- 
minion were the end and object of the war ; whereas 
Brutus had such a reputation for virtue with the 
multitude that he was not permitted either to conquer 
or to gain safety except with honour and justice, 
especially now that Cassius was dead, who was ac- 
cused of leading Brutus with him into some acts of 
violence. But just as sailors, when their rudder has 
been shattered, try to fit and fasten other timbers 
in its place, striving to meet their needs, not well, 
indeed, but as best they can, so Brutus, not having 
in his great army and dangerous plight a general 
who was equal to the emergency, was forced to 
employ such as he had, and to do and say many 
things which they approved. And so he decided to 
do whatever they thought would make the soldiers 
of Cassius better men. For these were very intract- 
able ; their lack of a leader made them bold in camp, 
wliile their defeat made them afraid to face the 

enemy. 

^ 231 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XLVII. OvBev Be /SiXrLov el^^ t^ TrpdyfiaTa 
TOt? Trepl Kalo-apa Kal ^Avrcoviov, dyopa re 
')(^p(0/jL6V0L<; dvayKaia Kal Sid KOLXorrjra rod 
(TTpaTOTriBov -^eificova iJLO')(dripov irpoaBoKCocnv. 
ei\ovfjL€voL <ydp tt/oo? eXeat, Kal fierd rrjv fjLd')(rjv 
6fi/3po)v (pdivoTTcopLvcov iTTiyevo/jievcov infXov Kar- 
eirifjiirXavro rd<i (TKrjvd^ Kal vSaro^ Trapaxprjfia 

2 TTTjyvvfjLevov Sid yjrvxo'i. iv tovtw 5' ovaiv avroU 
r)K€v dyyeXia rrepl r^? Kard OdXarrav yevofievrj^ 
drvxt'd^ irepl ttjv arpaTidv. e'f 'IraXta? ydp 
iroXXrjv Ko/jLi^ofievijv irapd KaL(Tapo<; at Bpovrov 
vi]€^ eTTLTrecTovaat Siecjidetpav, wv oXiyou iravrd- 
iraat rov^i iroXefjiiov'^ Si,acf)vy6vT6<; vtto Xi/jlov tmv 
lariwv Kal rwv a^oivicov eadtovre^; Sieyivovro. 
ravT dKovaavT6<; eairevSov Sid /jLd)(r]^ KpiOrjvai 
irptv alaOeaOai rov "Bpovrov ocrov avrat yeyovev 
evTVxicL^' Kal ydp rj/Jbipa fiia avve^rj rov re Kard 
yrjv dfia Kal rov Kard OdXarrav dywva KpiOijvai. 

3 TUXD Se rivi /xaXXov i) KaKia roiv ev rah vavalv 
rjyefiovcov rjyvorjae ro Karopdw/xa Bpovro<; rj/nepwv 
€LKO(Ti Siayevo/xivcDV. ov ydp dv eU Sevrepav 
fidxv^ rrporjXde, rd fxev dvayKala rfj arparia 
7rapeaKevao-/bievo<i et? ttoXvv ')(p6vov, iv KaX(p Se 
rrj^ ^copa? ISpvfiePO^t ware Kal ')(^6ifjL(ovo^ drraOe^; 
Kal 7rpb<; rov<; 'TroXe/jLiOV<i SvcreK^iacrrov e\€iv ro 
arparorreSov, rw Se Kpareiv /3€^aLCM)<; t?}? OaXdrrt]^ 
Kal vevLKTjKevat Tre^rj ro Ka6^ avrov err* eXiriSbyv 
fjLeydXwv Kal ^povrjixaro^ yeyovoi)<;. 

4 'AWa r(bv Trpay/idrcov, &)? eoiKev, ovKeri 
TToXXoL^ ovreov KaOeKrwv, dXXd iJLOvap\ia<^ Seo- 
/xevcov, 6 Oeo^, e^dyeiv Kal fierao-rrjaai rov fiovov 
ifjuTToSajv ovra tw Kpareiv Suva/neva) ^oyXofievQ^, 
232 



BRUTUS xLvii. 1-4 

XLVII. But Octavius and Antony were no better 
off; they were scantily provisioned, and the low site 
of their camp made them expect a grievous winter. 
For they were huddled together on the edge of 
marshes, and the autumn rains which fell after the 
battle kept filling their tents with mud and water 
that froze at once, so cold was the weather. More- 
over, while they were in this plight, word came to 
them of the disaster which had befallen them at sea. 
For a large force which was being brought from 
Italy by command of Octavius was attacked by the 
ships of Brutus and destroyed, and the small remnant 
of them that escaped their enemies were driven by 
hunger to subsist upon the sails and tackle of their 
ships. On hearing of this, they were eager to have 
the issue decided by battle before Brutus learned 
what great good fortune had come to him. For it 
happened that the conflicts on sea and land were 
decided on one and the same day. But by some 
chance, rather than by the fault of his naval com- 
manders, Brutus was ignorant of their success until 
twenty days afterwards. Otherwise he would not 
have proceeded to a second battle, since his army 
was supplied with provisions for a long time, and he 
was posted in an advantageous position, so that his 
camp did not suffer from wintry weather, and on the 
side towards the enemy was almost impregnable, 
while his secure mastery of the sea and the victory 
of the land forces under his own command had put 
him in high hopes and spirits. 

But since, as it would seem, the government of 
Rome could no longer be a democracy, and a mon- 
archy was necessary. Heaven, wishing to remove 
from the scene the only man who stood in the way 

^33 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

arreKo-^e rrjv rv^V^ eKeivrjv, Kaiirep iyyvrdroi rov 
fir] \a6elv rov Bpovrov a^LKOfievrjv, fieWovro^; 
yap avTov fid^eaOai irpo fJLid<; r)/iepa<; 6\j/^€ KXco- 
Si6<; Tt? eV Twv 'TToXe/jLLcov avr6/jLo\o<; rjKeVy dyyeX- 
\(ov on hie^Oapfievov yaOrj/xevoi rov aroKov ol 

5 irepl Kataapa airevhovcn hiayayviaacrOai,. ravra 
Xeyayv 6 avOpcoiro'; ovk ei')(e irldTiv ovS* et? oyjriv 
yXOe TO) ByoovTft), KaTa^povy^OeX^ Travrdiracnv 0)9 
fiTjSev dK7]Koa)<; vyie^ rj ra y^evhi) Trpo? X^P''^ 
dirayyeXXwv. 

XLVIII. 'Ei/ €K€Lvr) Be TTJ vvktI irdXiv (paalv 
eh o-yfnv eXOelv to ^ddfxa rw Bpovrw, kol rrjv 
avrrjv eirihei^dfjievov oyjnv ovSev elirelv, dXX* 
OLxecrOai. IIo7rXto9 Be BoXov/jlvlo'^, dvrjp (^lXo- 
ao(f)Ofi Kal (rvvecTrparevfievo^; dir dpx^<; Bpoi^TO), 
TOVTO fiev ov Xeyei to arj/ielov, fJueXitrawv Be (prjai 1001 
rov irpoiTov derov avdirXecdv yevkaOar kul rcjv 
ra^idpxoiv tlvo^ dir avrofidrov rov fipa^^ova fiv- 
pov poBivov e^avOeiv, kol vroWa^ri? e^aXei(^ovra<^ 

2 Kal dTTOfxdrrovra<^ fJbrjBev Trepaiveiv. Kal rrpo rfj<; 
/■Jid^V^ (ivrr)<; derov<; Bvo (Tv/jL7r6a6vra<; dXXTjXoif; 
iv fieratXP'i'O) rwv arparoireBcov fJidxecrOai, Kal 
(Ttyrjv diriarov ex^tv ro ireBiov 6e(£>p,evwv dirdvrwv, 
el^at Be Kal (pvyelv rov Kara Bpovrov. 6 Be 
AlOio^ 7r€pt/36r]ro<; yeyovev 6 rr}(; vvXtj^; dvoi- 
X0eia7]<; diravri^aa'^ ro) (pipovrc rov derbv Kal 
KaraKoweU ral<i /juaxaipai^ virb rcbv arpariwrayv 
olwviaajjLevwv. 

XLIX. Yipoayaya>v Be rrjv <f)dXayya Kal Kara- 
arTjaa^ evavriav roh 7roXe/jLioi,<; enelxe iroXiiv 
Xpbvov vTroyjriai yap avrw Kal fJLrjvvaei^; Kara 



234 



1 



r 

l^m him 



BRUTUS xLvii. 4-XLIX. I 



him who was able to be sole master, cut oft from 
Brutus the knowledge of that good fortune, although 
it very nearly reached him in time ; for only one day 
before the battle which he was about to fight, late 
in the day, a certain Clodius deserted from the 
enemy, and brought word that Octavius had learned 
of the destruction of his fleet and was therefore 
eager for a decisive struggle. The man found no 
credence for his story, nor did he even come into 
the presence of Brutus, but was altogether despised ; 
it was thought that either he had heard an idle tale, 
or was bringing false tidings in order to win favour. 

XLVIIl. On that night, they say, the phantom 
visited Brutus again,^ manifesting the same appear- 
ance as before, but went away without a word. 
Publius Volumnius, however, a philosopher, and a 
companion of Brutus in all his campaigns, makes 
no mention of this omen, but says that the fore- 
most standard was covered with bees ; and that of 
its own accord the arm of one of the officers sweated 
oil of roses, and though they often rubbed and wiped 
it off*, it was of no avail. He says also that just 
before the battle itself two eagles fought a pitched 
battle with one another in the space between the 
camps, and as all were gazing at them, while an 
incredible silence reigned over the plain, the eagle 
towards Brutus gave up the fight and fled. And the 
story of the Ethiopian is well known, who, as the 
gate of the camp was thrown open, met the standard- 
bearer, and was cut to pieces by the soldiers, who 
thought his appearance ominous. 

XLIX. After Brutus had led out his forces in battle 

array and stationed them over against the enemy, he 

waited a long time ; for as he was reviewing his 

* See chapter xxxvi. 

235 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

riva)v TTpoo-einirTOv einaKoiTovvTi to aTpdrevfia' 
Koi Tov<i tTTTrea? eoopa fid^rj^; dp')(eLv ov irdvv 
Trpodvfwv^s ovraifi aXX del 7rpoafjL€VovTa(i to t&v 

2 ire^o)v epyov. elr i^ai^vr)<; dvT)p TroXe/it/co? xal 
T€T i,fjL7]/jLevo(; 67r' dvhpeia hLairpeTroi'i Trapd top 
^povTOv avTOP e^LTnracrd/jievo'i /jLera^dWerai 
TT/Do? T0V9 7^o\e/x^oL'9• Ka/jLOv\dTo<; Be ifcaketro. 
rovTov 18q)v 6 Bpoi)T09 7]Xyr}a€V l(T)(^up(o<;' xal ra 
fiev vtt' 6p<yr)<;, rd Be (f)6^(p yLtetfoj/o? fjLera0o\rj(; 
Kol irpoBoaia'; evdv<; irrl tou? evavTiov^ r)<yeVi eh 

3 oiipav epdrrjv rov rjXiov Karate pofievov. Koi Tft) 
^ev KaO* avTOV eKpdrrjae fiepeL Kal TrporjXOev 
VTTOX^povvTL Tft) dpiarepo) rodv iroKepLlwv iyfcei- 
fievo^i' Kal avveireppwcrav ol I'mreh dfia roh 
Trefot? €/jL^aX6vT€<; TeTapayp,evoL<;' to S* cTepov 
K€pa<;, CO? /jLtj KVKkwOeir), tcov rjyepiovwv dvTiirape^- 
ayovTwv, TrXrjOeL Be XeLTrofiivayv, BiecnTdTo jxeaov 
fcal yiyvopLevov daOeve<; ov/c dvTel')(e roh ivavTL0L<;, 

4 aW* €<^vye TrpcoTOv. ol Be tovto BtaKoyfravTe^ 
ev6v<i eicvKkovvTO tov BpoOror, avTov /xev oaa kuI 
(TTpaT7]yLKrj<^ Kal (rTpaTLO)TiKrj<; dpeTrj<i epya Kal 
X^^P'' ^^^ yvd)/jL7) irapd ra Beivd 7rpo<i to vlkclv 
diroBeiKvypLevov, m Be irXeov ecr^e ttj irpoTepa 
P'^XV' '^ovT(p ^XaTTTO/juevov. tcov fiev yap TroXe- 
/jllcov to vLKrjOev evOv<; diroXcoXeL Tore* t(ov Be 
Kaaalov TpairevTcov oXiyoL Bce<f)Odp-)]aav, ol Be 
a-(o^6/jLepo(, Tft) 7rpo7jTTr]crOai irepiBeei^; 01/T69 dve- 
irXrjaap ddvp,ia<i Kal Tapa^rj^ ro irXelaTOP tov 

6 aTpaTev/iiaTO<;. ipTavda Kal MdpK0<i 6 KaTa)i/09 
236 



BRUTUS xLix. 1-5 

iroops he became suspicious of some of them, and 
heard them accused of treachery ; he saw, too, that 
his horsemen were not very eager to begin the battle, 
but always waited to see what the infantry did. Then, 
of a sudden, a man who was a good soldier and had 
been conspicuously honoured for his bravery by 
Brutus, rode out of the ranks and went over to the 
enemy ; his name was Camulatus. The sight of this 
gave Brutus great distress ; and partly from anger, 
partly because he was afraid of greater treachery and 
desertion, he led at once against the enemy, at about 
three o'clock in the afternoon. With the part under 
his own immediate command he was victorious, and 
advanced, pressing hard upon the retreating left 
wing of the enemy ; his cavalry, too, dashed forward 
along with the infantry and fell upon a disordered 
foe ; the other wing, however, which was extended 
by its commanders to prevent their being surrounded 
by the enemy, to whom they were inferior in num- 
bers, was thus weakened in the centre and could 
not hold out against their opponents, but fled first. 
After cutting their way through this wing, the enemy 
at once enveloped Brutus. He himself displayed all 
the valour possible in a soldier and commander, con- 
tending with judgment and personal prowess for 
victory in the terrible crisis; but that which was an 
advantage for him in the former battle was a detri- 
ment to him now. For in the former battle the 
conquered wing of the enemy had been at once de- 
stroyed, but when the soldiers of Cassius were routed, 
only few of them were slain, and those who then 
escaped, rendered fearful now by their former defeat, 
filled the greater part of his army with dejection and 
confusion. Here Marcus the son of Cato also, fighting 

237 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

f/o9 iv roU apiaTot.<; koX yevvaLOTdTOi<; tmv vewv 
fjLax6/ii€vo<; KaX KaTairovovixevo^ ovk 6(f)vy€v ovS* 
€i^€u, dWa ')(^poDfi6v6<; re rfj X^^P'' '^^^ (f>pd^ci)v 
o<7Tfc9 €L7j, Kal irarpoOev ovo/id^cov, eireaev eVl 
7roXX,oi9 veKpol<i rcov TroXe/nLcov. eiriTrrov 8e Koi 
Tcov dXXcov ol KpdriaTOL rod l^povrov irpoKLv- 
hvvevovTe^. 

L. 'Hz^ he Tt9 AouATtXXio?, dvr^p dya66<;, iv rol<; 
€TaipoL^, ouTo? 6p(ji)v fiap^dpov<; rivd^ LTTTrca^i 
iv rfj Scco^ei tcjv jiev dWcov ovSeva 7roi,ov/jievov<; 
\6yov, i\ax)vovTa<i he pvhTjv iirl rov ^povrov, 
eyvw TrapaKLpSvvevaa^ ip,7ro8ci)v avrol^ yeveadai. 
KoX fXLKpov vTroXeicpdel^; avro^; €cf)rj ByDoOro? elvar 
Kol TTiOavo'^ Tjv TTpo^ ' AvTcopLov SeoyLtez^o? dy€LV 
eavTov, ft)? K^aicrapa Sehoifccof;, eKeivtp he Oappa)v» 

2 ol 8' dairaodpievoL to evprffia Kal Tv^y rivl 
davfiaarfj Ke^p^crOaL vo/jll^ovtc^ rjyov rov dvhpa 
aKOTovf; rjhrj, TTpoTre/jLyjrapre^ ef avrcjv rcva^; 
dyyeXov^ irapd rov 'Avrooviov. avr6<; re ovv 
rjaOeU dirrivra rol<; dyovai, teal ro)v dXXcov ol 
irvvdavo/ievoL ^oivra IBpovrov Ko/nl^eadai avverpo- 
Xd^ov, ol fiev iXeeivov riyovpievoi rP]<i rvxv^> ot he 
T/}9 h6^i]<i dvd^LOV, dypav ^ap^dpcav viro (J)lXo- 

3 y^rv'^lcL'^ yevopievov. inel h' iyyv<; r/aav, 6 fiev 
^Avr(i)vLo<i V7re<Trrj, hiaTropcov ottoj? xPV hi^aa-Oat 

rov l^povroi', 6 he AovklXXlo^; TrpoaaxOei^i pdXa lOOi 
reOapprjKOt)^; "Map/cov yLteV," eiTrev, "'Avroovie, 
l^pourov OL'Set? rjprjKev ovh^ av eXoL 7roX€p,to<i' firj 
roaovrov rj rv^V fcpar^aeie t/}? dperiji;. aXX* 
ixelvo^ evpedriaeraL ^(ov rj ttov koI veKpo<; d^lay'i 
i KeLpevo<; eavrov, iyco he rov<; croi)? a-rparioora^ 

238 



BRUTUS xLix. 5-L. 4 

among the bravest and noblest young men_, was over- 
powered, but would not yield nor fly, but plying his 
sword, and declaring that he was Marcus Cato and 
Marcus Cato's son, fell dead upon the many enemies 
whom he had slain. ^ The bravest of the rest fell 
also, risking their lives in defence of Brutus. 

L. Now, there was a certain Lucilius, a brave man, 
among the comrades of Brutus. ^ This man, seeing 
some barbarian horsemen ignoring all others in their 
pursuit and riding impetuously after Brutus, deter- 
mined at the risk of his life to stop them. So falling 
behind a little, he told them that he was Brutus. 
The Barbarians believed him because he asked them 
to conduct him to Antony, pretending to be afraid of 
Octavius but to have no fear of Antony. They were 
delighted with their unexpected prize, and thinking 
themselves amazingly fortunate, led Lucilius along in 
the darkness which had now fallen, after sending 
ahead some messengers to Antony. Antony himself 
was pleased, of course, and set out to meet the 
escort, and all the rest also who learned that Brutus 
was being brought in alive flocked together, some 
thinking him to be pitied for his misfortune, others 
that he was unworthy of his fame in thus allowing 
his love of life to make him a prey of Barbarians. 
When they were near, however, Antony paused, at a 
loss to know how he ought to receive Brutus ; but 
Lucilius, as he was brought forward, said with great 
boldness : " Marcus Brutus, O Antony, no foe has 
taken or can take ; may fortune not so far prevail 
over virtue ! Nay, he will be found living, or possibly 
even lying dead as becomes him. It is by cheating 



^ Cf. Cato the Younger, Ixxiii. 3. 
' Cf. Antony y Ixix. 1. 



239 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irapaKpovadfjLevo^ rJKCO, iraOelv ovBev eVl tovtw 
Toiiv av7]Ke(JT(i3V Trapairovpievo^r ravr eltrovTO^; 
rov AovklWlov kol irdvTwv ifcirXayevTCOv 'Ai/rco- 
VLO(; 7r/?09 Tou? KOfiLcrauTa^ avrov diro^Xe'^a';, 
"'Httou %aXe7rw9," elirev, " o) avarparicoTai, 
5 (f)€p€T€ rfj dfiapTia irepiv^picrOaL SoKOvvTe<i. dX)C 
ev icrre Kpeirjova tt}? ^7]rov pLevr]<; dypa^ yprjKore^. 
iroXe/jLLOv yap ^7]Tovvre<; rjKere (jiiXov tj/jllv KOfii- 
foi^T6?' ct)9 iyoi) ^povTcp fiev ovK olBa p.d tou? 
66ov<i 6 Ti av 6')(prio-diJir]v ^(ovri, towvtcop S' 
dvSpcop ^IXcov rvyxdvoc/jLL pdWov rj iroXe/JilwvJ" 
ravT eiTTcov /cat rov AovklWlov dairaadp.evo'i 
Tore fxev evl tcjp (plXcov o-vvearrjaev, varepov 8e 
j(poi)/jL€PO<; €i? irdvTa Trtar^ kol ^e/Salo) SLereXeae. 
LI. BpoOro? 3e BLa^d<; ri peWpov t'XwSe? Ka\ 
7rapdKpr]/j,vov tjBt] c/cotou? ovro^ ov ttoXv Trpor/X- 
OeVy dXX^ iv roirw kolXw kol irerpav €')(pvTL 
/jLeydXrjv TrpoKeL/jLevrjv KaOiaa^, oXiycov irepl avrov 
r)yep6v(i)v xal (piXcov ovrcov, Trpcora /xev drro^Xe- 
A^a? et? Tov ovpavov daripcov ovra pLearov dv€- 
(jiOiy^aro 8vo o"Tt%ou9, a)v rov erepov ^oXovp,vLO<; 
dveypa-ylrc 

Zed, fjL^ XddoL ae rcovS* 09 atrLO^ KaKOiV 

2 ToO 8' krepov (f)7]alv iiriXaOeaOaL. puerd Be 
pLiKpbv rojv iv rfj pid'yr) irpo avrov ireaovrwv 
kraipwv e/caarov ovop-d^cjv pdXicrra rfj <i>Xa0Lov 
fiv>]p,rj Kal rfj Aa^€(opo<^ eireareva^ev. rjv 5' 
avrov TTpea^evrrj^ 6 Aa/Seoov, 6 Be 4>\a/3f09 
eirapxo^ rcov re^vi^'^oj^' iv rovrco Be ri<; avro^ 
re BLy^n^aa^ Kal rov Bpovrov op coy 6pLOL(o<; e^ovra, 



240 



BRUTUS L. 4-Li. 2 

these soldiers of thine that I am come, and I am 
ready to suffer for it any fatal penalty." When 
Lucilius had thus spoken and all were in amaze- 
ment, Antony turned to his conductors and said : 
" I suppose, my fellow soldiers, you are vexed at 
your mistake and think that you have been flouted ; 
but be assured that you have taken a better prey 
than that you sought. For you sought an enemy, 
but you come bringing me a friend. Since, by the 
gods, I know not how I could have treated Brutus, 
had he come into my hands alive ; but such men as 
this I would have my friends rather than my ene- 
mies." With these words he embraced Lucilius, and 
for the time being put him in charge of one of his 
friends, but ever afterwards found in him a sure and 
trusty helper. 

LI. But Brutus, after crossing a brook which ran 
among trees and had precipitous banks, would go no 
further, since it was already dark, but sat down in a 
lioUow place with a great rock in front of it, having 
a few officers and friends about him. First, he turned 
his eyes to the heavens, which were studded with 
stars, and recited two verses, one of which Volumnius 
has recorded : — 
" O Zeus, do not forget the author of these ills ! " ^ 

the other Volumnius says he has forgotten. Then, 
after a little, he called the name of each of his 
comrades who had fallen in the battle to defend him, 
groaning most heavily at the mention of Flavius and 
Labeo. Labeo was his legate,^ and Flavius his chief 
of engineers. At this point, someone who was thirsty 
himself and saw that Brutus was thirsty too, took a 

^ Euripides, Afedeia, 334 (Kirchhoff). 
a Cf. chapter xii. 3 ff. 

241 



1>LUTARCH'S LIVES 

\a0(bv Kpdvo'i iirl top irorajiov KareSpa/jue. 

3 yjrucpov Be Kara Odrepa irpoo-TrecrovTo^ BoXoi;- 
fivLOf; irporjXOe KaToyfr6fjL6vo<;, koI avv avrtp 
ydphavo<i 6 i>'KaaTTLarr)<;. iiraveXOovTe's ^e fxeTO, 
jjLiKpov r]p(ji)Tri(Tav irepl rod TTcofiaTO^;, r)OiK(i)<; Be 
a(f)68pa /jLeiStdaa<; 6 B/qoOto? tt/jo? rou BoXou- 
fjLVLov ** 'E/tTTSTrorai/' elirev, '' aXX' erepov v/jllv 
Ko/jLiaOijaerai.^^ rrre/xcpOeU 8' o avro^ itcivhvvevaev 
VTTO T(x)v TTo\epLi(i)v dXoivai Koi /jl6\l<; iacoOrj 

4 T€Tp(jOfi€VO<;. elKd^ovTL he avrw /jlt] TroXAou? iv 
Ty P'd')(ri redvdvac XraTvWio<; vTrearrj Std rcjv 
TToXe/jLicov eKiraLadfLevo^ (aXXo)? tyap ovk tjv) 
Karoyjreadat, to arparoTrehov, KaX irvpaov dpa<; 
dvirep evprj raKel aw^o/ieva, irdXip d(f)i^eaOaL 
7rpo<; avTOV. 6 fiev ovv TTvpao^; rjpOrj rov SraxL'X- 
Xlov TrapeXdopTOf; eh to aTpaTOireSop, w? 3' ovk 
iiraprjei ^(^popfp ttoXXw B/joOto? elrrep' *'* Ap ^fj 
^TaTuXXwi, dcPi^eTai." avpe^rj 3' avTOP iirapep- 
yopievop efjurreaelp et? tol'? TroXepLiov^; KaX Sia- 
^OaprjvaL. 

LIT. Upo'iovaTj^ Be t^? pukto<; airoKXipa^, o)? 
eTV)(^e Ka6el^6[xepo<;, Trpo? oIk€T7]p eavTov KXeiTOP 
iXdXet. aL(t)7ra)PT0<i Be tov KXeiTOV koX BaKpv- 
0PT0<;, avOi<; e7ri(r7raadjj,€P0<; top vTraairiaTrjp 
AdpBapop IBla TLpa<^ avrw irpoaec^epe X6yov<;. 
TeXo9 Be TOP BoXov/iipiop avTOP 'EXXrjpiaTl tmp 
XoyMP Kol T% d(TKi]aeo)<; VTre/jLtfivrjaKe' koi irape- 
KaXei TTJ %€i/9l avp€cf)dyjraaOaL tov ^t'^ou? avTa> 
2 Kal (Tvpeirepelaai ttjp rrXrjyyjp. tov Be BoXof- 
fXPLOv Bicoaafjiepov Kal tmp dXXayp 6fiOL(o<; e)(^0PT(DP, 
€l'irlpTo<i Be riPo<; co? Bel firj fiepeiv, dXXa (feevyeip, 



242 



BRUTUS LI. 2-Ln. 2 

helmet and ran down to the river. Then a noise fell 
upon their ears from the opposite direction, and Vo- 
lumnius went forth to reconnoitre, and with him 
Dardanus his shield-bearer. After a little while, 
however, they returned, and asked about the water 
to drink. Whereupon, with a very expressive smile, 
Brutus said to Volumnius : " It is drunk up ; but 
another draught shall be fetched for you." Then the 
same man who had brought the first was sent for 
more, but he ran the risk of being captured by the 
enemy, was wounded, and with difficulty came off 
safe. Now, since Brutus conjectured that not many 
of his men had been killed in the battle, Statyllius ^ 
promised him that after cutting his way through the 
enemy (there was no other way), he would recon- 
noitre the camp, raise a blazing torch if he found 
things there in safety, and then come back to him. 
Accordingly, the blazing torch was raised, since 
Statyllius succeeded in reaching the camp ; but 
after a long time had passed and he did not return, 
Brutus said : " If Statyllius is alive, he will come 
back." But it so happened that he fell in with the 
enemy on his way back, and was slain. 

LII. As the night advanced, Brutus turned, just 
as he sat, towards his servant Cleitus, and talked 
with him. And when Cleitus wept and made no 
answer, Brutus next drew Dardanus his shield-bearer 
aside and had some private conversation with him. 
Finally, he spoke to Volumnius himself in Greek, 
reminding him of their student life, and begged him 
to grasp his sword with him and help him drive home 
the blow. And when Volumnius refused, and the 
rest likewise, and some one said they must not tarry 
* Cf. Gato the Younger ^ Ixv. 4 f.; Ixxiii. 4. 

243 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

i^aua<TTd<;, " Hdvv fiev ovv,'' e<^7], *' (ftevKTeov 
d\)C ov Sta TMV ttoSgjv, dWa Bid roiv '^eipodv.^* 
ifi^aXoDV Be ttjv Be^idv eKd<TT<p fiaka (fiaiBpo^ 
r)Be(j6ai fiev e(f)rj fieydXrjp r}8ovr)V on twv (piXcov 
avTov ovSeU eylrevaaro, ry tvxv ^' iy/caXelv 

3 VTrep T7J<; irarpiBo^' eavrov Be rcov vevLKrjKOTcov 
/jbafcapLGorepov vofjbi^eiv, ovk e^^e? ovBe 'jrpoorjv 
/jLovop, dWd /cal vvp, drroXeiirovra Bo^av dp€Trj<;, 100! 
fjv ovO^ 07r\oi9 oijTe ^p^fjuaaiv dTroXei^lrova-iv ol 
*c€KpaTr}K6T€<;, a)9 fir) Bo/cetv on BiKaiov; dvSpa<; 
dBcKOL Kol KUKol 'Xprj(TT0V<; diroXeGavTe^ ov rrpoa- 

4 rjKOVTcof; dpxovai. BerjOeh Be koI irapaKaXeaaf; 
aco^etv eavTov<; dve^^pV^^^ aTTwrepco perd Bvelv 
rj TpLMV, ev oI? r]v kol ^rpdrwv 6 diro Xoycov 
prjTOpLKCov yeyov(b<; avrw avvrjdr]^. koI tovtov 
eyy tara 'jrapaaTr]adp.evo<; eavrw kol to ^i^o<i 
yvp,vov eirl tt;? Xafii)^ rah x^P^^^^ dp(f>or€pai<; 

5 epeiaa^ kol TreptTreacov ireXevrrjaev. ol Be (paaLv 
OVK avTov, dXXd rov ^rpdrcova, TroXXd irdvv tov 
Bpourof Be-qOivTOf;, diroa-T pe^^ravra rrjv oyjnv vrro- 
arrjaaL to ^i^o^' eKelvov Be pvpLrj irpoa^aXovTa 
TO aTepvov koI Bidtaavra avvTopLw^ diToOavelv. 

LIIL Tovtov Be tov ^TpdTwva MecrcraXa? eTol' 
po<; 03V ByoouTft) KuLo-api BiaXXay€l<i eirl axoXr}*; 
TTore Trpoarjyaye, kol BaKpvaa<i elirev " Ouro? 
eaTiVy 0) J^ataap, 6 dvijp, 6 tm ip,a> ^povTco ttjv 
feXevTULav VTrovpyri<Ta<i ^ayotj/." diroBe^dp.evo^ 
ovv 6 Kataap ea-^ev avTov ev re Toh tt6vol<; kuI 
244 




BRUTUS Lii. 2-Liii. I 

but fly, Brutus rose and said : " By all means must we 
fly ; not with our feet, however, but with our hands." 
Then, after clasping each by the hand, with a very 
cheerful countenance he said he rejoiced with ex- 
ceeding joy that not one of his friends had proved 
false to him, and as for Fortune, he blamed her only 
for his country's sake ; himself he regarded as more 
to be envied than his conquerors, not yesterday and 
the day before merely, but even now, since he was 
leaving behind him a reputation for virtue, which 
those who surpassed in arms or wealth would not 
do ; since the world would believe that base and 
unjust men who put to death the good and just were 
unfit to rule. Then, after earnestly entreating them 
to save themselves, he withdrew a little way in the 
company of two or three friends, among whom was 
Strato, who had been his intimate since they studied 
rhetoric together. This man he placed nearest to 
himself, and then, grasping with both hands the hilt 
of his naked sword, he fell upon it and died. Some, 
however, say that it was not Brutus himself, but 
Strato, who at his very urgent request, and with 
averted eyes, held the sword in front of him, upon 
which he fell with such force that it passed quite 
through his breast and brought him instant death. ^ 
LII I. As for this Strato, Messala, the comrade of 
Brutus, after a reconciliation with Octavius, once 
found occasion to introduce him to his new master, 
and said, with a burst of tears : " This is the man, 
O Caesar, who did the last kind office for my dear 
Brutus." Accordingly, Strato was kindly received 
by Octavius, who, in his subsequent labours, and 

^ The battles at Philippi occurred in 42 B.C., and Brutus 
was forty-three years of age when he died. 

245 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iv Tot9 Trepl "Aktiov a^waiv eva twv irepi avrov 

2 ayaO(ov yevofxevcov ^KWijvwv. avrov Be rov Meo"- 
aaXav Xeyovcnv varepov iiraivovfjuevov vtto K.ai- 
aapo<; otl, Kaiirep iv ^iXlttttoc^; TroXe/jLidorarof; 
avTOL<; yevofxevof; Bta BpovTOV, iv ^Aktlw it pod v- 
fioruTOV eavTov 7rap€(T^€v, "^Kyco roi,^^ (f)dvaL, "ay 
Kalaap, ael t^? /SeXr/oi^o? Kal SiKacorepa^; rifirj^ 
Kol fiepLBo<; iyevofjLTjv.'' 

3 Tov Be BpovTOV 6 ^Avtcovio^; dvevpcov reOvrjKOTa 
TO fiev acofjua rfj iroXureXeaTdrTj rcov eavTov (poi- 
viklBodv irepi^aXelv ixeXevaev, varepov Be rrjv 
<^0iVLKiBa K€KX€/jL/j,€vrjv aladofjievo^ direicTeive rov 
vcpeXofievov. rd Be Xeiyjrava 7rp6<; ttjv fiTjrepa rov 

4 Bpovrov ^ep^tXiav dTreTrefiyjre. XlopKuav Be ttjv 
hpovrov yvvuLKa 'NiKoXao^; 6 (f)tX6aocf)o<; Icnopel 
Kal OvaXepio<; Ma'^t^o? ^ovXojjbevrjv diroOavelv, 
eb? ovBe\<^ iirerpeiTe tmv (plXwv, d\Xd TrpoaeKetvro 
KOL rrapecj)vXaTTOv, ix rov irvpo^ dvapirdaaaav 
dv6paKa<; Karairielv Kal ro arofia avyKXeiaaaav 

5 Kal fivcraaav ovrco Bia(^6aprivaL, Kairoi (^eperai 
Tt9 €TTL(TToXr} BpovTov TTyoo? Tou? ^tX-ou? iyKa- 
XovvTo<; avTol^ Kal oXocpvpofievov Trepl t?}? tlop- 
Kia^, 0)9 dfjLeXrjOeiarjf; vir avrwv Kal 7rpoeXojj,€V7)<; 
Bid voaov KaraXLirelv rov ^iov. eoiKcv ovv 6 
Nt/^oXao? TjyvorjKevaL rov 'x^povov, iirel to ye 
7rdOo<; Kal rov epcora t^? yvvaiKo^ Kal rov rpo- 
TTOV rri<i TeX€VTr}<; virovorjaaL BiB(0(TL Kal to im- 
aro\iov, elirep dpa tmv yvrjaiwv €<jtIv. 



»40 



BRUTUS Liii. 1-5 

especially at the battle of Actium, found him, as 
well as other Greeks, a brave partisan. And it is 
said that Messala himself was once praised by 
Octavius because, though at Philippi he had been 
most hostile to him and Antony for the sake of 
Brutus, at Actium he had been a most zealous ad- 
herent of his ; whereupon Messala said : " Indeed, 
O Caesar, 1 have ever been on the better and juster 
side." 

When Antony found Brutus lying dead, he ordered 
the body to be wrapped in the most costly of his own 
robes, and afterwards, on hearing that the robe had 
been stolen, put the thief to death. The ashes of 
Brutus he sent home to his mother Servilia.^ As for 
Porcia, the wife of Brutus, Nicolaiis the philosopher, 
as well as Valerius Maximus,^ relates that she now 
desired to die, but was opposed by all her friends, 
who kept strict watch upon her; wherefore she 
snatched up live coals from the fire, swallowed them, 
kept her mouth fast closed, and thus made away 
with herself And yet there is extant a letter of 
Brutus to his friends in which he chides them with 
regard to Porcia and laments her fate, because she 
was neglected by them and therefore driven by 
illness to prefer death to life. It would seem, then, 
that Nicolaiis was mistaken in the time of her death, 
since her distemper, her love for Brutus, and the 
manner of her death, are also indicated in the letter, 
if, indeed, it is a genuine one. 

1 Suetonius {Divus Augustus, 13) ?ays that the head of 
Brutus was sent to Rome to be thrown at the feet of Caesar's 
statue. ' Defactis mem. iv. 6, 5. 



VOL. VI. 247 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 



AIDNOS KAI BPOYTOY SYrKFlSlS 

L TLoWcov Toivvv rot? avhpdaLV vrrap^dvTwv 
KoXwv, iv T0t9 7rpcoT0L<; Be rod ixeyiarovf; eXa-yJ,- 
<TTaL<; d(j>op/JLai<; yeveaOai, tovto tw Alcopl koXXi- 
arop icTTiv. ov yap el%e rbv diK^Lcrfir^TovvTa, 
KaOaTvep 6 BpovTO^; Kdcr(TLOV, dvhpa irpo^ jxev 
dperrjv kuI Bo^av ovx 6/jLolco<; d^ioinarov, el<; Be 
TOP iroXe/jLOV ovk eXdrrova^; roXfirj kol Betvorrjri, 
Kol TTpd^ei crv/jL^oXd<; rrapacrxof^evov, cS ye Koi 
rov 7ravr6<; epyov irpoairotovcriv evioc rrjv dpxv^» 
rjye/iiova tt)? eVt ILaiorapa yv(i)/xrj(; rovrov drpe- 

2 fiovvTL B/oouTOi) yeveaOai Xeyovre^. AUov B' wawep 
oirXa /cal irXota kol aTpaTioi)Tt/cr)v BvvajXLV, ovro) 
fcal ^tXou? Kol (Tvvepyov^ iirl rrjv irpd^Lv avTO<i 
eavTw ^aiverai KTr}adfjLevo<;. ov firjp ovB' o)? 
UpovTO^i e/c T(OP TTpayfidrcop avrwp xal rov TroXe- 
fiov TrXovTOP €a')(e Kal Bvpafitp, ovtco kol Auayp, 
dXXd TO) TToXepLO) TrpoetarjpeyKep avTO<i top eavrov 
irXovTov, virep t^? tmp ttoXctcop eXevdepla^; tol<; 

3 TTJ? <^vyrj<i iipoBioL^ TrpOKaTa^pV^d/jiepo^. ert Be lOK 
UpovTo^i fxev KOL K.d(To-L0<;, ovk op do-(j)aXe<; rjcrv- 
X^(^v dyeip eKireaovaL r^? 'Poo/i,?;?, aW' (i)(f)X7]K6cn 
BiKrjP dapdrov Kal BiooKOfiepoi^, dpayKaiw^; eh top 
TToXefjLOv Karecpvyov Kal rd o-co/jbara rolf; oTrXot? 
TrapaKaraOifxepoL BteKLpBvpevaap virep avrcop to 
irXeop rj rcop ttoXltcop, AiO)p B' dBeearepop ep rfj 
<^vyfi rov (pvyaBevaaPTOf; rvpdppov Kal tjBlop Bid- 
ywv dpeppL-yjrep cKcbv klpBvvqv roaovrov eirl rat 
aaxrat, ^LKeXiav, 



248 



COMPARISON OF DION AND BRUTUS 

I. We see, therefore, that both men had many 
noble traits, and especially that they rose to the 
greatest heights from the most inconsiderable be- 
ginnings ; but this is most to the credit of Dion. 
For he had no one to dispute his eminence, as Brutus 
had in Cassius, a man whose virtue and fame did 
not inspire confidence in like degree, but who, by 
reason of his boldness, ability, and efficiency, con- 
tributed no less than Brutus did to the war ; indeed, 
some attribute to him the origin of the whole enter- 
prise, declaring that he took the lead in the plot 
against Caesar when Brutus was passive. Dion, how- 
ever, appears to have acquired by his own efforts, 
not only arms and vessels and a military force, but 
also friends and co-workers for his enterprise. How- 
ever, Dion did not, like Brutus, win wealth and power 
from the course of the war itself, nay, he contributed 
his own wealth for the war, expending in behalf 
of the liberty of his countrymen those resources 
which supported him in his exile. And further, it 
was not safe for Brutus and Cassius to keep quiet 
after their banishment from Rome, but since they 
were condemned to death and pursued, it was of 
necessity that they resorted to war ; and in commit- 
ting their persons to the protection of their arms they 
incurred danger in their own behalf rather than in 
behalf of their countrymen ; whereas Dion was living 
with greater confidence and pleasure in his banish- 
ment than the tyrant who banished him, and yet of 
his own accord he hazarded a peril so great in order 
to save Sicily. 

249 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

IT. Kal fjb7)v ovx opLOLOv ^lovvaiov XvpaKOvaloLi; 
Tj Kato-a/309 uTraWayrjvai, 'PcoyLtato/?. o fiev yap 
ovB' ^ r)pvelTO Tvpavvo<i elvai KaKwv re fivpiwv 
€/uL7r€7r\'^K€L "^iKeklav T) Be Kaia-apo^; ap^V avvi- 
ara/iievr} fiev ovk oXlya roL<i evavriovfievoL^; it pay - 
fxara irape(T')(^e, Be^a/neuoi^ Se Kal KpaTrjOelcriv 
ovoixa Kal Sofcrjcrif; i(j)dvrj fjLovov, epyov 3* air^ avrrj<i 
ovBev wjjLov ovSe rvpavvticov vTrfjp^ev, aWa Kal 
Beofievot,^ eBo^e rot? irpdyixacn fiovap'x^ia^; irpao- 
rarof; wairep larpb<^ vir avrov rov Baifiovcf; 
2 BeBoaOaL. Blo J^aicrapa fxev evOv^ iiroOrjaep 6 
^PwjjLalcov Bi]/jLo<;, Mare %aXe7ro? yeveaOai Kal 
d7rapaLT7jT0<; toI<; direKTovocTL, Alayva B' r) Alovv- 
alov irdpeaL^ ix 'EvpaKovacop Kal to fir) Kara- 
aKa^ai rod irporepov rvpdvvov rov rdcpop eiraL- 
Tiov /jidXicrra Trpo? roif^; 'iroXira<; eiroi-qaev. 

III. 'Ej^ avraU tolvvv TaU iroXefiiKaU irpd- 
^eaiv 6 fiev Aiayv dfiefjL7rT0<i yeyove aTpaTr]y6<;, 
ft)?"^ fiep avTo<; e/SovXevero rol'^ irpdy/jLaaiv dpicrra 
')(pd)/jL€vo<i, a B' eTTTaiaOr] Bl erepoi/? dvaXaficbv 

2 Kal fjLeTaaT^(Ta<; eirl to fSeXrtov 6 Be B/ooOto? rov 
eaxarov dywva virep rwv oXwv ovd^ viroarrjvaL 
BoKei (f)povL/j.(o<; ovre acpaXeU eiravopOcoaLv evpeiv, 
dXX aTretTTe Kal irpoelro rd<; eX7rlBa<;, ovB^ oaov 
IIoyU7rr;i'o9 i'mroXfirjaa'; rfj rvxV '^^^ ravra ttoX- 
Xrj<; fiev avroOi Xenrofievr]^ eXTTiBo^ ev roL<; orr- 
Xok;, rat? Be vaval Kparwv rrdarj^i fie^aCox; ri]<; 
daXdaarj^i. 

3 '^O Be fieyiarrov eanv wv eyKaXovai Bpoi^rw, to 
awOevra rfj KaL<Tapo<; ^^piri Kal crcoaavra rcov 



^ oi»5' Bekker corrects to out*. 

* us with Coraes and Bekker : &y. 



250 



fD 



rxus II. 1-3 



II. And verily it was not a like thing for Syracuse 
to be rid of Dionysius and Rome of Caesar. For 
Dionysius was even an avowed tyrant, and filled 
Sicily with countless ills ; wliereas the rule of Caesar, 
although during its establishment it gave no little 
trouble to its opponents, still, after they had been 
overpowered and had accepted it, they saw that it 
was a tyranny only in name and appearance, and no 
cruel or tyrannical act was authorized by it ; nay, it 
was plain that the ills of the state required a mon- 
archy, and that Caesar, like a most gentle physician, 
had been assigned to them by Heaven itself There- 
fore the Roman people felt at once a yearning for 
Caesar, and in consequence became harsh and im- 
placable towards his murderers ; whereas Dion, for 
letting Dionysius escape from Syracuse, and for not 
demolishing the tomb of the former tyrant, was held 
most culpable by his countrymen. 

III. Next, as regards their actual military achieve- 
ments, Dion was a consummate general ; where he 
himself made the plans, he achieved the best results, 
and where failure was due to others, he restored and 
bettered the situation. Brutus, on the other hand, 
as it seems, was unwise in entering upon the last 
supreme struggle, and when he was defeated, could 
not find a way to restore his cause, but gave up and 
abandoned his hopes, not even facing adverse fortune 
with as much resolution as Pompey, and that too 
although on land he had much ground for confidence 
left in his troops, and with his fleet was secure master 
of all the sea. 

Moreover, the gravest charge which is brought 
against Brutus, namely, that although his life was 
spared by the kindness of Caesar, together with the 



25* 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avveaKayKOTcov oa-ov<; ifioxikero koX <^i\ov vofjut^o- 
fievov Koi TTpOTifjirjOepra nroWwv avToyeipa rov 
aco<Tavro<; yevicrOai, rovr ov/c av ri<; eliroL Kara 
dk.lwvo<;. aXKa rovvavTLOv, oIk€io<; jxev (av Alovv- 
(tLo) Kol (pL\o<; wpOov TO, TTpdy/jLara koX <TvvBie(f)v- 
\arr€v, iKirecroov he Trj<; TrarplSo^; koI aBi/crjdeU 
Trepl rrjv yvvaiKa kol ttjv ovaiav aTroXecra? e/c 
irpocftavov^; et? iroXepuov /carearr) vofiL/juov kol Bl- 

4 Kaiov. f) TOVT avTiaTp€(f>€i TTpMTov; yap et9 
eiratvov virdpx^i' "^o^? dvBpdaL fiiyLo-rov, r) 7rpo<; 
rov<; rvpdvvov<; dirk-xd^ia kol fiLaoiTovr^pla, rovr 
eVkiKpive^ icTTi tco Bpovro) Kal KaOapov, IBla yap 
ovBev iyKaXcov KaCaapi ri)^ Koivr]<; irpoeKLvBvvevev 

5 eXevOepiav 6 B^ el fir) /caK(o<; eiraOev avrof;, ovk 
av eiroXepLTjae. Kal rovro BrjXovrat, Tat? TlXdrco- 
vo<; e7rL(TToXaL<;, ef mv 5?)\o9 eariv w? aTrofiXtjOeh 
T^9 TvpavviBo<;, ovk diroardf;, KareXvcre Aiovvaiov. 
€TL BpovTov fJbev Kal Ilop,7rr]ta) (plXov eiroLTjcTev, 
i')(Bpov ovray Kal TToXep.iov Kataapi,, to Koivrj 
Gvp,^epoVy ft)9 e'xdpafi opm Kal <fitXia<; evl ')(pa)/jL€Vov 
TO) BiKatw' Alwv Be Trpo? X^P''^ cjpOov nroXXd 
Aiovvaiov, or tjv ^e^aio^ avrw, Kal irpb^ opyrjv 

6 diTKTrrjOel^; iiroXepLTjae. Bio tovtq) /lev ovB^ ol 
(f)iXoi Trdvre^ eiriaTevaav, to? /JL€TacrTr]<ra<; Aiovv- 
(Tiov OVK av ^e/SatcoaaLTO rrjv apx^v avrw, 
iTpaorepM TvpavviBo<; ovo/xaTL iTapayaywv tou? 
iroXira^y Trepl Be rov l^povrov rcop ex^pojv rji 
cLKoveiv on fi6vo<i tmv eVt l^aiaapa (rvvapafievayv 

2S2 



DION AND BRUTUS ii. 3-6 

lives of all the fellow captives for whom he wished 
to intercede, and although Caesar held him a friend 
and honoured him above many, he struck down his 
preserver with his own hand, — this charge no one can 
bring against Dion. On the contrary, while he was 
a courtier and friend of Dionysius, he tried to set 
the state in order and help in preserving it ; but 
when he had been banished from his country, wronged 
as a husband, and deprived of his property, he openly 
resorted to a war that was lawful and just. Or does 
this argument reverse itself at once ? For that which 
redounds to the praise of both men is their hostility 
to tyrants and hatred of their baseness, and this is 
disinterested and sincere in the case of Brutus, since 
without any private grievance against Caesar he risked 
his life for the common liberty ; whereas, had not 
Dion himself been mistreated, he would not have 
gone to war. And this is made manifest by the letters 
of Plato, from which it is clear that Dion did not 
revolt, but was cast out from the tyranny, and there- 
fore overthrew Dionysius. Still further, it was the 
public good that made Brutus a friend even to Pompey, 
who was his foe, and an enemy to Caesar, since he 
determined both hatred and friendship by justice 
alone; Dion, on the other hand, gave Dionysius 
much support in order to win his favour, when he 
was secure in his confidence, and when he was dis- 
credited by him, it was to gratify anger that he went 
to war. Therefore Dion was not trusted even by all 
his friends, who felt that after removing Dionysius 
he might secure the government for himself, enticing 
his countrymen along by some milder name than that 
of tyranny ; but the enemies of Brutus were wont to 
say that of all the conspirators against Caesar he 

253 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eva TTpovOero aKoirov air apx*)^ ^%Pt TeKov^ rrjv 
irdrpLOv airohovvai 'VwfjbaioL^; TroXtrelav, 

IV. "Avev ye firfv rovrcov 6 tt^o? Aiovvcnoif 101 
aycbv ou^ o/JLOLO<; rjv Brjirov rw tt/jo*; K^auaapa. 
AiovvcTLov fiev yap ou3et9 ocm<; ovk av Kare^po- 
vrjae tCov avvrjOoov iv fiedat^; koI Kv/3oL<i fcal 
yvvat^l TCLf; TrXetcrra? iroiovfievov SiarpL^d^;' 
TO ^e rrjv KaL(Tapo<; KardXvaiv el<; vovv ifi- 
fiaXeaOai koI /jltj ^o^r^Orjvai rrjv heivorrjra Koi 
hvvafjbiv fcal rvxr^v, ov koX rovvofjua rov<; Hap- 
6vai(ji3V Koi ^Ivhwv ^aaiXeU ovk eta KaOevSecv, 
virepc^vov^ rfv "^vx^^ '^^'' ^rpo? fii^dev iKpiecrOac 

2 <f)6^(p Tov (^povrjiiaTO^ hwafievr)^. 8io tw fiev 
6(f)dePTL fxovov eV ^cKeXla jivpidhe^ ovk oKiyat. 
<Tvve<n7)(Tav iirl AiovvaLov t) Be Kai(Tapo<i So^a 
Kal ireaovro'; wpOov tou? </>tXoL'?, koi roijpofia tov 
XpV^d/jievov rjpev €k TratSo? d/jLTj^dvov irpwrov 
€vOv<; elvav 'Fco/natMv, co? d\e^i(j)dp/jLaKov tovto 
TT/jo? rrjv ^AvrcovLov 7re piayfrdfievov e^Opav Kal 
hvvafjLiv. 

3 Et he (prjaei t^9 ort, [leydXoL^ fiev dywaiv 6 
Altav i^e^aXe tov Tvpavvov, Kalcrapa Be 3povT0<; 

€KT€LV€ yV/JLVOV Kal d(f)vXaKTOV, aVTO TOVTO Beivo- 

T7}T0f; aKpa^ Kal ctt paTrjyia<; rjv epyoVy dvBpa 
ToaavT-qv ireptffe/SXijfievov BvvafjLiv d(^vXaKT0V 
Xa^eiv Kal yv/xvov. ov yap efat<^ 1^779 ovBe fiovo^; 
^ avv oXiyoL<i eTrnreacbv dvelXev, dXX' €k ttoXXov 
avvOeh to /SovXevfia Kal fieTa ttoXXcov einOe- 
fievo*;, oiv ovBeh ey^evaaT avTOV. rj yap evOv<; 
CKpive T0U9 dpicTTOv^ ri Tq> irpoKplvau tou9 TriaTCV- 

4 OevTa^ dya9ov<^ iiroirjo-e. Aiwv Be elTe Kp(va<; 
KaK(o<; eTrlaTevcev eavTov irovripols eire xpto^evo^ 

254 



DION AND BRUTUS iii. 6-iv.' 

alone had one aim from first to last^ namely the re- 
storation to the Romans of their ancient form of 
government. 

IV. However, apart from these considerations, the 
struggle against Dionysius was surely unlike that 
against Caesar. For Dionysius must have been de- 
spised by every one of his associates, devoted as he 
was to wine, dice, and women ; but to plan the over- 
throw of Caesar, and not to fear the ability, power, 
and good fortune of the man whose very name robbed 
the kings of Parthia and India of their sleep, be- 
tokened an extraordinary spirit, and one which fear 
could never induce to remit its lofty purposes. 
Therefore Dion had only to be seen in Sicily, and 
many thousands joined him in attacking Dionysius ; 
whereas the fame of Caesar, even after he had fallen, 
supported his friends, and his name raised the help- 
less boy who adopted it to be at once the foremost 
Roman, and he wore it as a charm against the power 
and hatred of Antony. 

But should it be objected that Dion cast out the 
tyrant only after great struggles, while Brutus slew 
Caesar unarmed and unguarded, this very circum- 
stance was a result of the highest ability and gene- 
ralship, namely, that a man enveloped in such great 
power should be taken unarmed and unguarded. For 
not on a sudden, nor alone, or with a few helpers 
only, did he fall upon him and slay him, nay, his 
plan was long in forming, and his attack was made 
with many helpers, not one of whom proved false to 
him. For either he chose out at once the best men, 
or his choice of them before others, and his confi- 
dence in them, made them good. But Dion either 
chose unwisely and entrusted himself to bad men, 

255 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iTTOirja-ev etc %/3r;o-Tft)i^ irovqpov^, ovBerepov iraOelv 
avBpl ^povLfirp nrpocrrjKev, iirt.rifjLa Be Koi IlXa- 
rwv avT& TOiOVTOV^ eXop^evw ^tXof?, v(f) wv airoa- 
Xero. 

V. Kat Ai(ovo(; pilv Ti/jL(opo<; ovBeh icfxivrj ire- 
aovTO^' dWa Spovrov koi twv TToXefiicDV ^Avrco- 
VLO<; fjLEv eOa'^jrep ivBo^co^, Kalaap Be koX ra? 
Ti/jLa<; irrjprjcrev. eaTT}ice Be ')(^aXKOv<i dvBpLa<i ev 
^eBioXdvw Tr}9 evTO':; ^AXirecdu FaXaTta?. tovtov 
varrepov lBa)v 6 K^ataap cIkoplkov ovra koX ')(^apiev- 
TO)? elpyaa-fievov TraprjXOev elr eirLa-Ta^; p^era 
p,tKpov cLKpowpievwv rroXXcjv tou? apy^ovra^; eKuXei, 
(fidaKcov eKaiTovBov avrcov rrjv iroXiv elXy^^evai 
2 TToXepLLov exovaav irap avry. ro p,ev ovv Trpo)- 
TOi^, ft)9 eLKo^i, r]pvovvTO, KaX riva Xeyoi BiaTTopovv- 
re? et9 dXXrjXovf; dire^Xe^^rav. &>? 8' eTrKTrpeyjra^; 
6 K^alaap 7rpb<i rov dvBpidvra koI avvayaywv to 
TTpoawirov, " *AXX' ov')(^ ovrof;,'' 6(f)ri, " iroXepio'; 
oyv rjperepoK evravda earyKev ; " en /xdXXov Kara- 
7rXayevT€<; ia-Koirrjaav. 6 Be p^eiBidaa^ eir-^veae 
re T0U9 TaXdra^ &)? toI<^ <^lXoi^ koI irapa ra? 
Tvxa^ /Se/Satou? ovra^, koX top dvBpidvTa Kara 
^d^pav peveuv eKeXevae, 



»56 



BRUTUS IV. 4-v. 2 

or else treated the men of his choice so as to turn 
them from good to bad, neither of which mistakes 
a prudent man ought to make. And in fact Plato 
censures him for choosing such friends as proved his 
ruin. 

V. Further, no one arose to avenge Dion's death ; 
but in the case of Brutus, Antony, an enemy, gave 
him illustrious burial, and Octavius, an enemy, actu- 
ally took care to preserve his honours. For a bronze 
statue of him stood in Mediolanum in Cisalpine Gaul. 
This statue, at a later time, Octavius noticed as he 
passed by, for it was a good likeness and an artistic 
piece of work ; then stopping, after a little, in the 
hearing of many he summoned the magistrates and 
declared that he had caught their city violating its 
treaty and harbouring an enemy of his. At first, 
then, as was natural, they denied it, and looked at 
one another in perplexity, not knowing what he 
meant. Then Octavius, turning to the statue and 
knitting his brows, said : "Well, is not this an enemy 
of mine who stands here ? " At this, the magistrates 
were still more dumbfounded and held their peace. 
But Octavius, with a smile, praised the Gauls because 
tliey were true to their friends even in adversity, 
and gave orders that the statue should remain where 
it was. 



257 



TIMOLEON 



TIMOAEQN 

(Tvvi^r] Bi eT6pov<;, iirifieveiv Be koI ^^Xo^copeti/ 
rfBr] Koi Bl ifiavrov, wairep iv ia-oirrpcp rfj laropia 
7reip(OfjL€P0V dfjL(t><; ye irco^ Koafxelv koi a(j)opLOiovv 
TTpo^ Ta9 eKelvwv dp€ra<; top ^lov. ovBev yap 
dXV 7j avvBiaLTrjaev koX arvfifiiaxreL to yivo/ievov 
eotxev, orav wairep eTri^evov/jLevov eKaarov avrcjv 
ev fiepei Bia ttJ? la-ropia^ v7roB6')(^6jjL6voi koI vapa- 
\afifidvovT€^ dvaOecopcofiev " 6a(ro<; erjv ol6<; re," 
TO, Kvpicorara /cal KaWtara tt/jo? ^vataiv aTTo 
r&p TTpd^ecop XajJLpdpopTe^. 

2 4>eO, <f)ev' TL TOVTOV "x^dpfia fxel^op av Xd^oL<;, 

Kol^ TT/jo? eirapopOwcLP 7]6oiiv epepyorepop ; Arf/no- 
KpLTo^ fjLep yap ev^eaOai (j)t]aL Belp otto)? evXoy- 
X(OP elB(o\(OP Tvy^dpcofiep Kal rd avix^vKa Kal tol 
'X^prja-rd fidWop rjiilp i/c rov 'jrepLe')(^opro^ r; rd 
(pavXa Kal rd aKaid (TVfMcpeprjTai,, Xoyop ovt 
dXrjOrj Kal irpo^ aTrepaprovf; eK(f)epoPTa BeiatBat- 

3 fiopia^; €t9 (piXoaocpiap Kara^aXXoop' rj/jueU Be ttj 

Trepl TTjp laropiap Biarpififi Kal tt}? ypa(j)r]<; rfj 

^ 4fxo\ with Bekker, after Stephanas and Reiske : i/mol /xty. 
' Kal supplied by Sinteuis, after Schaefer ; Bekker sup- 
plies ^. 

260 



TIMOLEON 

I BEGAN the writing of my " Lives " for the sake 
of others, but 1 find that I am continuing the work 
and delighting in it now for my own sake also, using 
history as a mirror and endeavouring in a manner 
to fashion and adorn my life in conformity with the 
virtues therein depicted. For the result is like nothing 
else than daily living and associating together, when 
I receive and welcome each subject of my history in 
turn as my guest, so to speak, and observe carefully 
'Hiow large he was and of what mien," ^ and select 
from his career what is most important and most 
beautiful to know. 

'' And oh ! what greater joy than this canst thou 
obtain," ^ 

and more efficacious for moral improvement ? De- 
mocritus says we ought to pray that we may be 
visited by phantoms which are propitious, and that 
from out the circumambient air such only may en- 
counter us as are agreeable to our natures and good, 
rather than those which are perverse and bad, there- 
by intruding into philosophy a doctrine which is not 
true, and which leads astray into boundless supersti- 
tions. But in my own case, the study of history and 
the familiarity with it which my writing produces, 

^ As Priam admired Achilles, Iliad, xxiv. 630. 
* An iambic trimeter from the Tympanistae of Sophocles 
(Nauck, IVag. Grace. Frag?, p. 270). 

261 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avvrjOeta Trapaaxevd^ofiev eavrov^, rat; reov apL- 
(TTCov Kol hoKLfJLWTaTdiV fjivrjfia^ v7rohexo/jL€vov<i 
del ral^ '^v')(ah, et ri (f>av\ov r) KaKor)Oe^ rj dyev- 
ve<; at tcjv crwovruyv e^ dvayxr)^ o/iiXiaL irpoa- 
pdXkovaiv, eKKpoveiv kol BicoOeiaOaL, Trpo^ rd 
KaWiara tmv TrapaBeiy/Jbdrcov tXeo) kol irpaelav 

4 d7roaTp€(f)ovT€<; Tr}v hidvoiav. (av iv ro) irapoVTi, 
TrpoKex^cpLCTfieOd crot top Tt/xoXeoj/ro? rod K^optv- 
Oiov Koi Tov KlfJbCkiov YYavXov fflov, dvhpcov ov 
jjLovov rah alpeaeaLV, dXkd koI Tal<? tvx(^i<^ dya- 
6ah ofioiay^ Kc^pV/^^^^^ ^'^^ '^^ irpdy/jLara, koI 
hiafi^Lcr^rjTrjaiV irape^ovTwv irorepov euTrorfiia 
fidWov rj <f>pov^<T€i, ra jjbeyLcrra rwv TreTrpayfxevayv 
KarcopOcoaav. 

I. Ta yuei^ XvpaKOva-LCDv irpdyfiaTa rrpo Trj<; 
TcfjLo\eovTO<; et9 ^iKeXlav dTToaroXr]^ ol/tco? elj^ev. 
ewel Al(op fxev e^eXdaa^ Aiovvaiov rov rvparvov 
€v6v<; dvrjpeOrj BoXtp kol hiearr^aav ol avv Alcjpi, 
^vpaKovaiov^ iXevOepcixravre^;, rj Be TroXt? dXXov 
ef dXXov fjuerafidXXovaa cruj^e;^a>? Tvpavvov vtto 
ttXtjOov^; Kafccov fiiKpov dTreXeuirev €p7}fio<; elvai,, 
tt}? o' dXXr]^ Si/ceXta? 77 /xev dvdararo<i kol diroXif; 

2 TravrdTTaaiv TjSrj Bid toi/? TroXe/Aoi;? vrrijpxev, al 
Be irXelaraL TroXei^ vtto /Sapfidpcov /jLLydBcov koX 
(TTpaTicoroJv d/jLLdOcov KareixovTo, paBiw^ irpocrie- 
fieveov rd^ fiera^oXaf; rcov Bwao-reicov, AiovvaLO^ 
eret BeKdrtp ^epov<; avpayaycop kol top rore Kpa- 
Tovpra T(op 'ZvpaKovaiwv Nvaatop €^eXdaa<;, 
262 



TIMOLEON I. 2 

enables me, since I always cherish in my soul the 
records of the noblest and most estimable characters, 
to repel and put far from me whatever base, malicious, 
or ignoble suggestion my enforced associations may 
intrude upon me, calmly and dispassionately turning 
my thoughts away from them to the fairest of my 
examples. Among these were Timoleon the Corin- 
thian and Aemilius Paulus, whose Lives I have now 
undertaken to lay before my readers ; the men were 
alike not only in the good principles which they 
adopted, but also in the good fortune which they 
enjoyed in their conduct of affairs, and they will 
make it hard for my readers to decide whether the 
greatest of their successful achievements were due 
to their good fortune or their wisdom.^ 

I. The state of affairs in Syracuse, before the ex- 
pedition of Timoleon into Sicily, was as follows. 
After Dion had driven out Dionysius the tyrant, he 
was at once treacherously slain,^ and those who had 
helped him to free Syracuse were divided among 
themselves. The city, therefore, was continually ex- 
changing one tyrant for another, and owing to a 
multitude of ills was almost abandoned, while as for 
the rest of Sicily, part of it was ruined and already 
wholly without inhabitants by reason of the wars, 
and most of the cities were occupied by Barbarians 
of mixed races and soldiers out of employment, who 
readily consented to the successive changes in the 
despotic power. At last Dionysius, in the tenth 
year of his exile,^ collected mercenaries, drove out 
Nisaeus, who was at that time master of Syracuse, 

* In the MSS. this Introduction stands as the first chapter 
of the Aemilius Paulus. 

* See the Dion, chapter Ivii. This was in 354 B.C. 
» 346 B.C. 

263 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

aviXaffe ra Trpdy/jiara iraXiv koI KadeKTTrjKei, 

rvpavvo<; e'f 0Lp^rj<;, TrapaXoyco^; fM€V vtto jJUKpa^i 
Svvd/jLe(o<i Tr]V p^yiarrjv twv Trayirore TvpavvlScov 
diroXeaa^, TrapaXoyoorepov 8' avOi,<; Ik (pvydSo^; 
KoX raireivov roiv eK^aXovTcov Kvpio^ y€v6/J,€vo<;. 

3 ol pev ovv viropueivavre^ ev ry ttoXcl rcov Xvpa- 
Kovalcop ihovXeuov ovr aXXa)<; eTTieiKel rvpdvpo) 
Kal Tore iravrdiraaLV virb (rvp.(f)op(ov dirrjypLO)- 
p^evw Tr)v '^v')(^if)v, ol he fieXriaroi Kal yvcoptp^c!)- 
raroL vrpo? 'iKerrjv Tpairevre'^ rov hwaffrevovra 
T(ov AeovTLvcov iTrirpeyjrav avrov<; €/c€Lvq) kol 
arparrjyov eiXovro rov TroXepbov, /SeXrico puev ov- 
B€vo<; ovra tcov opoXoyovpevox; rvpdvvcov, erepav 
5' ovK 6')(pvT€<; diToaTpo^rjv, KOL 7n(TT6vaavTe<; 
^vpaKovaia) to yevo<; ovri Kal KeKTrjpuevw Bvvap,iv 
d^LopLa^ov 7r/3o? rov rvpavvov. 

II. *£»; TouTft) Se Kap^rjBovLayv aroXfp pLcydXtp 
irapayevoixevwv et? ^ifceXlav Kal rol^ irpdypaaiv 
eiraiodpovpevdiv (fio^rjOevre^; ol ^iKeXtcoraL irpe- 
apelav ifiovXovro irepureiv el<; rrjp 'KXXdBa Kal 
irapd KopLvOicov ^orjdeiav alrelv, ov p,ovov hid 
rrjv (Tvyyeveiav ou8* d(f a)v rjhr) 7roX\dKc<; evepye- 
T7]VT0 7nar6vovr€<; 6Keivoi<;, dXXd Kal KadoXov 
rrjv ttoXlv opwvre^i (piXeXevOepop Kal pnaorvpavvov 
ovaav del, Kal twv iroXepwv tou? TrXetcrrof? Kal 
peyiarov^i TreTroXeprjKvlav ov^ vTrep r]yepovia<i Kal 
irXeove^La<^ , a\X' virep r^? T(av 'KXXijvcov eXev- 

2 6epLa<;. 6 S' 'Iacctt;?, are Brj t?}? arparrjyla^ 
vTToOecrip TTjV TvpavpiBa 7re7rotr]pLevo<;, ov rr)v 
^vpaKOvalcov eXevOepiav, Kpv(pa pev tjBt] Tr/ao? 
rov^ KapxvBovlov^ BieiXeKTo, <f>avepa)<; 8e rov? 



264 



TIMOLEON I. 2-II. 2 

recovered the power again, and established himself 
as tyrant anew ; he had been unaccountably de- 
prived by a small force of the greatest tyranny that 
ever was, and now more unaccountably still he had 
become, from a lowly exile, master of those who 
drove him forth. Accordingly, those of the Syra- 
cusans who remained in the city were the slaves of 
a tyrant who at all times was unreasonable, and 
whose spirit at this time was rendered altogether 
savage by misfortunes, but the best and most dis- 
tinguished of them had recourse to Hicetas the ruler 
of Leontini, put themselves under his protection, 
and chose him their general for the war; not that 
he was better than any acknowledged tyrant, but 
because they had no other refuge, and felt confidence 
in one who was a Syracusan by birth and possessed a 
force that was able to cope with that of Dionysius. 

II. Meanwhile the Carthaginians came with a large 
armament to Sicily and were watching their oppor- 
tunity, and the Sicihan Greeks, in their fright, wished 
to send an embassy to Greece and ask for assistance 
from the Corinthians, not only because they trusted 
them on account of their kinship ^ and in conse- 
quence of the many benefits they had already re- 
ceived from them, but also in general because they 
saw that the city was always a lover of freedom and 
a hater of tyrants, and had waged the most and 
greatest of her wars, not for supremacy and aggran- 
dizement, but for the liberty of the Greeks. Hicetas, 
however, since he had made a tyranny for himself, and 
not the freedom of Syracuse, his sole object in taking 
tlie field, had already held secret conferences with the 
Carthaginians ; yet openly he commended the plan of 

* Syracuse was founded by Corintliians in 735 B.C. 

265 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

'^vpaKovaiov; iir-^vei koI tov<; irpea^ei^ €t9 IleXo- 
iTovvrjcrov a-vve^eTrefX'^^ev , ov ^ovXojJievo^ eXOelv 
av/jLfia^iav eKeWev, aW idv, oirep etVo? '^v, ol 
K-opLvOcoc Sia Ta.9 'EiWt]VCKa<i Tapa)(^a<; koI aayo- 
Xla^; direLTraxTL ryv ^oijOeiav, eknTL^wv paov eVl 
Tou? l^ap')(rihoviov<; rd 7rpdyp,ara /lerd^eiv koX 
')(^pri(7ea9aL avfi/jLd')(^oc<; Koi (Twaycoviarai^i eKeivoL^ 
iirl rov<; 2vpaK0vo-L0v<; rj Kara rov rvpdvvov, 
ravra fjiev ovv oXiyov varepov €^^]\ey)(^d7]. 

III. Tcov Be irpeafiewv irapayevofievwv, ol Ko- 
pLvdiOLy Krjhea-Oai /jl€V del rSiv diroLKihwy iroXewv 
Koi p^dXiara Trjq XvpaKov(TL(ov elcoOore^;, ovS€v6<i 237 
8' avroij^ rore tS)V EtXXrfviKOJV Kara tv^tjv irapev- 
o')(XovvTO<;, aXV iv elprjvrj koi o^^oXtj Sidyome'^, 
i\lr7)(f)Laavro irpoOvfJiw^ ^orjOetv. ^tjrov/xivov Se 
arparriyov koX tcop dp^ovrcov ypa^ovrcov fcal irpo- 
l3aXXo/jL€va)v tov<; evBoKL/jbelv iv rrj ttoXcl airov- 
hd^ovra^, eh ex Tci)v ttoXXmv dvaard<; oDVOfiaae 
Tt/jLoXeovra rbv Ttp^oBrj/jLov, yu./;T6 TrpoaiovTa rotf; 
fcoivoL<; 6TL fjLT]T e'XTTtSo? roiavT7)(; yevofievov rj 

2 irpoaLpeaew^iy dXXd Oeov tlvo<;, a)9 eoiKev, eh vovu 
ifjL^aXovTOfi ra> dvOpdyirM' roaavTr) kol irepl tjjv 
aXpeaLv evdv<i eXafiyjre rvxv^ evpLeveia koi raU 
dXXai<; irpa^eaiv eTrrjKoXovO qae %«/3t? eiriKoa- 
fiovaa rrjv dperrjv rov di/8p6<;. 

Hi/ fjL€P ovv yovicov e7ri(f)av(ov iv rrj iroXei, 
TifjLoBt]fjLOV KOi ^rjiiaplaTrj^, (f)LX67raTpi<; Be Koi 
irpaofi BLa(j)€p6vTco<; oaa fir] a(f>6Bpa p,LaoTVpavvo<; 

3 eivai KOL fiLaoirovTjpo^, iv Be roh iroXep-OL^; ovtq) 
266 



TIMOLEON II. 2-II1. 3 

the Syracusans and joined them in sending the em- 
bassy to Peloponnesus, not because he wished that an 
allied force should come from there, but because he 
hoped that if, as was likely, the Corinthians should re- 
fuse their assistance because the disturbed condition 
of Greece kept them busy at home, he might more 
easily turn the control of affairs into the hands of 
the Carthaginians and use these invaders as allies 
and helpers in a struggle against the Syracusans or 
against Dionysius. This, then, was fully proved a 
little later. 

III. But when the embassy arrived, the Corinth- 
ians, since they were wont to be ever solicitous for 
their colonial cities and for Syracuse in particular, 
and since by good fortune there was nothing in 
Greece at that time to disturb them, but they were 
enjoying peace and leisure, voted readily to give the 
assistance desired. And while they were seeking 
for a commander, and the magistrates were writing 
down the names of those in the city who were eager 
for the honour and proposing them for election, one 
of the common people rose to his feet and nominated 
Timoleon the son of Timodemus, although he no 
longer took part in public business, and had no ex- 
pectation or purpose of doing so ; but some god, as 
it would seem, put it into the man's mind to nominate 
him, such was the kindliness of Fortune that shone 
forth at once upon his election, and such the grace 
that attended his subsequent actions and adorned 

I his virtues. 
^B He was born of parents who were illustrious in 
^« the city, Timodemus and Demariste, and he was a 
lover of his country and exceedingly gentle, except 
as he was a hater of tyrants and of base men. As 

267 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoXm Kol ofiaXwq eKeKparo rrjv (pvacv ware ttoX- 
Xrjv jiev ev vew auveacv, ovtc iXdr ray he yqpMVTOi; 
avhpeiav im^aiveadai TaL<; irpd^eatv. dhek^ov 
8' el^e Ti/jLO(pdin]v, irpecr^vrepov, ovSev avro) irpocr- 
ofjioiov, dXX' efirrrXyKTOV kol hie(^6appevov epcori 
pbOvap\ia<i vtto (fylXcov <^avXwv kol ^evcov arpa- 
TLWTiKwv del irepl avrov ovtcov, e'xet'V ri SoKovvra 
payhalov ev rah arpareuai^; koI ^lXoklvSuvov. 

4 w /cal Tov(; TToXiTa^ irpocra'yop.evo^ &)? dvr)p iroXe- 
jjLiKo^; Kol Bpacrrrjpto^ e^' rjye/jLOvtcov eTdrrero. 
Kol irpo^ ravra TifioXeayv avrw avvr)pyei, rd /nev 
dfjb(ipTr]/jiaTa Travrdiraaiv dTroKpvTrrcov rj fiiKpd 
(^aiveadat ttolcov, a S^ rj ^ucrt? e^e(f}epev darela 
KaTaKOCTfjLcov KOL (jvvav^cov. 

IV. 'Ei; he TTJ TT/oo? 'AyoyetoL"? xal K.Xeo)vaLov<; 
fidxy T(ov KopLvOlcov 6 fiev Ti/jioXicov erv^^v ev 
Tot? oTrXtVai? reray/jLevo'iy top Be Ti/jLO(f)dvrjv tmv 
IvTrewv rjyovfievov KaraXa/Jb/Sdvei, klvBvvo^; 6^v<;. 
6 yap tTTTTo? avTov direa-eicjaTO irXrjyfi TrepLTreacnv 
€69 Toi)? 7roXefjLLOv<;, /cal tmv eraipoyv ol pev ev9v<; 
iaKopTTiadrjaav (jyo^rjOevre^;, ol Be irapapeivavref; 
oXiyoi 7rpo<; ttoWou? p^a^op^evoi ^aXeTTco? dvrel- 

2 X^^' ^'^ °^^ ° TtpoXecov KarelBe to (Tvp^e^rjKo^i, 
hp6p,(p TTpoafio-qOrjcra^ kol rrjv daTTiBa rov Tt//o- 
<j)dvov(; KeipLevov 7rpoOepi€vo<;, koI iroXXd jnev 
aKOVTiapLara, iroXXd^ Be 7rXr]yd<; i/c ^et/jo? dvaBe- 
^dp€vo<; et? to crwyxa kol rd oirXa, /xoXi? ecao-UTO 
Tou? 7roXepLLov<; /cal Bteacocre rov dBeX^ov. 

EttcI S' ol Koplvdioi, BeBL6Te<; pbrj Trddoiev ola 
Kai irporepov vtto tmv cryppd^cov aTro/SaXoi^re? 
rr}v ttoXlv, eyjrycplcravTO Tpecj^etv feVou9 Terpa- 

a68 



TIMOLEON III. 3-iv. i 

a soldier his nature was so well and evenly attempered 
that great sagacity was manifested in the exploits of 
his youth, and no less bravery in those of his old 
age. He had a brother Timophanes, older than he, 
and not at all like him, but headstrong and filled 
with a ruinous passion for absolute power by worth- 
less friends and foreign military adventurers who 
were ever about him, and having the reputation of 
being rather impetuous and fond of danger in mili- 
tary service. Therefore he won followers among the 
citizens and as an efficient warrior was given posts of 
high command. And Timoleon aided him in obtain- 
ing these, trying to conceal his mistakes altogether 
or to make them seem trifling, and embellishing and 
enhancing his good natural qualities. 

IV. In the battle fought by the Corinthians against 
the Argives and Cleonaeans,^ Timoleon was stationed 
among the men-at-arms, and Timophanes, who com- 
manded the cavalry, was overtaken by extreme peril. 
For his horse was wounded and threw him in among 
the enemy, and of his comrades, some scattered in 
panic flight, while the few who remained fought 
against great numbers and were with difficulty hold- 
ing their ground. Accordingly, when Timoleon saw 
what had happened, he came running to the help of 
Timophanes and held his shield over him as he lay 
on the ground, and after receiving many javelins and 
many hand to hand blows upon his person and his 
armour, at last succeeded in repulsing the enemy 
and saving his brother. 

After this, the Corinthians, fearing lest they should 
suffer a second loss of their city through the treachery 
of their allies,* voted to maintain four hundred mer- 

^ Perhaps between 368 and 366 B.C. 

' As they had at the hands of the Argives in 393 B.C. 

269 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KO(TiOV<; KoX rovrtov dp')(0VTa Tcfio(f)dvrjv KaTea-rrj" 

3 (Tav, 6 Be T(ov koXcov kol hiKaiwv vTrepihwv evSv<; 
iirepaivev ef wv Troirjaerav rrjv ttoXlv vcj)* avTa>, 
KOL (TV')(yov<; dvekwv aKpirov^ tcov irpcorcov ttoXl- 
Tcop dveheL^ev avTo<; iavrov rvpavpov, fiapicof; </)6- 
p(OP 6 TifioXewVy KOL (iv/jL(f)opdv iroiovpLevo^ eavrou 
rrjv ifceivov KUKtav, iTre^elprjcre fiep avrw SiaXe- 
yeaOat kol irapaKakelv dcj^evra rrjv fiaviav koI 
BvaTV)(^Lav T779 einOvp^La^ eKeivr]^ ^rjTelv TLva rwv 
rj/jLaprr]/jL€V(ov eTravopdcociv irpo^ TOv<i TroXtra?, 

4 dnayaafiepov 5' eKeiPov koI KaTa<^popr)(TaPTO<;, 
ovTco irapoKa^cop tmp p^ev oIkclcop AtV^uXoi/, 
dBe\(l)OP OPT a rrj? TLpLO(f)dpov<; yvpaiK6<;, rayp Be 
(f)lXmp TOP pbdpTLP OP ^aTvpop p,ep 0eo7ro/^7ro9, 
"E^o^o? Be /cat Tt/uito? 'OpOayopap opopid^ovac, 
Kol BiaXiTTcbp r)p,epa<; 6\Lya<i avOi^; dpe^rj tt/jo? 
TOP dBeXcjyop' Kal TrepicrrdpTef; avTOP 01 Tpelg 
KaOtKeTevop aWd pvp ye '^(prjardpepoi' XoyicrpLOi 

5 pieTa^akeaOai. tov Be ^ipoc^dvov^; irptaTOP pev 
avTMp /caTaye\(opTO<;, erreira Be 7rpo<; 6pyr)p €K<f>€- 
popiepov Kal ')(^aX€7raiP0PT0<; , 6 puep TLpLoXecop diro- 
')(wpr](ja^ pLiKpop avTOv Kal <TvyKaXvyjrdpepo<; 
elaTr)K6L BaKpvcop, eKelpot, Be to. ft</>/; airacrdpepoi 
Ta')(v Bia^delpovcnp avTop. 

V. T779 Be irpd^eco^ Biafio7]0ei(jr]^ ol pep Kpd- 238 
TiaTOL TO)p }LopLpOi(OP iirypovp ttjp pLiaoiTOP'qpiap 
KoX pLeyaXo'^v^iap tov TtpioXeopTOf;, otl ')(pr](jTO(; 
cap Kai d>LXoLK€io<i 6p(o<i Tr)p iraTpLBa T7](; ol/cla^ 
fcal TO KaXop kol BUaiop irpoeTlpLrja-e tov avpL- 
270 



TIMOLEON IV. 2-v. i 

canaries, and put Timophanes in command of them ; 
but he, without regard for honour and justice, at once 
took measures to bring the city under his own power, 
and after putting to death without a trial great 
numbers of the leading citizens, declared himself 
tyrant. At this, Timoleon was greatly distressed, and 
considering his brother's baseness to be his own mis- 
fortune, he attempted to reason with him and exhort 
him to renounce that unfortunate and mad ambition of 
his and seek to make some amends for his transgres- 
sions against his fellow citizens. But when his brother 
rejected his appeals with scorn, he took his kinsman 
Aeschylus, who was a brotlier of the wife of Timo- 
phanes, and his friend the seer whose name, accord- 
ing to Theopompus, was Satyrus, but according to 
Ephorus and Timaeus, Orthagoras, and after waiting 
a few days went up again to his brother; and the 
three, surrounding him, besought him even now to 
listen to reason and change his mind. But Timo- 
phanes first mocked them, and then lost his temper 
and was violent, whereupon Timoleon withdrew a 
little space from him and stood weeping with muffled 
head, while the other two, drawing their swords, 
speedily despatched him.^ 

V. The deed having been noised abroad, the most 
influential Corinthians applauded Timoleon for his 
hatred of baseness and greatness of soul, in that, 
although a kindly man and fond of his family, he 
had nevertheless set his country before his family, 
and honour and justice before expediency; for when 

^ Diodorus (xvi. 65, 4) says that Timoleon slew his brother 
with his own hand in the marketplace; Nepos {Timoleon, 
i. 4) supports Plutarch's account, though with differing 
detaiU. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(l>€povro<i, apiarevovra /j,€v virep t?}? irarpiho^ 
hLaadxra^ top dSeXcpov, eTn/SovXevaavra Be avrfj 

2 KoX KarahovXwadfjievov ttTro/cretVa?. ol Be fir) 
BvvdfjLevoi ^r}v"€v rfi Srj/jLOKparla koX 7rpb<; rot"? 
hvvdara^ dirofiXeireLV elwOore^ rw jiev Oavdrcp 
Tov Tvpdvvov TrpoaeiTOiovvro 'xaipeiVy tov Be Tcp,o- 
Xeovra XotBopovvre^; ct)9 acre/Se? e^eipyaajMevov Kal 
yLfcucrcoSe? epyov €l<; dOvjxiav TrepLearrjaav. eireX Be 
Kal Tr)v fjL7]T€pa Bvac^opelv TTvOofxevo^ /cal <j)(ovd<i 
T€ Beivdf^ Kal Kardpa^ eV avrov dpaadai (ppcKco- 
BeL<; e^dBi^e irapa/juvOrjaofMevo^, r) Be irpoaiBelv 

3 ou^ v7rejjL€tV€ rrjv o-^lrtv, dWd rrjv OLKiav dire- 
KXeLcre, rore Br) Travrdiraai TrepiXviro^; yev6fievo<i 
Kal avvrapayfiel^ rrjv Bidvoiav (op/xtjae jiev o)? 
Bca^Oepcov eavrbv direx^f^Oat rpo^/)?, tmv Be 
(piXcov ov irepuBovTCOv, dXXd irdaav Berjaiv Kal 
irdo-av dvdjKrjv irpoaeveyKafievcov eyvco ^fjv KaO' 
eavrov, eK fxiaov yevo/xevo^' Kal iroXiTelav jxev 
diraaav d^rj/ce, tou? Be irpdorov^ ')(p6vov<; ovBe 
Kan^v et? iroXiv, aW' dBrj/iovcov Kal TrXavoofievo^; 
ev T0t9 eprj/jLOTdroi.^ rcov dypcjv BcerpL^ev. 

VI. OvT(D<; at Kplaei<i, av /jlt) ^e^aioTrjTa Kal 
p(o/jLrjv eK Xoyov Kal (^iXoao<^La<^ TrpoaXd^cocrtv 
ewl Td<; irpd^ei^, (Teiovrai Kal irapa^epovTau 
paBi(o<; VTTO Tcbv rv^ovTOiv eTraivwv Kal ^oywv, 
eKKpovofjuevai tmv oLKelcov Xoyia/jLcbv. Bel yap ov 
fiovov, tw? eoLKe, t^i* Trpd^iv koXtjv elvau Kal 
BtKaiav, dXXa Kal rrjv Bo^av, a</)' ^9 Trpdrrerai, 
2 fjLovt/jLov Kal d/jLerdTrTcoTOi', iva irpdrrco/iev Bokl- 
fidcravre^t p,r)B^ a>a7rep ol Xi')(yoL rd 7rX7]aiiiia rwv 
iBea-pLarcov o^VTarrj BicoKovre^ eTTLdvfiia rd^iara 



272 



TIMOLEON V. i-vi. 2 

his brother was fighting valiantly for his country, 
Timoleon had saved his life, but after he had plotted 
against her and enslaved her, Timoleon had slain 
him. However, those who were unable to live in 
a democracy and were accustomed to pay court to 
men in power, while they pretended to rejoice at 
the death of the tyrant, still, by their abuse of Ti- 
moleon as the perpetrator of an impious and abomin- 
able deed, drove him into despondency. And now 
he learned that his mother was angry with him 
and uttered dreadful reproaches and fearful impreca- 
tions against him, and went to plead his cause with 
her ; but she could not endure to see his face, and 
closed her house against him. Then indeed he 
became altogether a prey to grief and disordered 
in mind, and determined to starve himself to death ; 
but his friends would not suffer this, and brought all 
manner of entreaty and constraint to bear upon him, 
so that he made up his mind to live by himself, apart 
from the world. So he gave up all public life, and 
for a long while did not even return to the city, but 
spent his time wandering in great distress of mind 
among the most desolate parts of the country. 

VI. So true is it that the purposes of men, unless 
they acquire firmness and strength from reason and 
philosophy for the activities of life, are unsettled and 
easily carried away by casual praise and blame, being 
forced out of their native reckonings. For it would 
seem that not only our action must be noble and 
just, but the conviction also from which our action 
springs must be abiding and unchangeable, in order 
that we may be satisfied with what we are about to do, 
and that mere weakness may not make us dejected 
over actions which have once been accomplished, when 

273 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hv<T')(€paivoviTt,v ifxifKr^aOevTe^t ovt(d<; rj/nel^; iirl 
rah TTpd^eat o-vvTeXeoOelaait; aOv/iM/nev Sl aadi- 
veiav (iTro/jiapaivo/jievrjf; t^9 tov koKov ^avradia^i. 
al(T)(p6v yap r) /jLcrdvoia iroiei Kal to Ka\a)<; ire- 
TTpajfiivoVy r] K ef i7riaT7]fir]<; wpp^rj/ieurj Kal \o- 
yiapov TTpoaipeaif; ovS* av Trraiawaiv at irpd^eL^; 

3 /jLera^dWerat. Bto ^coklwv puev 6 ^AOTjvalo^ rot? 
VTTO A.6co(j6evov<; irparTO/jiivoi^; ivavTL(jd6ei<;, eireihr) 
KaTopdovv eKUVo^ eBoKei Kal Ovovto^ ecopa Kal 
/jL€ya\av)(^ov/jievov<; rfj ilkt) tou? ^A.6r}vaiov^, elirev 
0)9 i/SovXero av avrw ravra puev irpaxO^vai, 
^e/SovXevadat B^ ixeiva' a^oBporepov S' ^Apiarel- 
Brj'^ 6 KoKpo^y elf} 0)V rwv IlXaTcoz^o? eralpwv, 
alrovvro<; fiev avrov yvvaiKa Atovvaiov rod irpe- 
(T^vrepov pLiav ro)v Ovyarepwv, tjBlov av €(j)r] veKpav 

4 IBelv rr)v Koprjv rj rvpdvvw avvoiKovcrav, aTvoKrei- 
vavro<i Be rov^ iralBa<s avrov pier oXiyov xpovov 
rov AiovvcTLov Kal rrvOopievov Trpo^ v^piv el rrjv 
avrtjv en yvcopLrfv e^ot irepl rrj<^ eKBoaeo)^ rwv 
dvyarepayv, direKpivaro ro2<; p.ev yeyevrj /jLevoi<; 
Xvrreladai, rol'^ 8' elprjpLevoi^; pbrj p,erap.eXeaOat, 
ravra fiev ovv Itacof; p.ei^ovo'^ Kal reXeiorepa*; 
dperr}<i eari. 

VII. To Be Ti/jioX€orro<; eirl roL<; 7re7rpay/jLevoi<; 
irddo^, elr olKro^ rjv rov re0v7jK6ro<; etre tt}? 
pur^rpo^; alBcof;, ovrco KareKXacre Kal avverpLyjrev 
avrov rrjv Btdvoiav war elKoai ayeBov erwv 
Biayevopievwv firjBe pLtdf; eirL^avov^i firjBe TroXiriKrjf; 
2 dyjraa-Oai TT/oafecD?. dvayopevOevro<; ovv avrov, 

274 



TIMOLEON vi" 2-vii. 2 

the fair vision of the Good fades away ; just as gluttons 
who devour cloying viands with the keenest appetite 
are very soon sated and then disgusted with them. 
For repentance makes even the noble action base ; 
whereas the choice which springs from a wise and un- 
derstanding calculation does not change, even though 
its results are unsuccessful. For this reason Phocion 
the Athenian,! after having opposed the activities of 
Leosthenes, when Leosthenes was thought to be 
successful and the Athenians were seen sacrificing 
and exulting over the victory,^ said he could have 
wished that the achievement were his own, but was 
glad that he counselled as he did. And with more 
force Aristides the Locrian, one of Plato's com- 
panions, when Dionysius the Elder asked him for 
one of his daughters in marriage, said he would be 
more pleased to see the maid dead than living with 
a tyrant ; and when, after a little while, Dionysius put 
his children to death and then asked him insultingly 
whether he was still of the same mind about giving 
his daughters in marriage, answered that he was 
afflicted by what had been done, but did not repent 
him of what had been said. Such utterances as 
these, then, betoken perhaps a larger and more 
consummate virtue. 

VII. But the grief of Timoleon over what had 
been done, whether it was due to pity for his dead 
brother or to reverence for his mother, so shattered 
and confounded his mental powers that almost twenty 
years passed without his setting his hand to a single 
conspicuous or public enterprise. Accordingly, when 

^ See the Phocion, xxiii. 4. 

2 Won by the allied Greeks under Leosthenes over Anti- 
pater of Macedonia, in 323 B.C. The victory was soon 
followed by the defeat of the Greeks at Crannon. 

275 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KoX rov Byfiov irpoOvfJiw^ he^afxevov koX %et/)o- 
rovrjaavTO^, avaara^ Tr]\eK\eihri<^ 6 Tore fcal 
hvvdfjLei Kol Bo^rj Trpcorevcov iv rfj iroXet, irape- 
KoXet TOP Ti/jLoXeopra irepl ra^ TT/aafe/? ayaOov 
dvSpa elvai koI yevvalov. "*Av p.ev 'ydp,^' e<f)r}, 
" /ca\(b<; dycoviarj, Tupavvov dvr)pr]KevaL B6^op,€P, 239 
av Be (f)av\(o<;, dBe\(f)6p.^^ 

3 Hapacr/ceva^o/jLepov Be tov l^LjiokeopTo^i top 
eKirXovp Kol (TTpaTi(OTa<; avpdyopro^, eKOfilaOi] 
ypdp/jLara tt/jo? toi'9 K.opLp6iov<^ irap 'Ik6tov 
firjpuopra rrjp fxeTa^oXr)P avrov koX rrpoBoaiap. 
ft)? yap Td')(^L(TTa tov<; irpea^eL^; e^eirep^y^e, tol(; 
KapxvBoPLOL^; 7rpoa-$epLepo<; dpa<papBop eirparre 
per eKeipwp orrw^ Aiopvaiop eK^aXwp ^vpa/cov- 

4 aa)P aL'T09 earat Tvpappo<;. koX BeBoLKco<i p,?} 
irporepop eXOovar]^ Ik KopLpdov Bvpdpeco^; koX 
arparrjyov Bia(f)vycoaLP at irpd^et^ avrop^ eirep,- 
yfrep iTTiaroXrjp roi? Kopt,v6ioi<i (f)pd^ovaap &)«? 
ovBep Biop irpdyp^ara Koi Bairdpa^ e^ecp avrov^ 
irXeoPTa^i eh XtKeXiap /cat KipBvpevopra^, aXXay^ 
re /cat K.ap'^rjBoi'Lcop aTrayopevoprcop koi irapa- 
(f>vXaTTop6PO)P paval TroXXat? top aroXop, ov^; 
avTO<; dpay/caadeh iKelpcop ^paBvpoprcop ttoli]- 

5 aairo (Tvppd')(ov<^ eirl top rvpappop. tovtcop Be 
r(op ypap^p^drcop dpaypcoo-Oeprcop, el Kai Ti<i »57rt&)9 
eZve TTporepop rayp KopipOicop tt/oo? ttjp crTpareLap, 
Tore TTapra^ rj tt/do? top ^]fC€r7}P opyrj Trapco^vvep, 
ware <7vy ^oprjyrjaaL 7rpoOvp,(o<i rw Tip-oXeopri Koi 
avp.Trapaa/cevdaat, top eKirXovp. 

VIII. Tepop,€i'cop Be tcjp pecop eToip^cop, kol toU 
crrpaTLcoTai^ a)P eBet TropiaOePTcop, at puep lepeiaL 
Trj<; K6prj<} opap eBo^ap lBclp t^? 0€a<i 7rp09 
276 



TIMOLEON VII. 2-viii. i 

he had been nominated general, and the people had 
readily approved of it and given him their votes, 
Telecleides, who was at that time the foremost man 
in the city for reputation and influence, rose up and 
exhorted Timoleon to be a noble and brave man in 
his enterprises. " For if," said he, "thou contendest 
successfully, we shall think of thee as a tyrannicide ; 
but if poorly, as a fratricide." 

But while Timoleon was getting ready for his 
voyage and collecting soldiers, a letter was brought 
to the Corinthians from Hicetas which disclosed his 
treacherous change of sides. For as soon as he had 
sent out the embassy, he openly attached himself to 
the Carthaginians and acted with them in order to 
expel Dionysius from Syracuse and become its tyrant 
liimself. And fearing lest his opportunities for action 
should escape him if a general and an army came 
from Corinth in advance, he sent a letter to the 
Corinthians telling them that there was no need of 
their putting themselves to the trouble and expense 
of a voyage to Sicily with all its perils, especially 
since the Carthaginians, with whom their delay had 
forced him to make an alliance against the tyrant, 
forbade their expedition and were on the watch for 
it with a large fleet. When this letter had been 
read publicly, if any of the Corinthians had before 
been lukewarm towards the expedition, their wrath 
against Hicetas now incited them all, so that they 
eagerly joined in supplying Timoleon and helping 
him get ready for his voyage. 

VIII. When the fleet was ready, and the soldiers 
provided with what they needed, the priestesses of 
Persephone fancied they saw in their dreams that 
goddess and her mother making ready for a journey, 

277 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

airoBrj/jLiav riva areWo/jLiva^ koI Xeyovaa'i &>? 
HifxokeovTL fieWovai av/jLTrXeiV et? XiKeXuap. Blo 
KoX TpLTjpr) KaTaafC€vdaapT€<i iepav ol KopLvOioi 

2 ralv Oealv iTTcovo/iaaav. avrof; 8' iK€Lvo<i et? 
AeX^ot/? TTopevOeU eOvae tcd Oew, koI Kara- 
j3aLV0VT0<; eh to fiavretov avrov ylverat o-ij/jLelop. 
eK 'yap tmv Kpefjuafievoyp avaOrjfiaTwv raivla ti<; 
airoppvelaa koX (pepo/juevr), (TTe(f)dvov<; e^ovaa xal 
Nt/ca? i/jL7r€7roiKi\/i€va(;, irepLeireae rfj K€(j)a\fj 
Tov TLfioXiovTOf;, ft)9 Bo/celv avrov inro rov Oeov 
aT6(f)avovfxevov eirl Ta<; irpd^eif; tt poire pLireaOaL. 

3 NaO? he K.opLv6la<; puev e'x^cov eTrrd, Kep/cvpala^; 
Be Bvo, /cal Tr)V BeKdrrjv Aev/caBlcop irpocnvapa- 
<T')(pvrcc>p, dvri')(9y). Kal pvkto^ €fi^aXct)P ei? to 
TreXayof; Kal TTPev/j^arL KaXS) ')(^p(ofi€vo<; eBo^ep 
al(j)Pi-BL(i)<i payevra top ovpapop vrrep T7J<; peax; 
exx^aL TToXv /cal TTepL(fiave^ irvp. eV Be tovtov 
XafX7ra<; dpOelaa rah jjLVdTiKalf; ep(f)epr)<; teal 
avfiTrapaOeovcra top avrov Bpofiop, fj p^dXiara 
Trj<; 'IraXta? eTrel^op ol fcvfiepvi^rai, Kare(TKy]'\jrev. 

4 ol Be fidvrei^ to (fido-fia roU opeipaai tmv lepetMv 
paprvpelv dTre<^aivovro, Kal rd^i 6ed<^ avvec^arrro- 
fieva^i TYj^ arpareia^ irpo^aiveLV ef ovpavov ro 
creXa<;' eJvai yap lepdv r?)? Kop^y? rrjv ^iKeXiav, 
eirei Kal rd irepl rr)v dpirayrjv avroOi /jlvOoXo- 
yovai yeveadai Kal rrjv vrjaov ev rot? ydjMOL^ 
dvaKaXvTTTrjpLOv avrfj BoOrjvaL. 

IX. Ta jxev ovv irapd twv Oeoyp ovto) tov ctto- 
Xov eOdppvve' Kal airevBovre';, o)? ^ to 7Te\ayo<; 
StaTrXeoPTefi, €Ko/i1^opto irapd ttjp ^IraXlav, rd 

* After this word, Sintenis and Bekker assume a lacuna 
in the text, in which other motives for haste were given. 

278 




TIMOLEON VIII. i-ix. i 

and heard them say that they were going to sail 
with Timoleon to Sicily. Therefore the Corinthians 
equipped a sacred trireme besides^ and named it after 
the two goddesses. Furthermore, Timoleon himself 
journeyed to Delphi and sacrificed to the god, and 
as he descended into the place of the oracle, he 
received the following sign. From the votive offer- 
ings suspended there a fillet which had crowns and 
figures of V^ictory embroidered upon it slipped away 
and fell directly upon the head of Timoleon, so tliat 
it appeared as if he were being crowned by the god 
and thus sent forth upon his undertaking. 

And now, with seven Corinthian ships, and two 
from Corcyra, and a tenth which the Leucadians 
furnished, he set sail.^ And at night, after he had 
entered the open sea and was enjoying a favouring 
wind, the heavens seemed to burst open on a sudden 
above his ship, and to pour forth an abundant and 
conspicuous fire. From this a torch lifted itself on 
high, like those which the mystics bear, and running 
along with them on their course, darted down upon 
precisely that part of Italy towards which tiie pilots 
were steering. The soothsayers declared that the 
apparition bore witness to the dreams of the priest- 
esses, and that the goddesses were taking part in 
the expedition and showing forth the light from 
heaven ; for Sicily, they said, was sacred to Per- 
sephone, since mythology makes it the scene of her 
rape ; and the island was given to her as a wedding 
present. 

IX. Such, then, were the signs from Heaven which 

encouraged the expedition ; and making haste, since 

they were crossing the open sea, they skirted the 

* lu 344 B.a 

"'"'•'"■ K 279 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8* airo ttJ? ^LKekia^ dyyeWo/jbeva TroWrjv diro- m 
piav T(£) Ti/jLoXeovTL Kol BvaOv/jiLav rot? arpa- * 

2 Ticoraif; irapelx^v. 6 yap 'lfcerr)<; paxiJ veviKrjKoi}^ 
AiovvaLOV Kol rd irXeiara p^eprj roov ZvpaKovacov 

KaT€i\r]<^OD<^ €K6LV0V /jL€V ch TTJV aKpOlToXlV KoX 

Tr)p Ka\ov/jL6V7}v Nrjaop avvearaXfMevov avTo<i 
avp€7ro\i6pKei Kal avfjL7r€pieT€L')(^L^€, Kap)('r]SovLOv<; 
Be (f)povrL^€iv iicekevev ottco^; ovk iTnjSrjaoiro 
TifjLoXecov XifC6\[a<;, aXV dTrcoaOevrcov i/ceLvcov 
avTol Ka0* rjav')(iav Siavep^ovvrac tt/oo? dW^\ov<i 
T7JV vriaov. ol he Tri/xTrovaiv ecKoai, rpn'-jpeL^ et? 
'VrjyLov, e<^* wv iireirXeov Trpea^evral Trap avrov 
TT/oo? Ti/jLoXeovTa KOfjLL^ovr€<i X6yov<; rol<; irparro- 

3 jxevoif; oiioiov^. irapaywyal yap evTrpeirel^; Kal 
irpo(^dcreL<; rjcrav iirl /Ao%^?;pot9 ^ovXevfjuaaLV, 
d^LOVVTcov avTov fiev, el /SovXolto, TipLoXeovra 
avpi(3ovXov TjKeLV Trap ^iKerrjV Kal kolvcovov eu 
hLaireiT pay p,ev(iiv dirdvTdiv, rd^i he vav<; Kal roixi 
arparicoTa^ dTToareXXeiv el^ K.6pLvOov, co? rou 
TToXepov /jLLKpov aTToXetTTOz^TO? avvrjprjadaL, Kap- 240 
'X7)hovLO)v 8e KcoXvetv rrjv Bid/3aaiv Kal pd')(ea6aL 

4 7r/309 ^La^o/juevov^ eroip^cov ovrwv. o)? ovv Kara- 
irXevaavref; et? to 'Vrjycov ol KoplvdiOL rot<; re 
Trpecr/Sevfiaai, rovroi^ eVeru^oi/ Kal tov<; ^0LVLKa<; 
ov TTpoGco vavXoxovvTa<; KarelBov, jjx^ovto fxev 
v^picrp,evoi, Kal iraplaraTO irdaLV opyr) tt/jo? top 
*lKeT7]v Kal Seo? virep ^ikcXkotcov, oik; cra^w? 
ecopcov dOXa XeiiTOiJievov<^ Kal fxiaOov 'iKerr) pep 
irpohoala^, Yiap')(V^ovioL<; he Tvpapplho<^, ehoKei 
B' dpr)')(P'POP virep^aXeaOai Kal ra? avroOt tmv 
pap^dpwp pav^ BiirXacria^ e(j)opp,ov(Ta<^ Kal rrjp 
€Kel fie9' I/cerou hvpaptv, y arpaTrjyi]aoPTe^ 
rJKOiep, 

280 



TIMOLEON IX. 1-4 

coast of Italy. But the tidings from Sicily much 
perplexed Timoleon and disheartened his soldiers. 
For Hicetas, after defeating Dionysius in battle and 
occupying most of the outlying portions of Syracuse, 
had shut the tyrant up in the acropolis and what was 
called The Island, where he was himself helping to 
besiege and wall him in, while he ordered the Cartha- 
ginians to see to it that Timoleon should not land in 
Sicily, but that he and his forces should be repulsed, 
and that they themselves, at their leisure, should 
divide the island with one another. So the Cartha- 
ginians sent twenty triremes to Rhegium, on board 
of which were envoys from Hicetas to Timoleon carry- 
ing proposals which conformed to his proceedings. 
For they were specious and misleading suggestions 
covering base designs, the envoys demanding that 
Timoleon himself, if he wished, should come to Hicetas 
as counsellor and partner in all his successes, but that 
he should send his ships and his soldiers back to 
Corinth, since, as they claimed, the war was almost 
finished, and the Carthaginians were ready to prevent 
their passage and to fight them if they tried to force 
one. When, therefore, the Corinthians, after putting 
in at Rhegium, met these envoys, and saw the Car- 
thaginians riding at anchor not far off, they were 
indignant at the insult put upon them, and were all 
of them filled with rage at Hicetas and fear for the 
Sicilian Greeks, who, as they clearly saw, were left 
to be a prize and reward, to Hicetas on the one 
hand for his treachery, and to the Carthaginians on 
the other for making him tyrant. Moreover, it 
seemed impossible to overcome both the ships of 
the Barbarians confronting them there with twice 
their numbers, and the force under Hicetas in 
Syracuse, where they had come to take command. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

X. Ou fJLr)v aX)C 6 TifioXewv roU it pea ^evraU 
Koi TOt? ap'X^ovaL tmv Kap^rjBovLcov evTv^oJif 
e-TTLeiKS)'^ e</)77 TreiOeaOac jxev ol^ KcXevovai {ri 'yap 
av KoX irepaiveiv direcOcov), edeXetv Se ravra 
7roXeft)9 'EWtjvlBo^ koL <pi\r}^ KOivrjfi rr)? 'Pijyivcov 
evaviiov aKOvaa^ koX ecTrcov aTraWaTTecrOar 
/cat yap aura) tovto tt/OO? dacjidXeiau Biacpepeiv, 
KCLKsivov^ efxpevelv jSe^aiorepov oh eTrayyeWovraL 
TTCpl ^vpaKovcrlcov Btjpco fidprvpi ra? 6p,6Xoyia<; 

2 7rapaKaTaO€p,€Vov<;. ravra 8* virereivev auroU 
dirdrrjv eirl rfj Staff da €t re'xyd^wv, Kal avve- 
Te%i^afop 01 ro)v ^Vriyivoav aTparrjyoi, irdvref; 
eTTiOvpovvre^ ev KopivOloi^; rd Trpdypara t6)V 
^i,K€\ia)T(ov yeveadai, Kal <poffov/ji€Poi rrjV to)v 
l3ap/3dpQ)V yetTViacnv. hto avprjyov efCKXrjaLav 
KOL ra? TTuXa? direKXeiov, &)? fir] 7rpo<; dWo ri 
TpeirecrOai tov<; 7ro\Lra<;, Kal irapeXOovTe^ ei9 to 
7r\rj6o^ e-x^pSivro pr)K€L Xoycov, €Tepo<; erepco irapa- 
BiBov<; Tr)V avTifv viroOeoriv 7rpo<; ovSev re'Xo?, 

3 dWd hidyovre^ dWw^ top ')(^p6vov, eo)? dva')(6o)- 
GLv al Twv KopLvOiwv TpLr}peL<^, Kal l^ap')(T]Soviov<; 
iirl rrj^ eKKXTjala^ A-are^j^oi^re? ai/uTroTTTca?, are 
KOL rov Tip^oXeovTOf; irapovro^; Kal irapex^ovro^ 
EoKTjaiv oaov ovtto) tt/jo? top Xoyop dplaraaOac 
Kal B7]pr]yop£ip. co? 5' UTr-^yyeiXe ri<; avTW Kpv(f)a 
Ta? p€P dXXa<; Tpi7]p€i<i dprj')(^da{, p,iap he ttjp 
eKeiPov irepipepeip viroXeXeipp.eprjv, Sie/cSy? top 
o^Xov, afxa tojv ire pi to ffqua 'Vrjyipayp avpeiTL- 
KpvTTTOPTcop, Kul KaTu/Sd^; iirl TTJP OdXaTTav 

282 



TIMOLEON X. 



1-3 



X. However, after Timoleon had met the envoys 
of Hicetas and the commanders of the Carthaginians, 
he cahnly said that he would obey their commands 
(for what would he accomplish by refusing?), but he 
wished that, before he went away, their proposals 
and his reply should be made in the presence of the 
people of Rhegium, a Greek city and a friend of 
both parties ; for this would conduce to his own 
safety, and they, on their part, would abide more 
firmly by their promises regarding the Syracusans if 
they made a people witness to the agreements into 
which they entered. In making this overture to 
them he was contriving a deceit which should secure 
his safe passage across the strait, and the leaders of 
the Rhegians helped him contrive it, since they were 
all desirous that the affairs of the Sicilian Greeks 
should be in the hands of the Corinthians, and feared 
to have the Barbarians as neighbours. Therefore 
they convened an assembly and closed the gates, in 
order that the citizens might not engage in any other 
business ; then they came forward and addressed the 
multitude in lengthy speeches, one handing over to 
another the same topic and coming to no conclusion, 
but protracting the time to no apparent purpose, 
until the Corinthian triremes should have put to sea, 
and keeping the Carthaginians in the assembly free 
from all suspicion, since Timoleon also was there and 
led them to think that he was on the point of rising 
to address the people. But when some one secretly 
brought him word that the other triremes had put 
to sea, and that one only, his own, had been left 
behind and was waiting for him, he slipped through 
the crowd unnoticed, with the connivance of the 
Rhegians about the bema, went down to the sea, 

283 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 i^eirXevae Sta raxewv. kol KazTj^Orjaav et? 
Tavpofiivtov rr)^ ^iKcXiaf;, v7roS€)(^o/jL6vov kuI 
Ka\ovvTO<; avrov's en irdXai TrpoOvfjiw^ ^AvBpo- 
fidxov Tov Tr}v TToXtv €X0VT0<; KOi hvvaarevovTO^. 
ouTo? rjv Trarrjp Tcfiaiov tov KTTopiKov, kol ttoXv 
KpcLTLarof; rcov tots hvvacTTevovTwv iv XtKeXia 
yev6p>6vo<; tmp re eavrov ttoXltcov rjyecTO vopifiw^ 
fcal hiKaiw^;, kol 7rpo<; tou? rvpdvvov^ ^avepo^ r)v 

6 del 8LaK€L/jL€V0^ dire'xjdo)'; /cal dWorplw^;. Slo kul 
Tt/jLoXeovTi Tore rr)v ttoXiv 6p/jL7]Tj]pLov 'TTapea')(€, 
Kol Tou? TToXiraf; eireLxre avvaycovi^eadaL rot? 
^opLvOioi^ Kol avveXevOepovv rrjv ^ifceXiav. 

XI. 0/ ^' ev Tft) 'V-qylcp Kap'X^rjSoviot tov Ti/jlo- 
\eovTO<; dv7]yfievov koI t?}? eKKXriaia<^ SiaXvOelaij^i 
^aXfTTW? <f)epovr€<;, ev rw Kar ear parity r^a 6 ai Bia- 
TpL^7)v TOi? 'VrjyivoL<; Trapelxov, el ^oivLKe<; ovre<i 
ovK dpeaKOLvTO rot^i Bi aTrar?;? 7rparTO/ievoL<;. 

2 TrefiTTOvac S' ovv ci? to Tavpofieviov TrpecrlSevrrjv 
errl Tpirjpov(;,o<; TroXXa SiaXe^j^^^et? TTyoo? rov ^AvSpo- 
/jLUXov, 67ra%^a>9 Kal l3apj3apiKa3<; dvareivdpevof; 
el fiT) Trjv Ta^Larrjv eK^dXXei rov^ K^opLvOiov^, 
TeXo<; vTTTiav rrjv ^(elpa hei^a<i, eZr' av6i<^ fcara- 
arpeylrafi rjTreiXrjae roLavT-qv ovaav avrw rt]v ttoXlv 
TOLavrrjv iroLt^aeiv. yeXd(ra<; 5' 6 ^ AvBp6pa)(0<i 
dXXo p,ev ovSev direKpivaro, rrjv Se %et/9a vvu puev 
VTTTLav, CO? €KeLvo<;, vvv Be Trprjvr) irpOTeiva^ eKe- 
Xevaev diroTrXelv avTov, el jiir) ^ovXolto rrjv vavv 
avTL TOiavrr]^ yeveaOat roiarjrrjv. 

3 O 8' 'iKerrjf; irvOop^evo'; rrjv rov TtjjLoXeovTO^ 
Bid^aaiv Kal <^o^r)6el<^ [leTeTrejiy^aTO TroXXa? 
rSiv Kapxv^ovLcov Tpt7]p€L<;, ore /cal iravTaTraai 241 

284 




TIMOLEON X. 3-xi. 3 

and sailed off with all speed. And they put in at 
Tauromenium in Sicily, whither they had been 
earnestly invited some time ago, and where they 
were now kindly received by Andromachus, the 
master and ruler of the city. Andromachus was 
father of 7'imaeus the historian, and after making 
himself by far the most powerful of the rulers in 
Sicily at that time, not only led his own citizens in 
the ways of law and justice, but was also known to 
be always averse and hostile to tyrants. Therefore at 
this time also he allowed Timoleon to make the city a 
base of operations, and persuaded his citizens to join 
the Corinthians in their struggle to set Sicily free. 

XI. But the Carthaginians in Rhegium, after Ti- 
moleon had put to sea and the assembly had been 
dissolved, were indignant, and in their discomfiture 
afforded amusement to the Rhegians, seeing that, 
though Phoenicians, they were not pleased with 
what was effected by deceit. Nevertheless, they sent 
an envoy aboard a trireme to Tauromenium, who, 
after a long conversation with Andromachus, in 
which he menaced him in insolent barbaric fashion 
if he did not expel the Corinthians as soon as pos- 
sible, finally showed him his hand with the palm up, 
and then turning it down, threatened that he would 
turn his city as completely upside down. Andro- 
machus, however, with a laugh, made no further 
reply than to stretch out his hand, as the Barbarian 
had done, now palm up, and now palm down, and 
then order him to sail off, if he did not wish his 
ship to be turned upside down in the same fashion. 

But Hicetas was afraid when he learned that Ti- 
moleon had crossed the strait, and sent for great 
numbers of the Carthaginian triremes. And now it 

285 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avvi^Tj Toi'9 XvpaKovaiovfi airoyvMvai rrjv aco- 
rrjpiav, opcovTat; rov /lev Xifievo^ avrcjv Kapxv 
Bovtov<; Kparovvra^;, rrjv 3e ttoXlv 'iKerrjv exovra, 
Tr)? S' afcpa<; Kvpievovra Ainvv(7Lov, TifioXeovra 
Be axTTrep ex Kpaairehov Ttio<; XeTrrov tt)? Tavpo- 
fjLevLTwv 7ro\i')(yrj<; rjj ^LKeXia Trpoariprrifievov iir^ 
iXTTiBofi ^ aadevov'!; /cat ^pa-^eia^ Buvdfiecof;' ^tXt- 
(ov yap avT(p arparLcorcov koI rpochrjf; tovtol^ 

4 avayKaia<i irXeov ovBev i>'irrjp')(ev. ovB eiricFTevov 
at TToXef? BiaTrXeai KaKwv ovaat koI irpo^ airav- 
Ta<; dTrrupLco/jiepai rov<; rjyov/uLevov^ (TTparoTriBcov, 
/jLaXLara Bia rrjv KaXXiTTTTOV Kal ^dpaKO<; diTLCTTi- 
av, cjv 6 fiev ^AOrjvalo^; o)v, 6 Be Aaf<:6Batfi6vio<;, 
d/jLipOTepoL Be (f)dcr/covTe<; virep rP}<i eXevOepia^ 
TjKeLV Kal KaraXveiv tov<; fJiovdp-)(ov<;, ')(^pv<Tov 
direBei^av ^ rfj XtfceXia ra? ev rfj TvpavvLBi (tv/jl- 
<l>opa<i Kal fjLaKapLWTepov^ BoKetv eTroirjoav tou9 
KaracTTpe-ylravraf; iv rj BovXela rcov eiTiBovTfov 
rrjv avTovopiav. 

XII. OvBev ovv eKeivwv ^eXruova rov ILoplvOiov 
eaecrOai TrpoaBoKMvre^, dXXd ravrd ttclXlv rjKeiv 
irpo'i auTOf? aoc^lcFfiaTa Kal BeXeda/iara, fxer 
eXiriBwv ')(^p7](TT(i}v Kal (piXavOp^irwv viroa^^ecrecdv 
€i9 fierajSoXrjp Beairorov kulvov ridaaevo/jievov^, 
vTrcoTTTevov Kal BceKpovovro ra<^ Ta>v KopLv6la)v 

2 irpoKXi]a€i^ ttXtjv ABpavircbv, o'l iroXiv fjuiKpav 
jxev, lepdv 6' ovaav ^ABpavov, 6eov tlvo<; ti/jlo)- 
fievov Bia(f)€p6i^T(o<; iv oXrj '^iKeXia, KaroiKovvre^ 
iaraaiaaav tt/do? dXXrjXovf;, ol fiev 'Ik€T7)v irpoc- 
ayop-evoL Kal K.ap')(rjBopLov<i, ol Be tt^o? Ti/jboXeovra 

^ €ir' 4\Trl5os Bekker has citt' eXirlSos, after Coraes. 
2 dTreSctlav Blass, after Hemsterhuis : eS^i^ap. 

286 



TIMOLEON XI. 3-xii. 2 

was that the Syracusans altogether despaired of tlieir 
dehverance, seeing their harbour in the power of the 
Carthaginians^ their city in tJie hands of Hicetas, 
and their citadel in the possession of Dionysius ; 
while Timoleon had but a hold as it were on the 
fringe of Sicily in the little city of Tauromenium, 
with a feeble hope and a small force to support 
him ; for apart from a thousand soldiers and provi- 
sions barely sufficient for them, he had nothing. 
Nor did the cities feel confidence in him, over full 
of ills as they were and embittered against all 
leaders of armies, particularly by reason of the per- 
fidy of Callippus ^ and Pharax,^ one of whom was an 
Athenian, and the other a Lacedaemonian ; but both 
of them, while declaring that they came to secure 
the freedom of Sicily and wished to overthrow its 
tyrants, made the calamities of Sicily under her 
tyrants seem as gold in comparison, and brought 
her people to tliink those more to be envied who 
had perished in slavery than those who had lived to 
see her independence. 

XII. Expecting, therefore, that the Corinthian 
leader would be no whit better than those who had 
preceded him, but that the same sophistries and 
lures were come to them again, and that with fair 
hopes and kind promises they were to be made docile 
enough to receive a new master in place of an old 
one, they all suspected and repulsed the appeals of 
the Corinthians except the people of Adranum. 
These dwelt in a city that was small, but sacred to 
Adranus, a god highly honoured throughout all Sicily, 
and being at variance with one another, one party 
invited in Hicetas and the Carthaginians, while the 

^ The false friend of Dion [Dion, chapters hv-lvii.). 

* Cf. the Dion, xlviii. 3 : xlix. 1 f. 

287 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hiairefjbiTOfjLevoi. Kai iroi^ air avrofjudrov (Twervy^e 
cirevhovrayv afx^orepcov et? eva /caipbv dficjiOTepoL^; 

3 yeveadai rrjv irapovaiav. a!OC 'I/cer?;? fiev ^kc 
irevraKLa-x^LK'^ov^i aTparccora^; e'X^cov, Ti/ioXeovri, Se 
ol (7v/jL7ravT6<; rjaav ov 7r\€iov<; ')(^i\lcov SiaKoaicov 
ou<; dvaXa^cov eV rov Tavpop^evlov, araSlcov TTyOo? 
TO ^ABpavov ovTcov rerrapd/covTa koX rptaKocTLCOv, 
rp /xev TTpcoTT) tmv rjfiepcov ov ttoXv p.epo<^ tt}? 
ohov TTpoeXaffe koX KarrjvXia-aro, rfj B' varepaia 
avvTovw^ oSeucra? KaX ^(aXeTTa ^(^cjopia SieXOcDv 
"^St) T179 rjfM€pa<i KaTa(f)€pofjL€vr)<; ijKovaev aprc 
Trpoa/jLiyvuvai rov iKerrfv tu> TroKLX^icp kol /cara- 

4 (TTpaToireBeveLV. ol fiev ovv Xo)(ayol kol ra^iapxoi 
Toi/^i TrpcoTOVf; iTTea-TTjaav o)<; ifMcpayovaL Kal htava- 
iravaajjuevoi^ ')(^p7)(T6ixevoi TrpoOvpiOTepoi^, 6 Se 
Ti/jLoXicov i7n7rop€v6/jL€vo(; iSelro ravra fir) iroiecv, 
dXX* ayeiv fcara Ta^09 Koi avvdiTTeLV toI<; tto- 
X€fiLOL<; davvTdicroL<^ ovaiv, co? et/co9 dpri iravo- 
/jbivovf; 6Soi7ropia<; Kal Trepl aK7]vd<; koi heliTvov 

5 d(T')(^oXov<^ 6vTa<;. /cal Xeycov d/jua ravra, rr)v 
daiTiBa Xa/3(ov r^yelro Trpwro^; oicnrep iirl vi/crjv 
irpoSrjXov. ol 3' eLirovro reOappijKore^;, eXarrov rj 
rpidKovra araSlov; en roiv TroXe/bLicov d7r6')(ovre<i. 
ft)? he Kal rovrov^ BtrjXOov, iTnirlTrrovcriv avroh 
raparro/jL€voL<i Kal (f}€vyov(nv &>? Trpcorov rjadovro 
irpoaiovra^y oOev dvupiOijaav fxev ov ttoXXw 
irXeiov^i rpLaKoaiwv, edXcoaav Be 81? roaovroi 

6 fwi'Te?, eXr}(^9ri Be rb arparoireBov. ol S* ^ABpavl- 
rat rd<i 7rvXa<; dvoi^avre<^ irpoaeOevro rw Ti/jlo- 
Xiovrt, fxerd (f)pLK7]<; Kal Oav/naro^; dnrayyeXXovre'; 
CO? eviara/jLevrj<i t^9 f^d^rj^; ol fxev lepol rod veo) 



288 



TIMOLEON XII. 2-6 

other sent an invitation to Timoleon. And by some 
freak of fortune, both generals hastening to answer 
the summons, both arrived at one and the same time. 
But Hicetas came with five thousand soldiers, while 
Timoleon had no more than twelve hundred all told. 
Taking these with him from Tauromenium, he set 
out for Adranum, which was three hundred and forty 
furlongs off. The first day he advanced only a srrall 
part of the journey and bivouacked for the night ; but 
on the second day he quickened his pace, and after 
traversing difficult regions, when day was already 
declining he heard that Hicetas was just arriving at 
the little city and pitching his camp. Accordingly, 
his captains and taxiarchs halted the van-guard, in 
order to give the men food and rest and so make 
them more ready to fight ; but when Timoleon came 
up, he begged them not to do this, but to lead on 
with speed and engage the enemy while they were 
in disorder, as they were likely to be when just at 
the end of their march and busy with their tents 
and supper. And as he thus spoke, he took his 
shield, put himself at the head, and led the soldiers 
on as if to certain victory. And they followed, em- 
boldened by his example, being now distant from the 
enemy less than thirty furlongs. And when they 
had traversed these too, they fell upon the enemy, 
who were confounded and took to flight as soon as 
they perceived them coming up ; wherefore not 
many more than three hundred of them were slain, 
while twice as many were taken alive, and their 
camp was captured. Moreover, the people of Adra- 
num threw open their gates and joined Timoleon, 
reporting to him with terror and amazement that at 
the beginijing of the battle the sacred portals of 

289 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

7rv\(ov€<; avTOfiaroi hiavoL'xOelev, ocfydeir} 8e tov 
deov TO fiev Sopv aeiofxevov €k tt}? alxfJ'V^ dKpa<;, 
TO Be Trpoaroirov iSpMTi ttoXXw peofievov. 

XIII. TavTa B\ co? eoLxev, ov rrjv Tore vUrjv 
earj/iaive jjlovov, aXXa Kai Ta<^ fiera ravra 
irpd^ei^;, ah eKeivo<; 6 ayoov ap)(^i]V evrvxr) 
irapkdxe. koX 'yap 7r6\eL<i ev6u<^ e7mrpea/3ev6/JLe- 
vai irpoaeTiOevTO tw Tip,o\eovTi, /cal Md/iepKO<; 
6 KaTdvr)<; Tvpavvo<^, 7ro\€/j.iaT7]<; dvrjp kuI XPV' 
fiaaiv eppcojxevo^, eScoKev avrov el<; avixixax^av, 

2 TO he ixeyiaTOVy avTO^ Ai,ovvato<; aTretprjKfhi; rjBr] 241 
Tat? ekiriai kol /JLiKpov dTToXeLTrcjv i/CTroXiopKel- 
aOat rov fxev 'Itcerov Kare(f>p6vr]a€v ala^p^^ 
rjTTrj/jLevov, tov Be Ti/jLoXeovra davfid^wv eirefiylrev 
CKeivq) KOI KopLvOiOt^; TrapaBcBov^ avTov Kal Trjv 
d/cpOTToXtv. Be^dfjL€VO<; B' 6 TtfioXewv rrjv dveXiri- 
(7T0V eL'Ti'^tai/, dirocTTeWet toi)? Trepl l^uKXetBrjv 
Kal T7]Xe jiaxov, dvBpa<^ K.opiv6Lov<s, et? ttjv aKpo- 
iroXiVy Kal aTpaTid)Ta<; TerpaKoaLovf;, ov^ o/xov 
TrdvTa^ ovBe (pavepco^;, aBvvaTov yap rjv e^opixovv- 
Tcov TToXe/jLLcov, oXXa /cpvcfya Kal Kar 0X1701/9 

3 TrapeicnreaovTa^. ol fiev ovv aTparicoTfit irape- 
Xa^ov Trjv aKpoiroXiv Kal Ta Tvpavvela perd t?}? 
TTapaaKeurj<i Kal twv xPV^^M'^^ 7rpo<; top TroXepLOV 
Ilttttoi Te yap evrjcrav ovk oXiyoL Kal nr daa fJLif- 
XCLvrj/jidTcov IBea Kal ^eXodV irXrjOo^, oirXwv S* 
direKeivTO fjLvpLdBe<; eirrd Tedrjaavpicrfjievcov €K 
iraXatov, (TTpariwrai Be Bktx^Xioi tw AiovvaLq) 
iraprjaav, 01)9 €K€lvo(;, 0)9 rdXXa, tm TifioXeovTC 
7rapeBo)K€v, auTo? Be ;^yor;/^aTa Xaficou Kal tmv 
(f)iX(ov ov 7ToXXov<; eXaOev eKTrXevaa^ tov 'iKerrjv. 

4 Kal KcpLLadeU 6t9 to tou TipLoXeovTa aTparO' 
29P 



TIMOLEON XII. 6-xiii. 4 

their temple flew open of their own accord, and the 
spear of the god was seen to be trembHng to the 
tip of its point, while copious sweat ran down his 
face. 

XIII. These prodigies, as it would seem, were a 
sign not only of the victory which was then won, 
but also of the achievements succeeding them, to 
which that struggle afforded a propitious beginning 
For cities at once sent envoys to Timoleon and 
espoused his cause, and particularly Maraercus, the 
tyrant of Catana, a warlike and wealthy man, pre- 
sented himself as an ally. And what was most im- 
portant, Dionysius himself, now grown desperate and 
almost forced to surrender, despised Hicetas for his 
shameful defeat, and in admiration of Timoleon sent 
to him and his Corinthians offering to surrender him- 
self and the citadel to them. Timoleon accepted 
this unexpected good fortune, and sent Eucleides 
and Telemachus, men of Corinth, into the acropolis, 
and with them four hundred soldiers, not all at once, 
nor openly, for this was impossible when an enemy 
was blockading the harbour ; but they made their 
way in secretly and in small companies. These 
soldiers, then, took over the acropolis and the castle 
of the tyrant, together with his equipment and 
stores for the war ; for there were many horses 
there, all sorts of engines of war, and a great quan- 
tity of missiles, and armour for seventy thousand men 
had been stored up there for a long time. Diony- 
sius also had with him two thousand soldiers ; these, 
as well as the supplies, he turned over to Timo- 
leon, while he himself, with his treasure and a few 
of his friends, sailed off without the knowledge of 
Hicetas. And after he had been conveyed to the 

291 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TreSov, rare irpcoTov l8icot7J<; koX TaireLvcx; 6(f>0eL<;, 
iirl /jLid<; yew? kol ')(^pTjfidTa)V oXiycov et? KopivOov 
airearaXri, yevvi^OeU fiev koI Tpa(b€\<i ev rvpavvihi 
rrj iraaoji^ iinc^aveaTdrrj kol pLeyiarrj, KaTaa')((ov 
he ravTTjv errj SeKa, Ba^SeKa 8' dWa fxerd rrjv 
Aio)vo<; arpareiav iv dywa-L kol TroXifioif; Bia- 
<pop7]d€U, a S' €7rpa^€ rvpavvodv oh eiraOev vrrep 

6 ^a\6/jL€V0<;. kol ydp vicov ivrjXifccov davdrov; koI 
6uyaT€pa)V KaraTropvevaeKi irapdevwv eirelBe, kol 
rr)V avTTjp dS€\<pr}V kol yvvaina ^coaav fiev 66? to 
acofia rah daeXyecTTdrai^ vivo to)v TroXefJUcov 
r)BovaL<i TrapavofjLTjOelcrav, ^ia 8* cnroOavovaav 
/jLerd TMV riKvcov, KaTarrovTLaBelaav et? to ire- 
\ayo<i. ravra fiev ovv iv TOt? irepl Alcoj/O's uKpL/Sc!)^ 
yiypaTTTaL. 

XIV. Tov Be Aiovvalov KarairXevcravro'; et? 
}^6pivOov, ovBeU Tjv '^Xkr)vwv o? ou%t dedaaaOai 
Kol irpoaenrelv iirodrjaev avrov. dW^ oi re x^^' 
povre^ iirl rah avfi(f)opa2<; Bid pXao'^ dcrfievoi 
(TVvrfkOov olov eppifxixevov viro Tfj<i Tv-)(^r]<; Trari]- 
aovre'^, oX re tt/jo? rrjv /jLera^oXrjv rperrropLevoi koI 
avfi7ra6ovvre<; iOecovro 7roX\r)v iv daOeveai TOt? 
dvOpwTTivoi^; /cat 7rpoBtjXoi<; rrjv twv dBijXcov al- 

2 tlS)V kol Oeiwv Bvva/JLLV. ovBev ydp ovre (fyvaew^ 
6 T0T6 Kaipo^i ovre re^yri^; oaov iKelvo tl/^t;? 
epyov iireBei^arOy rov XiK€Xi,a<; oXiyov ejJurpoaOev 
Tvpavvov iv KopLv6(p BLarpifioura Trepl rrjv osjro- 
'TTCoXcv T) KaOrjjJLevov iv fjUvpoTTcoXlq), irivovTa Kexpa- 

^ There is nothing in the Dion to justify this statement. 
The cruelties described were committed by the revolting 
people of Locri, to whom Dionysius had made himself odious 

2Q2 



TIMOLEON XIII. 4-xiv. 2 

camp of Timoleon, where for the first time he was 
seen as a private person and in humble garb, he was 
sent off to Corinth with a single ship and a small 
treasure, having been born and reared in a tyranny 
which was the greatest and most illustrious of all 
tyrannies, and having held this for ten years, and 
then for twelve other years, after the expedition of 
Dion, having been involved in harassing struggles 
and wars, and having surpassed in his sufferings all 
his acts of tyranny. For he lived to see the violent 
deaths of his grown-up sons and the violation of his 
maiden daughters, and the shameful abuse of the 
person of his wife, who was at the same time his 
sister, and who, while living, was subjected to the 
most wanton pleasures of his enemies, and after 
being murdered, together with her children, was 
cast into the sea. These things, then, have been 
fully described in my Life of Dion.^ 

XIV. But as for Dionysius, after his arrival at 
Corinth there was no Greek who did not long to 
behold and speak to him. But those who rejoiced 
in his misfortunes were lead by their hatred to come 
together gladly that they might trample, as it were, 
upon one who had been cast down by Fortune; while 
those who regarded rather the reversal of his fortune 
and sympathised with him, saw strong proof, amid 
the weakness of things that are human and seen, of 
the power of causes that are unseen and divine. For 
that age showed no work either of nature or of art 
that was comparable to this work of Fortune, namely, 
the recent tyrant of Sicily in Corinth, whiling his 
time away at a fishmonger's or sitting in a perfumer's 

during his residence there from 356 to 346 B.C. Cf, Athenaeus. 
p. 541 c-e. 

«93 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

jievov airo roiv KaTrrjXetcov /cal Sia7r\7jKTi^6/j,€vov 
iv fiiaa rot? a^* w/^a? ipya^ofi6vot,<; yvvaiot<i, 
ra? Be /iovaovpyov<; ev Tat9 cphal<^ BiSda/covra, 
Kal irepl OearpiKMV aa/idrcov ipL^eiv airovhd^ovra 

3 TT/jo? i/ceivaf; Kal irepl fxekov^ dpixovia^. ravra 
S' 01 fiev dW(o<; dXvovra /cal (f>va6C pddvfiov ovra 
Kal <f)i\aK6\acnov wovro iroielu rbv AcovvortoVf 
ol S' vTrep rod Kara^poveladai Kal /jlt) <^o^epov 
elvat TOt? K.opip0iOL^, pn^h^ VTroirrov to? /Sapvvo- 
fievov rrjv /uLera^oXrjv rov /3lov Kal Trpayfidrcov 
i(hLeiJLevoVy eTTLrrjBeveiv Kal viroKpiveaOaL irapd 
(pvaLv, rroWr)v d^ekrepiav iiriBeiKvviJLevov ev tw 
a')(^o\d^eiV. 

XV. Ov fxrjv dWd Kal Xoyoi Tt.ve<} avrov 
fivrj/jLovevovraL, Bt uv eSoKci avfKpepeaOai roi? 
irapovcTLV ovk dyevvo)<^. rovro fiev yap et? 
AevKdBa KaraxOei^, irokiv dirwKLaiJLevrjv viro 
KopipOicov wcTirep rr]V ^vpaKovaifov, ravrov e(f>r) 
ireTTOvBevat. toi<; ev dfjbapTrjfiaai yevofJiivoi<i Toiiv 
veavL(TK(ov' w? yap eKelvoi rol^ jxev dBe\<j)ol<^ 
l\apo)<; avvSiaTpL/SovcTi, tou? Be Tvarepa^ ala^vvo- 
jievoi <j>evyovcnv, ovrw<^ avTO<; alBov/Juevo^ ttjv 
(jb-qTpoTToXLV r)Be(o<i av avroOu /xer' eKeLvwv KaroL- 

2 Kelv. rovro 8' ev KoplvOw ^evov rivb<i dypoiKo- 243 
repov eh ra? fjuerd rwv (f)i\oa6(j)Q)V BiarpL^d^, at? 
rvpavvcov €-)(^atpe, '^\evd^ovro<; avrov, Kal reXo? 
epcorojvrof; ri Br] rrj<^ YWdrwvo^ dirdXavcrete 
ao(f>La<!, ** OvBev,^^ e<pr), " aol BoKovtxev vtto IlXa- 
rojvo^i (t)<^e\r]a6ai, rv)(r)f; fiera/SoXrjv ovrw <^6- 
povre'sT Trpo^ Be rov /jLOvcrtKov ^ Apiaro^evov Kal 
riva<; dWov<i 7rvvOavo/jLevov<i orroOev aura) Kal rt? 



294 



I 



TIMOLEON XIV. 2-xv. 2 

shop, drinking diluted wine from the taverns and 
skirmishing in public with common prostitutes, or 
trying to teach music-girls in their singing, and 
earnestly contending with them about songs for the 
stage and melody in hymns. Some thought that 
Dionysius did these things as an aimless loiterer, 
and because he was naturally easy-going and fond of 
license ; but others thought that it was in order to 
be held in contempt and not in fear by the Corin- 
thians, nor under suspicion of being oppressed by the 
change in his life and of striving after power, that 
he engaged in these practices and played an un- 
natural part, making a display of great silliness in 
the way he amused himself. 

XV. However, certain sayings of his are preserved, 
from which it would appear that he accommodated 
himself to his present circumstances not ignobly. 
Once, namely, when he landed at Leucadia,^ a city 
which had been colonized by Corinthians, just like 
Syracuse, he said he had the same feelings as young 
men who have been guilty of misdemeanours ; for 
just as these pass their time merrily with their 
brothers, but shun their fathers from a feeling of 
shame, so he was ashamed to live in their common 
mother-city, and would gladly dwell therewith them. 
And again, in Corinth, when a stranger somewhat 
rudely derided him about his associations with phi- 
losophers, in which he used to take delight when he 
was a tyrant, and finally asked him what good Plato's 
wisdom did him now, " Dost thou think, said he, 
"that I have had no help from Plato, when I bear 
my change of fortune as I do.''" Further, when 
Aristoxenus the musician and certain others inquired 

* On his voyage from Syracuse to Corinth. 

295 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 77 TTpo? UXaTcova yevocro /Ae/z-v/rt?, ttoWcov €(J)t] 
KUKCJV rrjv TVpavviSa fjiear-qv ovcrav ovSev ex^tv 
ttjXlkovtop rfKiKOV to firjSeva rcov XeyofMevcov 
^LXwv jjLera irapprjaia^ SiaXeyeadar fcal yap 
auTO? viT e/ceiPMV aTToaTeprjOrjvaL T7]<; UXdTwvo<; 
€vvola<;. eVet Be tmv fiovXofievcov rt? 6v(^vo)v 
elvai aKcoTTTcov rov ALOVvacov e^eaeie to i/JLaTiov 
elcTLcov 7r/?09 avTOV, q)<; Br) irpb^ Tvpavvov, avTi' 
afcooTTTcov i/celvo^ ixiXeve tovto ttolclv otuv e^irj 
Trap avTov, i^rj tl tcov evBov eywv aTreXOr}. 

4 ^lXlttitov Be tov MaveSoyo? irapa ttotov tlvo, 
Xoyov fiCTa elpcoveia^ ep,^aX6vT0<; irepl tcov fieXcov 
KoX Twv TpaywBioiv a? o 7rpea/3uTepo^ AiovuaLo<; 
KaTeXiire, koX TrpoairoLoufMevou Biairopelv iv tlvl 
y^povw TavTa iroielv €K6lvo<; icr^oXa^ev, ov <^av- 
Xco^ oLTnjvTTjaev 6 Aiovvaio<; elircav' ** 'Ev w crv 
Kayo) Kol 7rdvT6<; ol fMa/cdpiot BoKovuTe<; eivai wepl 
KOidwva BiaTpi/3o/jL6v'* 

5 HXaTcov fiev ovv ovk iirelBev iv "Kopivdco Aiovv- 
aiov, dXX eTV)(€v TjBrj Te6v7jKQ)<;, 6 Be ^Lvw7rev<i 
Aioyevr)<; diravTrjaa^ avTw irpcoTov, "'H? dva^l- 
6)9," e^r], " Aiovixne, f^9." emaTavTO^ 8' eKel- 
vov KoX elTTovTO^i' " Ey iroielv, o) Aioyeve^, avva- 
xOo/ievo^ rjfjLLV r)TV)(r}K6(TL,^^ " Ti ydp;^^ elirev 6 
AioyevT]'^, " oUi fie aoi avvaXyelv, ov Biayava- 

fCTClV OTl TOLOVTOV dvBpdTToBoV WV, KOL Tol<^ TVpUV- 

veL0i<;, wairep 6 TraTrjp, e7rLTj]Bei,o<; eyyr)pdaa<; 
diToOavelv, ivTavOa Tral^cov Koi Tpvcpcov Bcdyei^ 
296 



TIMOLEON XV. 2-5 

what his complaint against Plato was and what its 
origin, he told them that of the many ills with 
which tyranny abounded there was none so great 
as this, that not one of those reputed to be friends 
speaks frankly with the tyrant ; for indeed it was 
by such friends that he himself had been deprived 
of Plato's good will. Again, w^hen one of those 
who wish to be witty, in mockery of Dionysius shook 
out his robe on coming into his presence,^ as if 
into the presence of a tyrant, Dionysius turned the 
jest upon him by bidding him do so when he went 
out from his presence, that he might not take any- 
thing in the house away with him. And when Philip 
of Macedon, at a banquet, began to talk in banter 
about the lyric poems and tragedies which Dionysius 
the Elder had left behind him, and pretended to 
wonder when that monarch found time for these 
compositions, Dionysius not inaptly replied by say- 
ing : " When thou and I and all those whom men 
call happy are busy at the bowl." 

Now, Plato did not live to see Dionysius when he 
was in Corinth, but he was already dead ; - Diogenes 
of Sinope, however, on meeting him for the first time, 
said : ^' How little thou deservest, Dionysius, thus to 
live ! '* Upon this, Dionysius stopped and said : " It 
is good of thee, O Diogenes, to sympathize with me 
in my misfortunes." " How is that ? " said Diogenes; 
" Dost thou suppose that I am sympathizing with 
thee ? Nay, I am indignant that such a slave as thou, 
and one so worthy to have grown old and died in 
the tyrant's estate, just as thy father did, should be 

^ To show that no weapon was conoealed there. 
* Plato died in 348 B.C.; Dionysius came to Corinth in 
343 B.C. 

297 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6 fied^ rj/jLuyv;** were fioi irapaBaKXcvri tovtol^ Ta<; 
<t>c\laTov <f)(oud(;, a? ck^li-jctl irepl tmv AeirTLVov 
duyarepcov 6\o^vp6ixevo<^, co? €k fxeyaXcov ayaOwv 
TMV rfjf; TVpavviho<i eU raireLvr]v a<piy/jLev(ov hl- 
anav, (paiveaOaL 6prjvov<; yvvaLKo<; a\a/3dcrT0v<; 
fcal TTOpcjiVpa^ koI ')(^pV(TLa TroOovarjt;. 

Tavra fxev ovv ovk dWorpia t/}9 twv ^lcov 
duaypa(p)]<; ovSe cixpv^^'''^ So^etv olofieOa jxr} 
(Tirevhovav fju-qhe d(T-)(o\ovfievoL<; dKpoaTal<i. 

XVI. T^9 Be ^Lovvaiov hv(T7VXLa<i TrapaXoyov 
(f)aveLar)<; ou% rjrrov rj Tf/xoXeoz^TO? €VTV)(La to 
Oavfiaarov ea')(ev. eVf/Sa? yap XcKcXla^; iv rj/iie- 
pai^ irevTrjKOVTa rijv t d/cporroXiv tmv ^vpa/cov- 
GO)V irapeXa^e koI Aiovvcriov eh YieXo-jrowTjaov 
e^eirefJL-^ev. 60 ev einppcoa-OevTe^ ol K.opiv9ioc 
Tre/jLTTovaiv avrw BLax^Xiov<; oTrXtra'? Kal Sia- 

2 Koaiov<i i7r7reL<;, o'c KoixiaOevTe^; dy^pt Sovpicov 
rrjv eKelOev irepaiwaLV viro Kap^rj^ovtcov TroXXat? 
vaval KaTe)(^o/ievr}<; t?}? OaXdrrrj^; diropov opwvre^, 
&)? r)v dvdyKy] Kaipov irepLiievovra'; drpejjielv avro- 
Olj TTyoo? KoXXiarov epyov direxpi^aavro rfj cr^oXfj, 
%ovpi(ov yap eirX 3p€rTL0v<; arparevovrwv rrjp 
TToXiv 7rapaXaB6vTe<; (oairep TrarpiSa KaOap(o<; 
Kal TTLCTTOi^ Sie(f>vXa^av. 

3 *0 S* 'J/cerrjf; rrju jxev d/cpoTToXiv rwv ^vpaKov- 
aoiv iiroXiop/ceL Kal alrov eKcoXuep eicnrXelv TOL<i 
K.opLp0LOL(;, Tl/jloX€optl Be Bvo ^epov<; TrapaaKevd- 
cra? BoXo(j)OPrj(TOpra^ avrop vTreire/Jiyjrep et? ^ABpa- 
vop, ovre dXXco<; irepl to acofia avPTeTayjmepyjp 

298 



TIMOLEON XV. 5-xvi. 3 

living here with us in mirth and luxury." Wherefore, 
when I compare with these words the mournful ut- 
terances of Philistus about the daughters of Leptines, 
how from the great blessings of the tyranny they 
fell to a lowly life, they seem the lamentations of a 
woman who pines for her alabaster caskets and purple 
gowns and golden trinkets. 

These details, then, will not seem foreign to my 
biography, I think, nor without usefulness, to readers 
who are not in haste, and are not occupied with 
other matters. 

XVI. But though the misfortune of Dionysius 
seemed extraordinary, none the less did the good 
fortune of Timoleon have sometliing marvellous 
about it. For within fifty days after his landing in 
Sicily the acropolis of Syracuse was surrendered to 
him and Dionysius was sent off to Peloponnesus. 
Stimulated by this success, the Corinthians sent him 
two thousand men-at-arms and two hundred horse- 
men. These got as far as Thurii, but seeing that 
their passage thence was impracticable, since the sea 
was beset with many Carthaginian ships, they were 
compelled to remain there quietly and await their 
opportunity, and therefore turned their leisure to 
advantage in a most noble action. When the Thu- 
rians, namely, went on an expedition against the 
Bruttians, the Corinthians received their city in 
charge, and guarded it honestly and faithfully to 
the end, as though it were their own. 

But Hicetas kept the acropolis of Syracuse under 
siege and prevented the importation of food for the 
Corinthians there ; he also sent to Adranum two 
foreigners whom he had engaged to assassinate Timo- 
leon ; for Timoleon at no time kept a guard in array 

299 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6X0VTL <f>v\aKT]v, Kttl T0T6 iravTaTraai hia rov 
Oeov avei/jLevcD<i koX avvTroTrrcof; (T)^o\d^ovTt. fierh 
TO)V ^ASpaPiTMV. 01 Be 7re/jL^6evr€<i Kara tv^ijv 
TTvOo/jievot fxiXXovTa Oveiv avrov, yjkov eh to 
lepov VTTO T0t9 lfjLa7L0t<; 67%eiyot'3ta ko/jll^ovt€';, kol 
T0t9 irepLecrraxTL rov pwfiov ava/jH^Oevref;, iyyv- 

4 T€pa) Kara puLKpov eire'^^eipovv. kol oaov ovttco 244 
irapaKeXevopbevcov aXXr^Xoi? evdp')(e<T6ai iraiev ti<; 
avTcov Tov erepov Kara ttj^ K€(j)a\r]<; ft</)€^, Koi 
ireaovTO^ ovO' 6 iraida^ eiietvev ovB' 6 pbera rov 
TrXrjyevTOf; rjKoov, aXX! eKelvo<^ fiev, warirep elx^ to 
^Lcjyof;, (f)€vy(ov 7rp6<; riva irerpav v-^rjXrjv dveirr]- 
Brjcrep, drepo^; Bk tov /Sco/jlov Xa/36pLevo<; dBeiav 
yTCLTo TTapa tov TifjLoXeovTOf; eVt tw TrdvTa pur^vv- 
aai. Kol Xa^cov ipurjvvae fcaO^ auTOV Kal KUTa 

TOV TeOviiKOTo^ ax; TrepLcpOetev e/celvov diroKTev- 

5 ovvTe^. ev tovtcd Be koi tov diro tt)^ 7reTpa<i KUTrj- 
yov eTepoL, l3o(ovTa pirjBev dBiKelv, aXX* dvrjprjKevaL 
BiKaiw^ TOV dvOpcoTTOV virep Trarpo? TeOvrjKoro^;, 
ov eKelvo^ aTre/cTovrj/coi, irpoTepov ev AeovTivoL^;, 
Kal pLapTvpouvTa<; el^^v eviov<; tcov TrapovTCOv, 
6avpLd^ovTa<i dp^a r/j? tv^V^ t^^ evpt^rixaviav, &>? 
Bl eTepcov erepa KLVovaa koi crvvdyovaa TrdvTa 
TToppcoOev Kal avjKaTairXeKovcra To2<i irXelaTOV 
BiacpepeLV BoKovai Kal pLrjBev e^^iv tt/Oo? dXXr}Xa 
KOLvov del TOL<i dXX^jXcov ^PV'^^'^ ^^^^ TeXeai Kal 
dpxciL<;, 

6 Tov pL€v ovv dvOpcoTTOV iaTej)dvcoaav ol KopLV- 
300 



TIMOLEON XVI. 3- 

about his person, and at this time in particular, owing 
to his trust in their god, he was altogether without 
anxiety or suspicion in his diversions with the people 
of Adranum. The men who had thus been sent 
learned, as chance would have it, that he was about 
to offer a sacrifice, and therefore came into the sacred 
precinct with daggers under their robes, mingled with 
those who stood around the altar, and gradually drew 
nearer their intended victim. And as they were just 
on the point of exhorting one another to begin their 
work, somebody smote one of them on the head witi 
a sword and laid him low, whereupon neither he who 
had struck the blow nor the companion of him who 
had received it kept his place ; but the one, with his 
sword still in his hand, fled to a lofty rock and sprang 
upon it, while the other laid hold of the altar and 
begged immunity from Timoleon on the condition of 
his revealing everything. And when he had obtained 
his request, he testified against himself and against 
his dead comrade that they had been sent to kill 
Timoleon. Meanwhile others brought down the man 
who had fled to the rock, who kept crying out that 
he had done no wrong, but had justly slain the man 
on behalf of his dead father, who had been mur- 
dered by him some time ago in Leontini. Some of 
the bystanders bore witness also to the truth of his 
words, and wondered, too, at the dexterity of Fortune, 
seeing how she makes some things lead up to others, 
brings all things together from afar, weaves together 
incidents which seem to be most divergent and to 
have nothing in common with one another, and 
so makes use of their reciprocal beginnings and 
endings. 

To this man, then, the Corinthians gave a reward 

301 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

OiOL BeKa fival^, on to5 (fivXarrovrt haifiovi rov 
Ti/jLoXeovra irdOof; e^pv^^ Blkulov koI top €K 
TToWov irapovia dvfiov avro) irporepov ov Karav- 
aXcoaev, aWa fier alrLa^ IBua^ 7rpo<i Tr)v eKeivov 
aoyrrjplav diro rvxv^ BLeTrjprjaev. rj B' eh top 
irapovra Kaipov evTV')(ia Koi Trpo^i rd /liWovra 
rah eXTTLaiv eirrjpev opoivra^ ft)9 lepov civBpa koX 
crvv 6e(p TifKopov rjKovra rrj ^iKeXia rov Ti/io\e- 
ovra ae^eaOai koi ^vXaTreiv. 

XVIL 'n? Be TavTT]<; Bi,7]/jLapTe t^9 ireipa^ 6 
'I/C6T7;9 KoX 7r/309 TcfioXeovra 7roXXov<; ewpa avvi- 
aTap,evov<^, /u,€/Ji'\jrdfjievo<; avTO<; eavrov on rrfki- 
/cavTTjf; irapovaTjf; r^? Kap)(r]BovLcov Bvvdiie(o<i 
oyairep alax^vofievof; avrfj /card fiiKpd XPV"^^^ 
KoX XdOpa, KXeiTTwv koi Trapeia-dycov rrjv (Tup,p,a- 
'XJ'av, fiereTrefiTrero Wdywva top crrparrjyov avrcjp 

2 fierd tdv aroXov iraPTO^i. 6 Be elaerrXeL (po^epb^ 
paval TTepTrjKOPTa koI ifcarop KaraXapffdvcop top 
Xtfiepa, ire^oip Be /j,vpidBa<; e^ diro^i(3d^ci)p kol 
Karaa-TpaTOTTeBevcov ep ttj iroXei twp "ZvpaKov- 
aiwp, uxTTe irdpTa^ oleaOai ttjp irdXat Xeyofieprjp 
Kal TrpoaBoKco/jLeprjp eK^ap^dpcoaip rjKeip enrl T7]p 
XiKeXiap, ovBerroTe yap Kapxv^0PL0i<; virfjp^e 
irpoTepop fivpiov^ TToXefirjaaai TroXep^ovf; ep XiKe- 
Xla Xa^elp Td<i SvpaKoucra<;, dXXd t6t€ Be^a/j,epov 
Tov 'iKeTov Kal irapaBoPTO^ rjp opdp ttjp ttoXip 

3 (TTpaTOTreBop ^ap/3dp(op ovaap. ol Be ttjp dxpo- 
TToXip Tcop KopipOicop KaTexoPT€<; eTrLa(f>aX(o<i fcal 
302 



I 



TIMOLEON XVI. 6-xvii. 3 

of ten minas, because he had put his just resentment 
at the service of the deity who was guarding Timo- 
leon, and had not at an earlier time expended the 
wratii which had long been in his heart, but with a 
personal motive had reserved it, under Fortune's 
guidance, for the preservation of that general. 
Moreover, their good fortune in the present crisis 
raised their hopes for the future also, and they anti- 
cipated that men would revere and protect Timoleon, 
looking upon him as a sacred personage, and one 
who had come under divine guidance to avenge 
the wrongs of Sicily. ^ 

XVII. But when Hicetas had failed in this attempt 
and saw that many were now thronging to the support 
of Timoleon, he found fault with himself because, 
when so large a force of the Carthaginians was at 
hand, he was using it in small detachments and 
secretly, as though he were ashamed of it, bringing 
in his allied troops like a thief and by stealth; he 
therefore called in Mago their general together with 
his whole armament. Thus Mago, with a formidable 
fleet of a hundred and fifty ships, sailed in and oc- 
cupied the harbour, disembarking also sixty thousand 
of his infantry and encamping them in the city of 
Syracuse, so that all men thought that the barbariza- 
tion of Sicily, long talked of and expected, had come 
upon her. For never before in all their countless 
wars in Sicily had the Carthaginians succeeded in 
taking Syracuse ; but now Hicetas admitted them 
and handed over to them the city, and men saw that 
it was a barbarian camp. But those of the Corinthians 
who held the acropolis were beset with difficulty 

* The Greek of this sentence is obscure, and has thus far 
defied emendation. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

')(^a\€Tr(o<; airrjWaTrov, Tpo(f)rj<; (lev iKav7]<i ovk €ti 
Trapovarj^;, dX)C ivSeo/Jbevoi, Bia to (ppovpelaOai 
Tov<; \ip,eva<;, ael Be iv aycocTL koL fid')(^aL<; irepl rd 
Tet%>7 Kal 7rpo<; ttolv fjir]^dv'r) fxa koL rrpo^ Trdaav 
IBeav irokLopKLa^ pLepi^ovre^ avTOV<;. 

XVIII. Ov firjv dW' 6 TL/jLoXecov irape^orjOet 
(TLTOV eK Kardvrjf; fJUKpal^ dXtdac /cal XeTrroZ? 
dKUTLOL^ diToareWwv, a fiaXiaia ')(^ei/jLcovL jrapeia- 

eTTLTTTC Bid T(x)V fiupfiapLKCOV TplljpCOV VITOlTOpevO- 

fieva, 7r/309 top KXvBcova koX tov adXov iKeivwv 
Buara/ievcov. a Brj <7vvopa)VT6<; ol rrrepl tov Ma- 
ycova KOL tov 'Jkettjv i/SovXovTo T7)v YLaTavrjv 
kXelv, ef rj<; elaeirXei^ Ta €7nTi]Beia toU iroXiop- 
KOVfievoL'i' Kal Xafi6vT6<; Tfj<i Bwdp^eo)^ ttjv P'Ocxc- 

2 fjLWTdrrjv l^eirXevaav Ik tcov XvpaKovaojv. 6 Be 
KopLvOco^; Necoz^ (outo<; yap rjv dpywv TOiv iroXiop- 
KovjMevwv) KarcBoDV diro t% d/ipa<; tou? viroXe- 
XeLp./jLevov<; twv iroXepicov dpy(o<; Kal dfMeX(b<; 
<f)vXdTT0VTa<; e^atcfyvrji: eTreiTeae BieaTrapfjievoL^ 
avToU' Kal Tou? puev dveXcov, toli? Be Tpey\rdp.evo<^y 
eKpuTTjae Kal KaTea^c t^]V Xeyo/ievrjv ^AxpaBcv^v, 245 
o KpdTiaTOV eBoKei Kal dOpavaTorarov inrdp^eiv 
T7]<i XvpaKovaicov /ji€po<; TroXeo)?, Tpoirov Tivd avy- 
Kei/jievT}'^ Kal (TVpr)pp,oa/j,6vr]<i eK TrXecovcov iroXecov, 

3 evnoprjaa^ Be Kal aiTov Kal '^(^prjfidToyv ovk d^rjKe 
TOV TOTTOv, ovB^ dve')((i)pr]ae irdXiv eirl ttjv aKpav, 
dXXd (j)pa^dfievo<; tov Trept^oXov ttj^ W^^paBivrj^ 
Kal avvdyjra^ tol^ epvp^aai 7rpo<; ttjv dKpowoXiv 
Bi,e<pvXaTT€. TOL/? Be irepl tov Maycoi^a Kal tov 
'lKeTr]v 6771/9 tjBtj t^? KaTdvr)^; 6vTa<; tTTTreu? eK 
^vpaKovaoiv KaTaXa^oav dirriyyeLXe ttjv dXcocriv 

^ eiVerrAfi Holdeu's conjecture : cTrAet. 



I 



TIMOLEON XVII. 3-xviii. 3 



and danger ; for they no longer had sufficient food, 
but suffered lack because the harbours were block- 
aded ; and they were forever dividing up their forces 
in skirmishes and battles around the walls, and in 
repelling all sorts of engines and every species of 
siejre warfare. 

XVIII. However, Timoleon came to their aid by 
sending them grain from Catana in small fishing 
boats and light skiffs ; these would make their way 
in, especially in stormy weather, by stealing along 
through the barbarian triremes, which lay at wide 
intervals from one another because of the roughness 
of the sea. This soon came to the notice of Mago 
and Hicetas, who therefore determined to take Ca- 
tana, from which provisions came in by sea to the 
besieged ; so taking with them the best of their 
fighting men, they sailed forth from Syracuse. But 
Neon the Corinthian (for he it was who commanded 
the besieged), observing from the citadel that the 
enemy who had been left behind were keeping an 
easy and careless watch, fell suddenly upon them as 
they were scattered apart ; some lie slew, others he 
put to flight, and then mastered and took possession 
of the quarter called Achradina. This seems to have 
been the strongest and least vulnerable part of the 
city of Syracuse, which was, in a manner, an assem- 
blage and union of several cities. Having thus sup- 
plied himself with grain and money, he did not give 
up the place, nor did he go back again to the citadel, 
but fenced in the circumference of Achradina, united 
it by his fortifications with the acropolis, and guarded 
both. Mago and Hicetas were already near Catana, 
when a horseman from Syracuse overtook them and 



305 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T>}9 'A^paS^i/^?. Koi (Tvvrapa'x^devTe^; ave'X^wprjaav 
Bta Ta)(^ecov, ovt€ Xa/Soure^; €(p' f)v €^P}X6oi> ovre 

XIX. Tavra fiev ovv en rfj Trpovoia kol aperfj 
hiZfocri rtva 7rpo<; rrjv rv^V^ dfJL<f)ta-^r)Tr)atv' ro 8* 
eVl TovToi<i yevojJL€vov iravTaiTaaLv eoLKe av/jL^rjpai, 
Kar evTv^lav. ol yap ii^ roif; ^ovpcoif; hiarpL- 
^ovre^ (TTpariMTat tcov KopivOiwv afia fiev hehio- 
re? ra? Kap)(^r]SovLcov TpLrjp6L<;, at TrapecfyvXarrov 
avToi)^ fiera *'Avv^Dvo<i, ajia 8' e<^' r)jjL6pa<; TroWa? 
€^rjypL(i)/jL6vr)<; vtto 7rvevfJLaT0<; rr}? OaXdrrr^f;, Tre^rj 
Bia 3p6TTlcov wpar)aau Tropeveadar fcal ra fxev 
TreWovTC^, ra Se 0ca^6p,€voc Toy? ^ap.Sdpov^ €i9 
* P^y iov Kaie^aivov en iroXvv yeipuSiva rou ireXd- 

2 701;? exovTO<;. 6 Be to)v Kap)(^r)8ovirt)v vavapxo<;, 
to? ou irpoaehoKa tov<; }LopLv6iov^ kol fidrrjv (pero 
KaOrjoOai, Treiaa^; avro^ eavrov vevoij/cevai ri rwv 
<TO<j)cov KOL TTavovpywv 7r/?09 dwdrrjv, arecpavco' 
aaadai tol/? vavTa^ KeXevaa^ kol Koo-fiijaa^i rd^i 
TpLTjpeL'i dairiaiv 'KXX7]vifcaL(; /cal (^on lkl(Tlv, 
eirXei irpo^ rd<; ^vpaKovaa<;. Kal irapd rrjv uKpo- 
ttoXlv 'x^puifievo'^ poOico perd Kporov kol yeXcoro^i 
i^oa Toi/? KopivOiov^; rjKeiv veviKrjKco^ koL kc- 
'Xeipoipbevo^, iv rfj OaXdrrrj Xa^div Bta7rXeovTa<;, 
o)? Btj Tiva Bvadvp,lav rol^i iroXiopKovp-evni^ irape- 

3 ^wv. eKeivov Be ravra Xt]pouvTO<i Kal (pevaKL^ovTO<i 
i/c TCOV ^perricov KaTaff€^rjK6Te<; ol KoptvOioi et? 
TO YijyLov, ct)9 ovBel^ irape^vXarre Kal to irvevpa 
KaTea^eapievov irapaXoycof; uKvp^ova top iropov 

306 



F* 



TIMOLEON XVIII. 3-xix. 3 



told them of the capture of Achradina. They were 
confounded by the tidings and went back in haste, 
having neither taken the city against which they 
went forth, nor kept the one they had. 

XIX. In these successes, then, foresight and valour 
might still dispute the claims of Fortune ; but that 
which followed them would seem to have been wholly 
due to good fortune. The Corinthian soldiers, namely, 
who were tarrying at Thurii, partly because they 
feared the Carthaginian triremes which were lying 
in wait for them under Hanno, and partly because 
a storm of many days' duration had made the sea 
very rough and savage, set out to travel by land 
through Bruttium ; and partly by persuading, partly 
by compelling the Barbarians, they made their way 
down to Rhegium while a great storm was still raging 
at sea. But the Carthaginian admiral, since he did 
not expect that the Corinthians would venture forth 
and thought his remaining there inactive an idle 
thing, after convincing himself that he had devised 
something clever and mischievous in the way of 
deceit, ordered his sailors to crown their heads with 
garlands, decorated his triremes with purple battle- 
flags and Greek shields, and sailed for Syracuse. And 
as he passed the acropolis at a dashing speed amid 
clapping of hands and laughter, he shouted that he 
was come from conquering and capturing the Corin- 
thians, whom he had caught at sea as they were 
trying to cross the strait ; supposing, indeed, that he 
would thus greatly dishearten the besieged. While 
he was thus babbling and playing the trickster, the 
Corinthians who had come down from Bruttium to 
Rhegium, since no one was lying in wait for them 
and the unexpected cessation of the storm had made 

307 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ISetv KOI Xelov Trapetxe, Ta'xp 7r\7]pa)aavT€<; ra 
TropdfjLeta koX ra<i d\cdBa<; Ta9 irapovaa'^ dvrjyovTO 
Kol Btefco/jLi^ovro irpo^ rrjv XifceXlav, ourco^ da^a- 
Xw? Ka\ Sid Toaavrrjf; yaXijvr]^; Mare rov<i Xttttov^ 
Trapd rd irXola irapavrj^^^o/xevovfi €k pvrtjpcov icpeX- 
KeaOat. 

XX. TIepaLcoOevTcov Be iravrcov 6 TifioXeayv Be- 
^dfievo<; avrov<; r^jv re ^ieacrrjvrjv evOv^ e'%^> ^«t 
avvra^djii6vo<; e^dBi^ev iirl ra? XvpaKovaa<;, oU 
euTu^et Kal KarcopOov fxaWov rj rfj BvvdfjLei 
Treiroidcof;' ov yap rjaav ol avv avrw TrXetou? 
rerpaKia-'x^iXicov. dyyeXXofxev7j<i Be t?}? i(j)6Bov tw 
yidywvL 6opv/3ov/jievo<i Kal BeBoLKco<; ert /laXXov 

2 €i9 vTToyjrLav rjXdev e'/c ToiavTy]^ nrpoc^daew^i. ev 
T0t9 irepl rrjv iroXiv revdyeac, ttoXv fiev e'/c Kprjvwv 
TTOTLfiov vBcop, TToXv 8' i^ eXcov Kal TTOra/lMV 
KarappeovTwv et? rr]v OdXarrav Be)(^op,€VOL<;, ttXt]- 
6o(; eyx^Xecov vefierai, Kal BayjrlXeia tt)? dypa<; 
TOL<; l3ov\ojiievoL<; del irdpeaTL. raura? ol irap 
d/Kporepcov fXiaOov arparevofievoL (T')(^oX7]<; ovarii 
Kal dvo^cov avveOi'-jpevov. ola 8' "EXAr^i/e? 6vre<i 
Kal 7rpo<i dXXyXov<; ovk e^^o^'re? IBlcov d7re')(6eLwv 
TTpocpaaiv, ev puev Tal<; /jLd^aL<^ BieKuBvveuov ev- 
pcoarcofi, ev Be rac^ dvoyal'^ 7rpoa(poi,T(ovTe<i dXX^- 

3 Xo^9 BieXeyovTO. Kal rore kolvov Tvepl rrjv dXieiav 
exovTe<i epyov ev X6yoL<; rjaav, 9aup,d^ovre^ t>}9 
6aXdacrri<^ ryv ev(j)vtav Kal tmv ^coplcov ttjv Kara- 
(7Kevt]v. Kal Tt9 elire rcov irapd rol<; KopLvOtOL'i 
(TT parevofjievayv' ** l^oaavTrjv /mevrot ttoXlv ^ to 
fxeyeOo^i Kal ToaovTOL<i i^rja-KrjpLevtjv KaXol<^ u/nel^ 
"KXX7jve<; ovre^ eK^ap/Sapcoo-ai TTpoOvfMelaOe, Tov<i 



^ v6kiv Blass, after Coraes : r^v Tr6\iv. 



308 



XIX. 3-xx.^ 

the strait smooth and calm to look upon, speedily 
manned the ferry-boats and fishing craft which they 
found at hand, put oft', and made their way across to 
Sicily, with such safety and in so great a calm that 
their horses also swam along by the side of the boats 
and were towed by the reins. 

XX. When they had all crossed over, Timoleon 
took them and at once occupied Messana, then, 
uniting them with his other forces, marched against 
Syracuse, relying on the good fortune and success that 
attended his efforts rather than on the strength of 
his army ; for his followers were not more than four 
thousand in number. But when Mago got tidings of 
his approach, disturbed and fearful as he was, he was 
made still more suspicious for the following reason. 
In the shoals about the city, which receive much fresh 
water from springs, and much from marshes and 
rivers emptying into the sea, great numbers of eels 
live, and there is always an abundance of this catch 
for anybody. These eels the mercenary soldiers on 
both sides, when they had leisure or a truce was on, 
used to hunt together. And since they were Greeks 
and had no reason for private hatred of one another, 
while in their battles tliey risked their lives bravely, 
in their times of truce they would visit and converse 
with one another. And so now, as they were busy 
together with their fishing, they conversed, express- 
ing their admiration of the richness of the sea and 
the character of the adjacent lands. And one of 
those who were serving on the Corinthian side said : 
" Can it really be that you, who are Greeks, are eager 
to barbarize a city of such great size and furnished 
with such great advantages, thus settling Cartha- 



309 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KaKiarov^ koI (fiOvi/ccoTdrov^; Kapxv^oviov<i ijyv- 
repw KaTGLKL^ovr€<; rjfiMV, 7r/)o? ov<; eSec 7roWa<; 

BoK€iT€ rovTOV<; (TTparov ayeipavra^ airo arrfKcav 
^UpaKXeicov /cat Tr]<s ^Ar\avTi/cr}(; r]K€iv OaXdrrrjt; 
Bevpo KLvhwevaovTa^ vTrep tt)? 'iKerov hwaareia^; 
0? el Xoyicr/jLov elxev rfyepLovo^;, ovk av i^e/SaXXe 
Toi'9 7TaT€pa<; ou6' eirrjye rfj TrarpiBi tol/? TroXe- 
filov<;, dXXa Koi Ti/jLrj<; kol Swdfieco^; eTvyxcivev 
oar)<; irpeTrei, Koptv6iov<; kol Ti/jLoXeovra rrelaa^;.^* 
TouTou? rov<i X6yov<; ol /iii(T0o(f)6poc Biedporjaav ev 
TO) arpaToiriSa), kol irapeaxov viroy^iav ra> Ma- 
ycovt TrpohiBoaOai,, ^j^/orj f oi^rt irdXat TTpocpdaeco^;. 

5 Blo kol Beofievov rov 'I/cerou Trapa/jiepeii' kuI BcSd- 
(TKOVTO^ o(T(p ^eXnove^ elat rwv TroXepLLcov, pidXXov 
OLOfievo^ dperf] kol ruxj) XeiTreaOaL Ti/jloX€oito<; t) 
TrXrjdei Bvvdpeco'^ virep/SdXXeLv, dpa^ evOv^ dire- 
irXevaep eh Ai^vrjv, al(T)(pco^ Kar ovBeva Xoyc 
a/jLOt^ dpOpcoTTLVOv etc tcov x^ipMv dcjyeU ^iKeXiav, 

XXI. T^ 5' varepaia irapijv 6 Tip,oXecov eVl 
fid^V^ (TVVTeTayfjLevo<;. (w? Be ttjv <^vyr)v eirvvOd- 
vovTO KOL rr)v epTjfjLiav edapwv twv vewpiwv, yeXdv 
avrol^ eirriei rrjv dvavBpiav tov Mdycovo^, Kal 
7repu6vT€<; ifcrjpvrrov ev ttj iroXei fiyvvrpa t« 
(f>paaavTL tov K.ap'XvBovLcov aroXov owy cr(pd<; diro' 

2 BeBpaKev. ov firjv dXXd tov 'Ikctov (f)LXofxaxovv- 
T09 €Tt KoX Tr)p Xaffrjv ov Trpole/uLevov r^? 7roXea)9, 
dXXd e/iTre^uATOTO? oU KaTel^e pepeaL KapTepol^ 
310 



TIMOLEON XX. 3-xxi. 2 

ginians, who are the basest and bloodiest of men, 
nearer to us, when you ought to pray for many 
SiciUes to lie as a barrier between Greece and 
them ? Or do you suppose that they have collected 
an army and are come hither from the pillars of 
Heracles and the Atlantic sea in order to risk their 
lives in behalf of the dynasty of Hicetas ? He, if he 
reasoned like a true leader, would not be casting out 
his kindred people, nor would he be leading against 
his country her natural enemies, but would be en- 
joying a befitting amount of honour and power, with 
the consent of Timoleon and the Corinthians." Such 
speeches as these the mercenaries disseminated in 
their camp, and made Mago suspicious of treachery, 
though he had long wanted a pretext for going 
away. Therefore when Hicetas begged him to re- 
main and tried to show him how much superior they 
were to their enemies, he thought rather that they 
were more inferior to Timoleon in bravery and good 
fortune than they surpassed him in the number of 
their forces, and weighing anchor at once, sailed off 
to Libya, thus letting Sicily slip out of his hands 
disgracefully and for no reason that man could 
suggest. 

XXI. On the day after his departure, Timoleon 
came up with his forces arrayed for battle. But 
when they learned of Mago's flight and saw the 
docks empty of vessels, they could not help laugh- 
ing at his cowardice, and went about the city pro- 
claiming a reward for any one who told them whither 
the Carthaginian fleet had fled away from them. 
However, since Hicetas was still eager for battle and 
would not let go his hold upon the city, but clung 
to the parts of it in his possession, which were 

VOL. VI. T ^11 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ovcTL KoX Sv (777 poa/id'X^OL(;, SieXcDV 6 TifioXecDV rrjv 
Bvva/iLV avTo<i fxev y iSiaLOTarov yv irapa to pel- 
Opov rod ^Avdirov irpocre^aWev, a\\ov<i S' ex Trj<; 
^AxpaSivr}^ eKeXevev eirix^tpelv, wv ^laLa<; rjyelro 
6 i^opiv9io<;. Tou? he rpLrov<; iirriyov iirl ra? 
'ETTiTToXa? Aelvapxo^ kol Arjfidpero^, ol rrjv vare- 

3 pav dya'yovre^ eK KopLv9ov fBoi^Oeiav. dfia Be Kal 
iravrax^odev tt}? ecpoBov jevofievij^^ Kal rwv irepX 
Tov 'Ik6T7jv dvarpairevTCOv kol (jyevyovrcov, to fiev 
aXoivau rrjv ttoXiv KaT aKpa^ kol yevicrdai ra~ 
^€0)? v7fox€ipiov eKTreaovTOiv twv TToXefiLcov Bl- 
Kaiov dvaOelvai rfj rwv fia^o/jLevcov dvBpayaOia 
Kal rfj BeivoTTjTC rod o-TpaTijyov, to Be /jlt) oltto- 
Oavelv riva fi7]Be rpwOrjvaL rcov YLopivOiwv XBlov 
epyov avrij^i rj Ti/Jio\€OVTO<i eTreBei^aro Tv')(r), 
Kaddirep BiapaWwiievr] 7rpo<; rr)V dperrjv tov dv- 
Bpo^j Lva Tcov iiraLvovixevcdv avrov rd fiaKapi^o- 

4 fjieva fidXkov ol irvvdavofxevoi Oavfid^wo-Lv. ov 
yap fiovov ^iKeXlav irdaav ovB^ ^IraXiav eijOv<; rj 
(fyrjfjLr] Kare<T')(ev, aXV rjfiepcov oXljcov rj 'EXXa? 
Sf7^^€t to fjLeyeOo<; rov KaTop6(ofiaTO<;, Mcrre ttjv 
TMV Kopivdicov TToXiv aTTLarovaav el BiaTreirXeuKev 
6 cTToXo?, ofiov Kal a€a-coafjLevov<; Kal veviKTjKora^i 
aKovetv roi)^ dvBpa^. outo)? evporjaav al irpd- 
fei?, Kal ToaovTO tw KdXXei rcov epycov to Td')(o<; 
V '^^X^l 'J^pocreOrjKev. 

XXII. Vev6iJievo<^ Be t^? dKpa<i Kvpio^ ovk erraOe 
Aiwvi ravTO irdOo^, ovB^ ecpelaaro tov tottov Bid 
TO KdXXo<^ Kal Trjv TToXvTeXeiav Tr]<; KaTaaKevrj<;, 
dXXd Trjv eKelvov Bia/SaXovaav, sIt' diroXeaaaav 
VTroyjriav ^vXa^dfievo<i iKtjpv^e TOiV XvpaKOVcrlcov 



312 



TIMOLEON XXI. 2-xxit. i 

strong and dangerous to attack, Timoleon divided 
his forces, he himself attacking along the river 
Anapus where the struggle was likely to be hottest, 
and ordering others, under the lead of Isias tlie 
Corinthian, to make their attempt from Achradina. 
The third division was led against Epipolae by 
Deinarchus and Demaretus, who had brought the 
second reinforcement from Corinth. The attack was 
made in all three places at once, and the troops of 
Hicetas were overwhelmed and took to flight. That 
the city was taken by storm and fell quickly into 
their hands after the enemy had been driven out, 
it is right to ascribe to the bravery of the soldiers 
and the ability of their general ; but that not one 
of the Corinthians was killed or even wounded, this 
the good fortune of Timoleon showed to be her own 
work, vying eraulously, as it were, with his valour, in 
order that those who hear his story may wonder at 
his happy successes more than at his laudable efforts. 
For his fame not only filled at once all Sicily and 
Italy, but within a few days Greece echoed with his 
great success, so that the city of Corinth, which was 
in doubt whether his armament had got across the 
sea, heard at one and the same time that it had 
safely crossed, and that it was victorious. So pros- 
perous was the course of his enterprises, and such 
was the speed with which Fortune crowned the beauty 
of his achievements. 

XXII. When he had become master of the citadel, 
he did not repeat the experience of Dion,i nor did 
he spare the place on account of the beauty and 
great cost of its architecture, but guarding against 
the suspicions which had brought calumny and then 
destruction upon his predecessor, he made proclama- 
^ See the Dion, chapter liii. 1. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TOP fiovXofievov irapelvaL /iiera (Tthrjpov koI (tvv€<J>- 
(iTrreaOai KaraaKaTTTOfievcov rcov rvpavviKcou 

2 ipv/jLUTcov. ft)? he iravre'^ dve^rjaav, cLp^rjv iXev- 
OepLUf; iroirjad/iievoi, ^efiaiOTcirrjv to /crjpvyfjLa koI 
Tr)V rjfiipav iKeivrjv, ov fxovov rrjv a,Kpav, dWa 
Kal rd^; oiKia^ fcal ra /jLv^fiara rcov Tvpdvvwv 
dvirpeyfrav Kal KariaKayjrav. €vdv<; Be top tottov 
(Tvvo/ia\vva<; ev(pKoh6pL7]ae rd BiKaar^pta, %a/?i- 
^6fjL€V0<; Tol<i TToXtrai? Kal rrj<; TvpavviBo<; virep- 
repav ttocmv ttjv Br]/jLOKpaTiav, 

3 'EttcI Be rrjv ttoXlv eXoDv ovk eZ;^e 7ro\iTa<;, 
dWd Twi^ fiev ev tol^ TroXe/iOK; Kal raU crrdaeai 
BLa(j)6apevT(ov, rcov Be Td<; rvpavviBa<; (pevyoprwv, 

T} fiev ev ^vpaKovaai^ dyopd Bl eprj/ilav ovTO)<i 24' 
TToWrjv Kal /3a6elav e^e^vaev vXrjv coare tou? 
tTrTrou? ev avrfj KaravefieaOat, rayv iiTTroKo/JLcov ev 
ry X^or) KaraKeifjievcov, at Be dWai TroXe^? irXrjv 
Trai^reXw? oXiycov eXdcpcov iyevovro fiearal xal 
avojv dypicov, ev Be tol<; irpoaareioLf; Kal irepl rd 
Tei)(r] TToXXaKL^i ol (TXoXtjv dyovre^ eKVV7]yeT0vv, 

4 v'TTf]Kove 8' ovBeh rcov ev tol^ epv/JLaai Kal cf)pov- 
pioL<^ KaroLKOvvTcov, ouBe Kare^aivov ci? rrjv iroXiv, 
dXXd ^pLKT] Kal filcro^ ^^X^ 7rdvTa<; dyopd's Kal 
TToXiTeia^i Kal /3r]fjLaT0<^, e^ wv di>e<^vaav avTol<^ 
ol irXeldTOi Twv Tvpdvvwv^ eBo^e tw Tt/jLoXeovTi 
Kal Tot? SvpaKov(Tiot<i ypdyjrai, tt/oo? tov<; KopLV' 
Olov<; oTTft)? 7re/jLylrco(7Lv olKtjTopa<; ei<; rd<i ^vpa- 

5 KOvaa<; Ik rr}<; 'EXXaSo?. rj re ydp X^P^ crxoXd- 
^eiv e/jLeXXe, Kal ttoXvv jroXe/xov €k Ai^u)]<i 
TTpoaeBexovTo, irvvOavofievoL tov^ l^apxv^oviov^ 
Tov fxev Mdy(i3vo<i eavTOv dveX6vT0<; dveaTavpca- 
Kevai TO acofia Bid rr/v arparijyiav opyiadevTa^i, 



TIMOLEON XXII. 1-5 

tion that all Syracusans who wished should come 
with implements of iron and help in the demolition 
of the tyrants' bulwarks. And when they had all 
come up, considering that day with its proclamation 
to be a most secure beginning of freedom, they over- 
threw and demolished, not only the citadel, but also 
the palaces and the tombs of the tyrants. Then, as 
soon as he had levelled off the place, Timoleon built 
the courts of justice there, thus gratifying the citi- 
zens by making their democracy triumphant over 
tyranny. 

But the city which he had taken had not citizens 
enough, since some had perished in their wars and 
seditions, while others had gone into exile from ty- 
rannical governments. Indeed, for lack of population 
the market place of Syracuse had produced such a 
quantity of dense herbage that horses were pastured 
in it, while their grooms lay down in the grass ; and 
the other cities, with almost no exceptions, were 
full of deer and wild swine, while in their suburbs 
and around their walls those who had leisure for it 
went hunting, and not one of those who were estab- 
lished in fortresses and strongholds would hearken 
to any summons, or come down into the city, but 
fear and hatred kept all away from market place aind 
civic life and public speaking, which had produced 
the most of their tyrants. Therefore Timoleon and 
the Syracusans decided to write to the Corinthians 
urging them to send settlers to Syracuse from Greece. 
For otherwise the land was likely to lie uncultivated, 
and they expected a great war from Africa, since 
they learned that the Carthaginians, after Mago's 
suicide, had impaled his dead body, in their rage at 
his conduct of the expedition, and that they were 

315 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avTOv<i 5e avvdyeiv /jieydXrjv BvvafiLv 009 erov^ 
copa Bia^r]cro/Jievov<; eh XcKeXiav. 

XXIII. Tmu Be ypa/jb/xdrcov rovroyv irapa tov 
TifioXeovrof; KOfito-devTcov, fcal Trpea^ecov dpa 
irapovTwv '^vpaKovaiwv /cat Beop^evcov eTripeXij- 
drjvai Trj<; TroXeo)? Kal yevea^at ttoXlv ef virap^V'^ 
OLKLard's, ov)( ijpiracrav ol KopivdiOL rrjv irXeove- 
^iav, ovSe TrpoaeTTOLTjaav avroh rrjv ttoKlv, dWd 
TTpoiTov fjuev eiTiovTef; roi)? i€pov<; dya)va^ ev rfj 
'EXXtt^fc ^ Kol ra? jxeyiara^ rwv Travrjyvpewv 
dvrjyopevov viro KrjpvKWv on K.opiv6iOL /cara- 
Xe\vK6re<; rrjv ev XvpafcovaaL<i TvpavvLha, Kal 

2 TOV Tvpavvov e^eXrjXa/core^;, KaXovai XvpaKovai- 
ou? Kal Ta)v dWcov ^LKeXtwrwv tov ^ovXopevov 
OLKelv TTjv ttoXlv e\ev6epov<; Kal avTovofiov;, 
eiT taoL<; Kal BiKaioi^ ttjv ')(^copav BLa\a')^6vTa<;' 
eireiTa SLaTrepLTrovTei^ dyye\ov<; eh ttjv ' Aaiav 
Kal ra? vr]aov<i, oirov TrXeiaTOV^; eirvvOdvovTO tcov 
(pvydBcov Bueairapixevov^ KaTOLKelv, irapeKdXovv 
levai TrdvTa^ eh K.6pLV0ov, &)? KopLvducov dcrcjiaXrj 
7rop,7rr)v Kal irXola Kal cTTpaTrjyoix; irape^ovrfjjv 

3 lSlol^ TeXeaiv eh SvpaKovaa^. KrjpvacropLevcov 
Be TOVTcov rj puev 7r6Xi<; tov BiKaioTaTOV Kal KdXXi- 
cTTov aTTeXd/ji^avev eiraivov Kal ^rfkov, eXevOe- 
povaa fiev utto twv Tvpdvvcov, aco^ovaa 3' diro 
Tcov ^ap/Sdpcov, diroBiBovaa Be -oh TToXiTaL^ ttjv 

01 Be avveXd6vT€<; eh KopivOov ovk 6vt€<; 
iKavol TO 7rXrjdo<; eBe/jOrjaav €K KopivOov Kal 
T?j? dXX7)(; 'EX-XaSo? TrapaXa^elv (TvvoiKov<;' Kal 
yevo/ievoL pLVpicov ovk eXdTT0v<^ KaTeirXevaav eh 

^ iv Tp 'EAAciSi with Coraes, Bekker, and Blass : 'EAAaSt. 
316 



TIMOLEON XXII. 5-xxiii. 3 

assembling a great force with the intention of cross- 
ing into Sicily in the summer. 

XXIII. When these letters from Timoleon had 
been delivered, and were accompanied by Syracusan 
envoys who begged them to take thought for their 
city and to become anew its founders, the Corinthians 
did not seize the opportunity for their own aggran- 
dizement, nor did they appropriate the city for them- 
selves, but, in the first place, they visited the sacred 
games in Greece and the greatest festival assemblages, 
and proclaimed by heralds that the Corinthians had 
overthrown the tyranny in Syracuse, and driven out 
the tyrant, and now invited Syracusans, and any other 
Sicilian Greeks who wished, to people the city with 
free and independent citizens, allotting the land 
among them on equal and just terms. In the second 
place, they sent messengers to Asia and the islands, 
where they learned that most of the scattered exiles 
were residing, and invited them all to come to Corinth, 
assuring them that the Corinthians, at their own 
expense, would furnish them with leaders and trans- 
ports and a safe convoy to Syracuse. By these pro- 
clamations the city of Corinth earned the justest 
praise and the fairest glory ; she was freeing the 
land from its tyrants, saving it from the Barbarians, 
and restoring it to its rightful citizens. 

When these had assembled at Corinth, being too 
few in number, they begged that they might receive 
fellow colonists from Corinth and the rest of Greece ; 
and after their numbers had risen to as many as ten 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 ^vpaKov(Ta<;. rjBrj Be koi tcov e'f 'IraXta? Koi 
^//ceXt'a? TToWol rw Tt/jLoXeovn o-vveXrjXvOeiaav 
Koi >y€vo/JLevoL<; avToh e^afcia/jLvpioL^; to 7r\rj6o<;, 
ft)9 * AOavi^ etp7]Key Tr]v fiep 'X^copav Bcivei/jLe, ra? 
Be oiKia'; uireBoTo ')(^b\i(ov raXdvrwv, dfia fiev 
v7ro\eL7r6/jLevo<; rol<i apxcLiot<; ^vpaKovaLoc<; 
e^wvelaOai ra? avrcav, dfia Be y^prjpLdrwv ev- 
TTopiav rCp Brjpw p.r]-)(^av(i)pevo<; ovtw<; irevopLevcp 
Kol 7rpb<; rdWa kol 7rpo<; rov iroXepov Mare Kal 

5 Tou? civBpidvra^ diroBoaOai, yfr7](f)ov BLa<^epopbevr)'^ 
virep eKdarov Kal yivop.6i^Tj<; KaTrjyopia^, oaairep 
dvOpcoTTcov €vdvva<; BlBovtcov ore Bt] ^aat, rov 
TeX(ovo<; dvBpidvra rov iraXaiou rvpdvvov Bia- 
T7]prj(jaL Tou? XvpaKovaiov<;, KaTa^eiporovov- 
/jievcov rwv dWcjv, dyapevov<; Kal TLp.a)VTa<; 
rov dvBpa r?)? viKr)<i fjv irpo'i 'Jp,epa Kap'X^V 
Boviov^ eviKrjaev. 9 

XXIV. OuTO) Be Tt}? TToXect)? dva^coTTvpovcrr]^ ^ 
Kal 7r\r)povp,iur]<;, eirippeovTwv iravrayoQev et? 
avTr}i> Twv TToXiTOiv, ^ovX6/jb€vo<i 6 TipoXecov Kal 
Td<; dXXa<; TroXet<; iXevOepcoaat, Kal TravrdTracnv 
eKKoyp-ai, tt}? ^t/ceX/a? Ta9 TvpavvLBa<^, iirl tcl^ 
^(^(opa^ avTcov arparevwv 'IkIttji' puev rjvdyKaaev 
dirocjTdvTa Kapx')]Bovi€ov op^oXoyrjaai ra? aKpoiro- 
X€«9 KaraaKdyjreiv Kal ^lorevcreiv IBLcorrjv ei' Aeov- 
2 TLVOL^, AeTTTLVou Be Tov TvpavvovvTo^ ^AttoXXci)- 24? 
VLa<; Kal av^vcov dXXcov 7toXl")(vlwv, oo? eKivBvveve 
Kara Kpdro^ dXoivai, TrapaBovTO^; avrov cfieiad- 
fievo<; et? K^opwOov aTreareiXe, KaXov r]yovp,evo<i 
ev rfi p/rirpoTToXeL TOV<i rr}? ^iKeXia^; Tvpdvvovf; 
VTTO reap 'EXX^pcov aTrodecopelaOai <f>vyaBiKOi)<; 

^■8 



TIMOLEON XXIII. 3-xxiv. 2 

thousand, they sailed to Syracuse. But by this time 
many also from Italy and Sicily had flocked to Ti- 
moleon ; and when their numbers had risen to sixty 
thousand, as Athanis states, Timoleon divided the 
land among them, and sold the houses of the city 
for a thousand talents, thus at once reserving for the 
original Syracusans the power to purchase their own 
houses, and devising an abundance of money for the 
community ; this had so little, both for other pur- 
poses, and especially for the war, that it actually sold 
its public statues at auction, a regular vote of con- 
demnation being passed against each, as though they 
were men submitting their accounts. It was at this 
time, they say, that the statue of Gelon, their ancient 
tyrant, was preserved by the Syracusans, though 
they condemned the rest, because they admired 
and honoured him for the victory which he had won 
over the Carthaginians at Himera.^ 

XXiV. Seeing the city thus beginning to revive 
and fill itself with people, since its citizens were 
streaming into it from all sides, Timoleon determined 
to set the other cities also free, and utterly to root 
out all tyrannies from Sicily. He therefore made an 
expedition into their territories and compelled Hi- 
cetas to forsake the cause of Carthage, and to agree 
to demolish his citadels and live as a private person 
in Leontini. And as for Leptines, who lorded it 
over Apollonia and numerous other strongholds, when 
he was in danger of being taken by main force, he 
surrendered himself; and Timoleon spared his life 
and sent him off to Corinth, considering it a fine 
thing to have the tyrants of Sicily in the mother 
city where the Greeks could observe them living 

^ In 480 B.C., on the same day, it is said, as the victory at 
Salamis. Cf. Herodotus, vii. 166. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 Kal Taireipco^ ^covraf;. rov^; he jxiaOoc^opov^ 
fiovKofievo^ €K T^9 TToXeyLtta? oi^eXeladaL Kal /it] 
a')(^d\d^eiv, avTO<; fjuev eh Ta<; ^vpaKovaa<; evav- 
rjXde rfj KaraaTdaei r?}? TroXtreta? irpoae^cov Kai 
TOt? rjKovaLV i/c KopivOov vofjLo6eTai,<; Kec^aXo) 
Kal AiovvaiO) ra Kvpioorara Kal KaWiara crvv- 

4 hiaOrjacDV, tou? he irepl Aeivap^ov Kal Arjfjbdperov 
el<; ri]V roiv Kapxv^^^^^^ efeTreyLfv/rez^ eTTLKpareiav, 
OL TToXet? TToWa? d(j)iaTdvTe<i tS}v ^apjSdpcov ou 
fiovov avTol Bcrjyov iv d(f>06vot<;, dWd Kal XPV~ 
fiara TrapeaKeva^ov et? rov TroXefiov diro rwv 
akiCKOfievwv. 

XXy. 'Ej' TouTft) he K.ap)(7]B6vL0i, KarairXeovo-tv 
eh TO AcXv^aiov dyovre<i eirrd /jLvptdha<i arpaTov 
Kal Tpirjpei^ SLaKoata<; Kal ifKo'la ')(i\La KOjJLi^ovra 
IJL7]')(^ava<i Kal TeOpnnra Kal alrov d^Oovov Kal 
Tr)v dXkr]v irapaaKevrjV, &)9 ovk en TroirjaojjievoL 
Kara iiepo<i tov iroXefiov, dX)C o/jlou 7rdar)(; 2t- 
Ke\ta<i e^e\daovTe<i tov^ "KXX7]va<;' rjv yap r) 
hvvap>L^ e^apKovaa Kal /jlt] voaovvra<; firjSe Bt,e- 
(j)6apfievov<; vtt dXkrjXoyv avWajSeaBai ^ik€\l(o- 
2 Ta<;. irvOofMevot he iropOeladai rrjv eirLKpdreiav 
avroov, evdv^ opyfj irpo^ rov^ K.Gpu'Olov<; e-)(d>povv 
^Aahpov^a re Kal ^ KfiikKa arparrjyovvTwv. t/}? 
he dyye\ia<; ofeo)? et? ^vpaKovaa^ dc^LKOjievr)'^ 
ovT(o KareirXdyrjaav ol ^vpaKOvaioc 7rpo<i to 
fiiyedofi t^? hvvd/jL€(o<; Mare /xoXt? rro TifioXeovri 
Tpia^LXiov; diTo toctovtcop jjivpidScop oirXa Xa- 
320 




TIMOLEON XXIV. 2-xxv. 2 

the lowly life of exiles. Moreover, he wished that 
his mercenaries might get booty from the enemy's 
country and not remain idle. Accordingly, while he 
himself returned to Syracuse in order to apply him- 
self to the establishment of the civil polity and to 
assist the lawgivers who had come from Corinth, 
Cephalus and Dionysius, in arranging its most im- 
portant details in the most attractive way, he sent 
forth the troops under Deinarchus and Demaretus ^ 
into that part of the island which the Carthaginians 
controlled, where they brought many cities to revolt 
from the Barbarians, and not only lived in plenty 
themselves, but actually raised moneys for the war 
from the spoils they made. 

XXV. Meanwhile the Carthaginians put in at Lily- 
baeum with an army of seventy thousand men, two 
hundred triremes, and a thousand transports carrying 
engines of war, four-horse chariots, grain in abun- 
dance, and other requisite equipment. Their purpose 
was, not to carry on the war by piece-meal any more, 
but at one time to drive the invading Greeks out of 
all Sicily ; for their force would have been sufficient 
to capture the native Greeks, even though they had 
not been politically weak and utterly ruined by one 
another. And on learning that the territory which 
they controlled was being ravaged by the Corinthians, 
they were furious, and straightway marched against 
them under the command of Hasdrubal and Hamil- 
car. Tidings of this coming quickly to Syracuse, the 
Syracusans were so terrified at the magnitude of the 
enemy's forces that only three thousand out of so 
many tens of thousands could with difficulty be 
brought to pluck up courage, take their arms, and go 

^ Cf. chapter xxii. 3. 

321 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 ^ovra^ ToXfirjaat crvve^eXOelv. ol he fiiaOo(p6poi 
r6TpaKi(T')(^lXcoi TO 7r\y]0o(; rjaav /cal rovrcov 
avdL<^ oaov ')(i\lol KaO^ ohov dTroBeLXtdaavre^; 
dv€')(^(opr)<Tav, oo? ou)( vyiaLvovTO<; rov Tf/ioXeoi'TO?, 
dXXd /jLaivo/jL€Vov irap rjXiKiav koX irpo^ eirrd 
/jLvpidSa^i rroXe/JLLcov fierd irevraKiaxi'Xicov ttc^cov 
KoX 'x^iXlwv liTiTewv ^ahi^ovTO<;, koX Biapr(x)VTO<i 
oSov r)/jLep(jjv okto) ttjv hyvajxiv diro rcov Xvpa- 
Kovawv, oOev ovre acoOrjvai TOL<i (pevyovacv ovt6 

4 Ta4>fjvaL TOi? ireorovatv avroop virdp^ei. toutou? 
/X6I/ ovv Ti/JioXeayv KepSo<^ rjjelro irpo rri<; fxd')(rj<^ 
<pav€pov<i yeyovora^i, rov^ Be dXXov^ eirLppooaa's 
Kara ra^o? rjye irpb^ rov Kpi/jby]aov iroTafJiov, 
OTTOV Koi rov<^ ]^ap^r]BovLov<; i]Kovae avvdiTTeLV. 

XXVI. ^AvafiaivovTi Be avrw 7rpo<; Xo^ov, ov 
v7rep0aX6vre<; e/ieXXov Karo^eaOat to arpdrevjia 
KoX Tr)v hvvajJLiv tCov TroXe/jLLcov, ifi^dXXovaiv 
rjfiiovoL aeXiva KO/jLL^ovre'^' koi toI<; ar par loot ai<i 
elarjXOe Trovrjpov elvai ro arjiJieZov, on rd ixv^^fxara 
Tcov veKpoiv elcoOa/jL€P eiTieiK(o<^ are(f>avovv creXivoL^' 
Kol irapoLfMia tl<; etc rovrov yiyove, top eiTLac^a- 
2 Xw? poaovvra BelaOat, aeXiPOV. fiooX6/JL6PO<i ovp 
avroi)<i dnaXXd^ai tt)? Bei(TiBai[jLOvia<i koX ttjv 
BvcreXTTCCTTeiap d<^eXelv a T^c/jloXccop, efTiarrrjaa^ 
TTjp rropeiap dXXa re rrpeiropra ray Kacpat Bie- 
Xe^Or}, Kol rov crrecpavov avToc<; e(f)7] irpo t% 
VLKT)^ KO/xt^o^evov avTO/jidro)<i eh ra? ^^etpa? 
rjKeiP, w KoplpOioL are^avovac tol/? "laOfjua pc^ 
Kwvra^, lepov kol irdrptov rb are/J^/jia rov aeXlvov 

322 



TIMOLEON XXV. 2-xxvi. 2 

forth with Timoleon. Furthermore, the mercenaries 
were only four thousand in number ; and of these^ 
again, about a thousand played the coward on the 
march and went back to Syracuse, declaring that 
Timoleon was not in his right mind, but was more 
crazy than his years would lead one to expect, and 
was marching against seventy thousand of the enemy 
with five thousand foot and a thousand horse, and 
was taking his force a march of eight days away 
from Syracuse, so that those of them who fled from 
the field would find no safety, and those who fell 
upon it would have no burial. As for these men, 
then, Timoleon counted it gain that they had shown 
what they were before the battle ; the rest he en- 
couraged and led them with all speed to the river 
Crimesus, where he heard that the Carthaginians 
also were concentrating. 

XXVI. As he was marching up a hill, from the 
crest of which they expected to look down upon 
the camp and the forces of the enemy, there met 
them by chance some mules laden with parsley ; and 
it occurred to the soldiers that the sign was a bad 
one, because we are generally accustomed to wreath 
the tombs of the dead with parsley ; and this has 
given rise to a proverb, namely, that one who is 
dangerously sick " needs only parsley." Accordingly, 
wishing to free them from their superstitious fears 
and take away their despondency, Timoleon halted 
them on their march, and after discoursing other- 
wise as befitted the occasion, said also that the 
wreath for their victory had come into their hands 
in advance and of its own accord, the wreath with 
which Corinthians crown the victors at the Isthmian 
games, considering the garland of parsley to be tra- 

3^3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

vo/ii^ovT6<;. en yap tots twv ']aO/iLO)v, coarrep 

VVV TOiV l^efjL€L(OV, TO CFeXlVOV TjV (TT€(f)aVO<;, ov 

3 TrdXac Se rj vrtri;? yiyovev. evTV')((ov ovv 6 Tifio- 
Xecov, wcnrep elp-qrai, rot? arpaTLcorai^ kol Xa/3a)v 
Tcoi^ aekivwv Kareareyfraro irpcoTO'; avTo^, elra ol 
irepl avTOV r}y€fi6p6<; kol to 7rXrjOo<i. ol Be /jLdvT€L<; 
KaTLS6vT€<i deTov<; Bvo 7rpoa(pepo/x€vov<;, wv 6 fX€v 
Bpdfcovra tol^ ovv^lv ec^epe BcaTreTrapfxevov, 6 Be 
iTTTaTO KeKXayoi^ jxeya /cat OappaXeov, eireBel- 
Kvvov Toh aTparidiTaL^, Kol TTpo<; €j)%a? Oewv kul 249 
dvaKXi^aei^ erpdirovro 7rdvre<;. 

XXVII, To fiev ovv €T0<; larafiivov depov^ 
elx^v oypav, /cal XrjyovTL /Jbrjvl SapyyjXicovi, irpog 
ra? rpoTTCL^ rjBri avvrjine rov Kaipov 6p.i')(Xr]v Be 
Tov TTora/iov ttoXXtjv dvaBiBovro'^ Trpcorov fiev 
dTre/cpvTrreTo ^6<pq) to ireBiov, kol (Jvvoittov ovBev 
rjv diro tmv iroXeixiwv, TrXrjv iQ-^yj rt? dKpiTO<; kol 
avjjLfXiyr]^ dvw irpo's tov X6(f)0V e^dtpec irpoacodev 

2 dvLaTa/jiev7j<; aTpaTLd(; TOcravTr}<;. o)? S' dva^dvTe^ 
eirl TOV X6(pov eaTijaav ol KopivOiot Kal Oep^evot 
ra? acTTTtSa? BiaveiravovTO, tov rjXlou Trepi^epo- 
fjuevov Kal fieTeo)pi^ovTO<; ttjv dvaOv/uLLaaiv, 6 fiev 
OoXepb<; drjp dOpoi^o/ievo^ Tryoo? tcl v^rfXa Kal 
(rvviaTd/jLevo<; KaTevecpcoae ra? aKpcopela^;, tcov Be 
viTo 7ro8a9 TOTTCov dvaKaOatpofjuevMv 6 re K/Jtyitr^cro? 
€^€(f)dv7] Kal Bia^aivovTe<^ avTov axpOi^crav ol 
iroXefXLOL, 7rpd)T0i<; /nev tol<; Te6pL7r7roL<i eKTrXrjKTL- 
/cw? 7r/?o9 dycova KaTeaKevaaixevoL<^^ KaToinv Be 

3 TOVTwv pLVpioi^ oirXiTai^ XevKdainaL. tovtov<; 
eTCKfiaipovTo Kapxv^ovlov<; elvai ttj XajJurpoTrjTL 
T?}9 aKevi]<; Kal Ty ^paBvTP]Ti Kal Tu^ei t/;? 



324 



TIMOLEON XXVI. 2-xxvii. 3 

ditionally sacred in their country. For at that time 
parsley was still used for wreaths at the Isthmian, 
as it is now at the Nemean gameSj and it was not 
long ago that the pine came into use instead. Ac- 
cordingly, when Timoleon had addressed his soldiers, 
as I have said, he took of the parsley and crowned 
himself with it first, and then the captains and the 
common soldiers about him did the same. Moreover, 
the soothsayers, observing two eagles coming up on 
the wing, one of which bore a serpent pierced with 
its talons, while the other flew with a loud and in- 
spiring cry, pointed them out to the soldiers, and all 
betook themselves to invoking the gods with prayers. 
XXVII. Now, the season of the year was early 
summer, the month of Thargelion was drawing to a 
close, and the summer solstice was near ; ^ the river 
exhaled a thick mist which at first hid the plain in 
darkness, and nothing could be seen in the enemy's 
camp, only an inarticulate and confused noise made 
its way up to the hill, showing that the vast host 
was moving forward. But after the Corinthians had 
ascended the hill, where they stopped, laid down 
their shields, and rested themselves, the sun was 
passing the meridian and drawing the vapours on 
high, the thick haze moved in masses towards the 
heights and hung in clouds about the mountain 
summits, while the regions below cleared up, the 
Crimesus came into view, and the enemy were seen 
crossing it, in the van their four-horse chariots for- 
midably arrayed for battle, and behind these ten 
thousand men-at-arms with white shields. These 
the Corinthians conjectured to be Carthaginians, 
from the splendour of their armour and the slowness 

^ It was early in June, 339 B.C. 

325 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TTo/jeta?. fjL€Ta Be toutou? tojp Xolttmv iOvcov 
eTTLppeovTcoi/ KoX Tr)V hidpaaiv fier cdOkt/iov kol 
rapax^J'i Troiov/jiivcov, avviSoov 6 Ti/jUoXecov top 
TTora/iiov avrol^ rajjuevovra rov ttXtjOov; twv 
TToXefiicov aiToXa^elv 6aoi<; iOeXouev avrol /xa^e- 
aOat, Kol T0U9 arpartcoTa<; KaOopav KeXevaa^ 
TTjv (pdXayya rw peiOpw SiaXeXv/jievrjv koI Tov<i 

4 fxev r)Br] hia^e^i-jKOTa^, toi'9 he /jLeXXovra^;, irpocr- 
era^e Ajj/naperM Xa^ovri toi'9 t7r7r6t9 ififiaXetp 
6i9 TOL'9 Kapxv^ovLov(; KoX avvTapd^ai rov Bid- 
Koajxov avTOJV rfj^ Trapard^eco^; ovirco KaOea-Tcoar]^;. 
avTO<; Be KaTal3d<; eh ro ireBiov rd fiev Kepara 
T0t9 dXXoL^ ^tKeXtcorai^ direBwKev, dvafJLL^a<i 
e/carepo) tmv ^ivcov ou iroXXovf;, ev piiaw Be Trepl 
avTOV Xa/Soop tov<; XvpaKovaLou<i koI to yu.a%//z-co- 
rarop tcjp /jLiadocfiopcop ^pa^vp fiep ^poJ^op eVecr;^6 

6 TO Ta)P iTTTrecop diroOewpSiP epyoPy 009 Be i/ceipov^ 
elBev VTTO TMP dpfjudroyp irpo rr}<; Td^eco<; BiaOeoPTcop 
el<i yelpa'^ iXOeip Tot9 Ka/^^'^78o^'tot9 ov Bvpafxepov^, 
dXX* O7rco9 fJirj o-vprapax^ecep dpajKa^o/jievovf; 
i^eXirreiP (TVPex^^ f^cu ttukpcl^ e^ e'maTpo(f)ri<i 
iroLelaOai rd^ i7reXdaet<;, dvaXafScop ryp dairiha 
KoX fior}aa<; eireadaL kov Oappeip Tot9 7refoi9 
eBo^ep virepcpvel (pcopfj koI iieit^ovL Kexp^(^dat, rrjf; 
avpj]dov<;, eire rw irdOei irapd top dyoypa koX top 
€p6ou(Tia(Tfji0P ovTO) BiaTetpd/jLepo<;, etVe Baifiopiov 
TLp6<i, ct)9 T0t9 7roX.Xot9 TOTe TTapeaTTj, crvvem- 

6 ^Oey^a/iepou. Ta%u Be ttjp Kpavyrjp dpTairoBop- 
TQ)P, Koi TrapeyyvcovTcop dyeip koX fir] fieXXeip, 
326 



TIMOLEON XXVII. 3-6 

I^Hand good order of their march. After tliese the 
^^ other nations streamed on and were making the 
crossing in tumultuous confusion. Then Timoleon, 
noticing that the river was putting it in their power 
to cut off and engage with whatever numbers of the 
enemy they themselves desired, and bidding his 
soldiers observe that the phalanx of the enemy was 
sundered by the river, since some of them had 
already crossed, while others were about to do so, 
ordered Demaretus to take the horsemen and fall 
upon the Carthaginians and throw their ranks into 
confusion before their array was yet formed. Then 
he himself, descending into the plain, assigned the 
wings to the other Sicilian Greeks, uniting a few of 
his mercenaries with each wing, while he took the 
Syracusans and the best fighters among his mercen- 
aries under his own command in the centre. Then 
he waited a little while, watching what his horsemen 
would do, and when he saw that they were unable 
to come to close quarters with the Carthaginians on 
account of the chariots which coursed up and down 
in front of their lines, but were forced to wheel 
about continually that their ranks might not be 
broken, and to make their charges in quick succession 
after facing about again, he took up his shield and 
shouted to his infantrymen to follow and be of good 
courage ; and his voice seemed stronger than usual 
and more than human, whether it was from emotion 
that he made it so loud, in view of the struggle and 
the enthusiasm which it inspired, or whether, as most 
felt at the time, some deity joined in his utterance. 
Then, his men re-echoing his shout, and begging 
him to lead them on without delay, he signalled to 



327 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

To'l<^ fxev linroTai^; iar^fiavev e^co irapa rrjv rd^iv 
TOiv dp/jLarcov irapekdaaL koI Kara Kepa<; irpoa- 
(f)ep€(TOat Tol<; 7ro\€/jLiOL<;, avTo<; Be tov<; irpo- 
lxd')(^ov<^ TTUKvojcra^ tS> (TvvaaiTiafMW, Kal rrjv 
adXTnyja /ceXevcra^; eirK^Oey^aadaL, TrpoaejSake 
TOt? l^ap')(r)hovioi<;. 

XXVIII. 01 Be TTjv jxev Trpcorrjv eTnSpo/jirjv 
vTrearrjaav ippco/i6vco<i, /cal t&) Kara7re(f)pd^idaL ra m 
aco/jLara aiBrjpol^; Ocopa^c kol ^(^aXKOL^ Kpdveaiv ^ 
dairiha^ re /jueydXa^; irpo^e/SXrjaOaL Sie/cpovovro 
Tov Soparta/jLov. eVel Be e/? ft^'? avvrfkOev 6 
djoDV Kal rix^V^ ^^X V'^'^^v rj p(o/jL7}<; eyeyovet, to 
epyov, i^ai(f)V7]<; diro tcov opcov ^povrai re (j>o^epal 
KarepprjyvvvTO koX TTvpcoBeif; darpairal avve^e- 

2 TTiTTTov. elra 6 irepl rov^ \6(f)ov<; Kal Td<i aKpco- 
peia^ ^6<^o<; eirl rrjv fjLd)(^r]v Kartcov, ofippw Kal 
TTveu/jiaTL Kal ^aXaf?? av/ji/i€fiiyfjLevo<;, rot? /lev 
"KXXrjaiv e^oTTtcrOev Kal Kara vootov 7r€pi€)(^€Lro, 
rcbv Be ^ap^dpwv ervTrre rd irpoo-wira Kal Karij- 
arpairre ra? 6\lreL<;, dfia XaiXairo^ iiypa^ Kal 
0X0709 avve')(ov<; ck rchv v€(f)cov (f)€po/ievr]<;. ev 
0I9 TToXKa fiev rjv rd Xvirovura, Kal fidXio-ra tou9 
direipov^, ou% rjKiara Be /3XdyfraL Bokovctcv at 
Ppovral Kal roiv oirXwv 6 7rdTayo<; KOTrro/ievcov 
vBari payBaiw Kal ')(aXd^r), kcoXvcov aKOveaOai rd 

3 TrpocTTdyfxara rwv rjyepiovcov. toI<; Be K.ap^r]- 25C 
BovLoi<y ovK ovaiv ev^QivoL^ TOV oirXiapiov, dXX\ 
ioairep ecprjTaL, KaTairecfypayfievoL^;, 6 re 7r?;\o9 
epLTToBio^ rfv 01 re koXitol TrXtjpovfievoi, tcov 
')(^iToov(ov vBaT0<;, toaO^ avTol<^ fxev et9 tov dywva 
')(^pria6ai ^apeL<; r/aav Kal BvcrepyoL, pdBiOL Be T0t9 
"EXXrjac irepLTpeTreaOat, Kal ireaovTe^ d/j,7])^avoi 

328 






TIMOLEON XXVII. 6-xxviii: 3 

his horsemen to ride along outside and past the line 
of chariots and attack the enemy on the flank, while 
he himself made his vanguard lock their shields in 
close array, ordered the trumpet to sound the charge^ 
and fell upon the Carthaginians. 

XXVIII. But these withstood his first onset 
sturdily, and owing to the iron breastplates and 
bronze helmets with which their persons were pro- 
tected, and the great shields which they held in 
front of them, repelled the spear thrusts. But 
when the struggle came to swords and the work 
required skill no less than strength, suddenly, from 
the hills, fearful peals of thunder crashed down, and 
vivid flashes of lightning darted forth with them. 
Then the darkness hovering over the hills and 
mountain summits came down to the field of battle, 
mingled with rain, wind, and hail. It enveloped 
the Greeks from behind and smote their backs, but 
it smote the Barbarians in the face and dazzled 
their eyes, a tempest of rain and continuous flames 
dashing from the clouds. In all this there was 
much that gave distress, and most of all to the in- 
experienced ; and particularly, as it would seem, the 
peals of thunder worked harm, and the clatter of 
the armour smitten by the dashing rain and hail, 
which made it impossible to hear the commands of 
the leaders. Besides, since the Carthaginians were 
not lightly equipped, but, as I have said, encased in 
armour, both the mud and the bosoms of their 
tunics filled with water impeded them, so that they 
were unwieldy and ineffective in their fighting, and 
easily upset by the Greeks, and when they had once 
fallen it was impossible for them to rise again from 



329 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 ttoXlv €K irrfKov jxera rcbv oirXcov avaarrjvai. Koi 
yap 6 KpL/jLr}ao<; vtto roiv hia^aivoinaiv i/c\va6rj 
fiiya^ r]h7] roL<i 6fi/3poL^ 7)v^rjiJbei>o<^, koI to irehiov 
TO TTspi avTOV VTTO TToWa? avvay/c6La<; koi <j)dpay- 
ya<; vTroKeifieyov eVt/XTrXaro pev/naTcov ov kutu 
TTopov (f)epo/jL€vwv, ol? 01 Kap^rjEovLoi KaXivSou- 
pevot %aXe7rft>? uTnjXkaTTOv. t6\o<; 8e tov yei- 

pubiVO'^ llTiKeipukvOV, KoX TCOV 'KXX^VCOV Tr}V irpCOTfJV 

Ta^Lv avTMV, avopa^ T€Tpa/coaLov<;, fcara^aXov- 

5 Tcou, iTpdiTT] TO ttXyjOo^ 6t9 ^vy^v. fcal ttoWol 
puev €v T(p Trehlcp KaTaXapi^avopievot SiecfiOeipoPTO, 
TToA-XoL/? Be 6 7roTapo<; toU etl 7repaiovp,6i^oi.<; 
(Tvp,7rL7rT0VTa<i epL^dWwv koi irapa^epwy dvcoX- 
Xve, TrXetcrTOf? Se rwi^ X6(f)cov e(^iep.evov<; iin- 
OeovTe^ ol "^iXoi KaTeipydaavTo. XkyovTai yovv 
ev pbvpioL^ veKpoh TpiaxiXwi, Kap)(^r]doi'Lcov yeve- 

6 aOai, pueya ttj iroXei irefOo^. ovre yap ykveaiv 
0UT6 irXovTOi^i ovT€ 86^at<; eT€poi fieXTiove<; r^aav 
€fC€LV(ov, OUT drToOavovTa^; iroTe p,ia pid')(r) irpo- 
Tepov €^ avTOiV K.ap)(^r]hoi'icou ToaovTOu^ /^^V~ 
piovevovaiv, dXXd Ai/Suat tcl iroXXd /cal "\/3r]pcn 
fcal Nopidai ')(^pd)p.evoi Trpo? ra? fJid)(^a<; dXXoTpiaL^ 
^XdBaL^i dvehexovTO tcl^ y]TTa^. 

XXIX. ^Ey vcoadr] Be tol^ "EXXrjatv rj 86^a 
TOiv TrecTovTwv diTO Toiv Xa(f)vp(ov. eXd^i(TTO<^ 
yap rjv ')(^aX/c(bv xal (TLBrjpayr tol<; aKvXeuovo-i 
X6yo<;' ovTco^ d<j}Oovo<; pev r]V dpyvpo<;, a(f)6ovo<; Be 
'X^pvao^;. Kal yap to aTpaToireBov pbeTO, twv 
viro^uyicov BiaBdpTe<; eXajBov. t(ov B' al^paXd}- 
Tcov ol puev TToXXol BieKXdrrriaav vtto twv CTpa- 
TtcoTcov, ei? Be koivov aTreBeix^^rjaav 7r€VTaKia-)(^L- 
Xlol to 7rXfjdo<i' rjXd) Be Kal BiuKoaia tcop 

330 



TIMOLEON XXVIII. 3-xxix. i 

the mud with their weapons. For the Crimesus, 
having been ah'eady greatly swollen by the rains, 
was forced over its banks by those who were cross- 
ing it, and the adjacent plain, into which many 
glens and ravines opened from the hills, was filled 
with streams that hurried along no fixed channels, 
and in these the Carthaginians wallowed about and 
were hard beset. Finally, the storm still assailing 
them, and the Greeks having overthrown their first 
rank of four hundred men, the main body was put 
to flight. Many were overtaken in the plain and 
cut to pieces, and many the river dashed upon and 
carried away to destruction as they encountered 
those who were still trying to cross, but most of 
them the light-armed Greeks ran upon and des- 
patched as they were making for the hills. At any 
rate, it is said that among ten thousand dead bodies, 
three thousand were those of Carthaginians — a great 
affliction for the city. For no others were superior 
to these in birth or wealth or reputation, nor is it 
recorded that so many native Carthaginians ever 
perished in a single battle before, but they used 
Libyans for the most part and Iberians and Numid- 
ians for their battles, and thus sustained their de- 
feats at the cost of other nations. 

XXIX. The rank of those who had fallen was 
made known to the Greeks from the spoils. For 
those who stripped the bodies made very little 
account of bronze and iron ; so abundant was silver, 
so abundant gold. For they crossed the river and 
seized the camp with its baggage-trains. As for the 
prisoners, most of them were stolen away and hidden 
by the soldiers, but as many as five thousand were 
delivered into the public stock; there were also 

33i 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 reOpLTTTTcov. KaWbarrjv Se koX /jLeyaXoTrpeire- 
aTarrjv oyjrtv rj Tifio\6ovTO<; iTreSei/cvvro aKrfvrj 
TTepidfopevdelaa '7rai'ro8a7roL<i \a<pvpoL^, iv ol? 
^tXtot fjuev 6(iipaKe<; epyaaia kol KciWei Bia(f)6- 
povTe<^, p^vpiai Se aairihe^ TrpoereOrjaau. oXljol 
Be TToWou? (TKv\€vovTe<; kol fjL6ydXaL<; ivrvy)(d- 
vovre^ cd^ekelaL^ rpirr) fi6\L<; rjpepa /jbera rr^v 
fid'X^rjV earrjaav Tpoiraiov. 

" Ap^a he rfi (j)7]pr) t?}9 vlkti^; 6 TifioXewv et? 
K^opovdov eirepi^e rd /cdWtara twv al'y^p.aXcoTcov 
ottXwv, /3ov\6p.€VO<s avTOv TTjV TrarpiSa Trdaiv 

3 dvOpco7Toc<i ^7]\(oTr}v elvat,, Oewp^evoL^^ iv eKeivr} 
fJbovT) T(bv l^Wr)V(K(tw TToXewv Tou? eTrKpaveard- 
TOf? vaov<; ov^ EjX\7]VLK0c<i KeKocrp.rjpevov<; Xa- 
<f)vpoL(i ov8^ diTo Gvyyevoiv (f)6vov koX opboc^vXwv 
dvaOrjpdrcov pvi]pa<; drepTrel'^ e'^^ovra^^, dXXd 
^ap^apLKa a/cuXa /caXXlo-rai^; eTnypa^al^i Brj- 
Xovvra p^era t?}? dvBpela^; twv vevtKrjKorwp rrjv 
BiKaLoavvyVy ore KopivOioL /cat TipoXewv 6 arpa- 
T77709 eXevBepdxjavTe^ rov^ ^iKeXiav oiKovvTa<; 
"EXXr]va<; diro ]^ap-xriBoviO)V ')(apiaTT]pi,a 6eol<i 
dvedi)Kav. 

XXX. *E«: rovTov KaraXiircov iv rrj iroXeiila 
T0U9 p^Lauocpopovi ayovTa<; /cat (pepovra^ rrjv T(ov 
Kap^ijBovLcov iirt/cpdreLav, avro^; rjKev eh "Evpa- 
Kovaa^' Kol rov<; ')(^LXiov^ p,La6o(f)6pov<i iK€Lvov<;, 
v(f) a)v iyKareXelcjiOy] rrrpb r?}? pd')(pi^, i^eKfjpv^e 
T^9 ^iiceXia<;y kul nrplv rj Bvvat, tov r^Xiov rjvdy- 
2 Kaaev i/c '^vpaKovacov direXOelv. ovtol p,ev ovv 
BiairXevcravTe^ el<; ^IraXi'av dirdiXovro irapa- 
a7rov8r]0evre<; viro "Qperricov, koX Bitcrjv ravrrjv 
TO Bacpoviov avTOi<; rrj^i TrpoBoala'; iiriOi^Ke. 

332 



TIMOLEON XXIX. i-xxx. 2 

captured two hundred of the four-horse chariots. But 
the most glorious and magnificent sight was pre- 
sented by the tent of Timoleon, which was heaped 
about with all sorts of spoils, among which a thous- 
and breast-plates of superior workmanship and 
beauty and ten thousand shields were exposed to 
view. And as there were but few to strip many, 
and the booty they came upon was great, it was the 
third day after the battle before they could erect 
their trophy. 

Along with the report of his victory Timoleon 
sent to Corinth the most beautiful of the captured 
armour, wishing that his own native city should be 
envied of all men, when in her alone of Greek 
cities they saw the most conspicuous temples, not 
adorned with Greek spoils, nor possessed of joyless 
memorials in the shape of votive offerings from the 
slaughter of kinsmen and fellow citizens, but decked 
with barbarian spoils which set forth in fairest in- 
scriptions the justice as well as the valour of the 
victors, declaring that Corinthians and Timoleon their 
general set the Greeks dwelling in Sicily free from 
Carthaginians, and thus dedicated thank-offerings 
to the gods. 

XXX. After this, he left his mercenaries in the 
enemy's territory plundering the dominion of the 
Carthaginians, and went himself to Syracuse ; there 
he ordered out of Sicily the thousand mercenaries 
by whom he had been deserted before the battle, 
and compelled them to depart from Syracuse before 
the sun went down. These, then, after crossing 
into Italy, were perfidiously slain by the Bruttians, 
thus receiving from the divine power a penalty for 



ZZZ 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rwv Be irepX rov Md/aepKov, top Karavrj^ rvpav- '2b 
vov, Kal ^Ikcttjv, etre <^96v(p rcov KaropOovjjbevwv 
VTTO Tip,o\eovTO(;, etre (po^ovfiei'cov avrov o)? 
diriarov kol aairovhov irpb^; tov<; rvpdvvov<;, av/ju- 
fjLa)(iav iroiyjaafievcov nrpo^ tov<; Kapxv^oviov^; 
fcal KeXevcrdvTcov irefiireiv Buva/j.iv koI arparrj- 
'yov, el pr) TravraTraai, povkovrai ^iKeXia^i i/c- 

3 ireaelv, eirXevae TeaKcov vav<; p.ev €-)((jdv €/38op,j]- 
Kovra, p,Lado(f)6pov<; Be irpoa\a^cov "EW7jva<if 
ovTTco irporepov "KKXrjaL ')(^pr]aap.ev(ov K.ap')(rj- 
Bovicov, dWd Tore Oavpaaavrcov co? dwiro- 
ardrov^; kol p,a)(^tp,MTdTOv<; dvOpoDirwv dirdpTcov. 
avardvre^ Be Koivfj per dWrjXcop diravre'^ ev ry 
^lecrmfvla TerpaKoaLov<i rcov irapa Tip,o\eovTO<; 
tevwv iiriKOvpov^ irep^OevTa^; direKreivav, ev 
Be TTJ Yiap'xriBoviwv eiTLKpaTeia irepl ra? xaXov- 
pueva^i 'lera? eveBpevaavre^; tov<; pier Etv6vp,ov 

4 Tou Aev/caBCov pLtado(f)6pov^ BiecpdeLpav. ef a)V 
Kal pLaXiara rr]v Tipo\€OPTO<i evrv^iav avve^ij 
yeveadai BioivvpLov. rjaav pev yap ovtol rcov 
perd ^LXopL7]Xov rov Ooj/ceco? fcal 'OvopLdp-)(ov 
AeX<j)ovfi KaraXa^ovrcov Kal pueraa^ovrcov iKetvoi^ 
rrj<i lepoavXla^. paaovvroiv Be Trdvrcov avrov<; 
Kal (f)vXarropev(ov €7rapdrov<; yeyovora';, rrXavd)- 
pevoi irepl rrjv TleXoTTOvvrjcrov vtto Tip,oXeovro<; 
iXr}(f)07]crav erepcov crrparicorMV ovk ev7ropouvro<^, 

5 dcf)LK6p,evoL Be eh ^iKeXiav oaa<; p,ev eKeivcp 
a vvt]ycov La avro pLd')(a^ irdaa'i evLKcov, rcov Be 
rrXeiarcov Kal pueyiarcov dycovcov reXo^ e)(^6vrcov 

334 



TIMOLEON XXX. 2-5 

their treachery. Mamercus, however, the tyrant of 
Catana, and Hicetas, whether through envy of the 
successes won by Timoleon, or because they feared 
him as one who distrusted tyrants and would make 
no peace with them, formed an alHance with the 
Carthaginians and urged them to send a general with 
an army if they did not wish to be cast out of Sicily 
altogether. Accordingly, Gisco set sail 1 with a 
fleet of seventy ships, and added Greek mercenaries 
to his forces, although the Carthaginians had never 
before employed Greek soldiers ; they did so at this 
time, however, because they had come to admire 
them as the best and most irresistible fighters in the 
world. After they had all united their forces in the 
territory of Messana, they slew four hundred of 
Timoleon's mercenaries who had been sent thither 
as auxiliaries, and in that part of the island belong- 
ing to the Carthaginians, near the place called 
letae, they set an ambush for the mercenaries 
under Euthymus the Leucadian and cut them to 
pieces. Herein even most of all did the good for- 
tune of Timoleon become famous. For these were 
some of the men who, with Philomelus the Phocian 
and Onomarchus, had seized Delphi and shared in 
their spoliation of the sanctuary.^ Then, since all 
mankind hated them and shunned them as men who 
had put themselves under a curse, they wandered 
about Peloponnesus, where they were enlisted in his 
service by Timoleon, in the dearth of other soldiers. 
And after coming into Sicily, they were victorious 
in all the battles which they fought under his 
leadership, but when the most and greatest of his 

1 In the spring of 338 B.C. 

'^ This was at the beginning of the second so-called Sacred 
War, 356 B.C. 

335 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

eiCTreiiiTOjJLevot, tt/jo? krepa^ vir avrov l3o'q9eia<; 
dircoXovro koX KaravaXcoOrjcrav, ou)(^ ofiov Traz^re?, 
dWa Kara fiepo<i, ttj^ AiKrjf; avroU diroXoyov- 
fjLevT}<; rfj Ti/xoXeoi/ro? €VTV')(ta iirLTiOeiMevr]';^ 
07r(i)<; /jLTjBe/xia tol^ dyado2<; oltto Trj<; to)v KUKOiv 
Ko\da6(t)<; ^XajBr) 'yeviqrai. ri]v fiev ovv 7rpo<; 
Ti/jLoXeopra r&v 6ewv evjieveiav ov)(^ tjttov iv ah 
TTpoaeKpovae irpd^eaiv rj irepl a? /carcopdov 
Oav/iid^eaOai avve^aivev. 

XXXI. Ol he iToWoX TOdv ^vpafcovalwv e')((iKe- 
iratvov VTTO tcjv Tupdvvcov TTpOTrrfkaKi^oixevoL. Koi 
yap 6 M.d/jL€pKO<; eVt T(W Troiij/xara <ypd<j)eiv kol 
rpay(pBia<; fieya (f)povcov e/co/XTrafe ViKTjaa^ tou? 
fjLL(T6o(f)6pov<;, fcal Ta9 dairiha^ dva6ei<^ toI<; 6eol<i 
iXeyelov v^piaTiKov iireypaylre' 

TdaS* 6aTpeioypa(f)€L(i koX ')(^pvaeKe^avT7fKeKTpov<i 
dcnriha<; da'KLhioi<^ e'cXo/xev evreXeat. 

2 yevofievcov Se tovtcov /cat rov Tt,/ioX60vro<i et? 
K.aXavpiav o-Tparevaavro^i, 6 *IfceT7]<i eix^aXcov 
€t? Triv XvpaKovaiav Xelav re avx^'h^ eXajBe xal 
TToXXd Xv/ir)vd/jL6vo(; koX Kadv^pi(Ta<^ dirrjXXdr- 
T€TO rrrap^ avrrjv rrjv K.aXavpiav, KaTa(f)povcov 
Tov Ti/jbnXeovTO<; oXiyov^ oTpandtTa^ €XovTO<i. 
€fC€Lvo<i Be irpoXa^elv edaa^ eBicoKev linreh e')(aiv 
Kal -xlriXoi;?. alaOofievo^ he 6 'Ifcerrjf; top Aafiv- 
piav Bta/Se^rjKaif; virearr) irapd tov Trora/iibv co? 
dfivvovfievo^i' Kal yap avr(p Odpao^; tj re rov 
TTopov ^aXeTTorr;? Kal to Kprj/ivcoBe^; rr}? eKaTepco- 

3 Oev O'X^Orjf; irapel^e. rot? ^e /xera tov Ti/JLoX€ovTo<i 

1 rris AtKTjj . . . eiriTieeixevTts Sintenis, with the MSS. The 
"corrupt passage is variously emended by different editors. 

'336 




I 



TIMOLEON XXX. 5-xxxi. 3 

struggles were over, they were sent out by him to 
the assistance of others, and then perished utterly, 
not all at one time, but little by little. And Justice 
thus punished them, while at the same time she 
sustained the good fortune of Timoleon, in order 
that no harm might come to the good from the 
chastisement of the wicked. So, then, the good 
will of the gods towards Timoleon was no less to be 
admired in his reverses than in his successes. 

XXXI. But the people of Syracuse were vexed at 
the insults heaped upon them by the tyrants. For 
Mamercus, who valued himself highly as a writer of 
poems and tragedies, boasted of his victory over the 
mercenaries, and in dedicating their shields to the 
gods wrote the following insolent couplet :— 

"These bucklers, purple-painted, decked with 
ivory, gold, and amber. 
We captured with our simple little shields." 

And after this, when Timoleon was on an expedition 
to Calauria, Hicetas burst into the territory of Syra- 
cuse, took much booty, wrought much wanton havoc, 
and was marching off past Calauria itself, despising 
Timoleon, who had but few soldiers. But Timoleon 
suffered him to pass on, and then pursued him 
with cavalry and light-armed troops. When Hicetas 
was aware of this, he crossed the river Damurias, 
and halted on the farther bank to defend himself; 
for the difficulty of the passage, and the steepness 
of the banks on either side, gave him courage. Then 

337 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

tXdp)(^aL<^ epi<; e/j,7reaovaa Oaufiaarr] koI (f)iXo- 
vet/cia SiarpL^rjv iirolec tt}? iJLd')(r)<;. ovhel^i 'yap 
Tjv 6 ^ovX6p€vo<; irepov Bia^auvetv varepo^: eVt 
T0U9 TToXepLLOV^;, aX)C avTO<^ eKaaro^ rj^iov irpco- 
raycoviaretv, /cat Koapiov ovk elxev i) SiaySao-i? 
i^wOovvTwv KoX 7rapaTp€')(^6vTcov aWr/XoL'?. ^ov- 
\6[JL€V0^ ovv 6 Tip,o\e(ov KXijpcbaai, tol'9 rjjeiuova^; 
€\a^€ irap' e/cdcrrov BaKrvXtov ip/SaXcov Se 
irdvTa^ ei? Tr)v eavrov 'yXa/jLvBa kol fil^a^ eBet^e 
Tov Trp&TOV Kara TV)(r)v jXv(f)r]v e')(ovTa Trj<; a^pa- 

4 7tSo9 rpoTracov. oo? Be tovtov elBov ol veaviaKOiy 
fiera %a/3a9 dvaKpay6vTe<^ ovk en rov dXXov 
VTre/ieivav /cXrjpov, dXX' co? eKaaro^ rd')(^ov<^ eZ%6 
TOV TTorajiov Bie^eXdaavre'^ iv ')(^ep(T\v rjaav tol<; 
TToXe/xLOL^, ol Be ovk iBe^avTO rrjv ^iav avrwv, 
dXXa (f)evyovTe<; tmv pev oirXwv diravTe^ op^aXoo^; 
iarep)]07}aav, ')(^L\iov<; Be dire^aXov irecrovTa'^. 

XXXI L Ov iToX\(p Be varepov eh rr)v Aeov- 
TLvajv GTpajevaa^ 6 Tip,oXe(ov Xap./3dvet, rov 
'iKerrjv ^covra kol tov vlov ^viroXepov kol tov 
iTrirdp^rjv ^v6vp,ov, vtto tcov aTpaTicorcbv avvBe- 
6evTa<; kol Kop^iaOevTa^ Trpo^ avTov. 6 p,ev ovv 
'lKeT7j<; Koi TO peipaKiov cd<^Tvpavvoi, kol irpoBoTai 
KoXaa6evTe<^ direOvrjaKov, 6 B^ lLvdvp.o<i, dvrjp 
dya0b<; cov TTyoo? tov<; dycova^ koI ToXpy Btaipepcov, 
OVK €TV')/€v OLKTOV Bcd /SXaacprjplav tlvcl tt^o? 

2 T0U9 Kopiv0Lov<i KaTi]yopif]6elaav avTOV. XeyeTai 
yap OTL TCOV YiopivOiwv eKaTpaTevaapevwv eir 
avToiff; Brjp^rjyopcov ev rot? AeovTivoL<; ovBev ecprj 
yeyovevai (f)o(Bepov ovBe Beivov, el 

K.opiv6iaL yvvacKe^ i^rjXOov Bopcov, 

338 



TIMOLEON XXXI. 3-xxxii. 2 

(among Timoleon's cavalry officers an astonishing 
strife and contention arose which delayed the battle. 
For not one of them was willing to cross the river 
against the enemy after another, but each demanded 
to begin the onset himself, and their crossing was 
likely to be without order if they crowded and tried 
to run past one another. Timoleon, therefore, wish- 
ing to decide their order by lot, took a seal-ring 
from each of the leaders, and after casting all the 
rings into his own cloak and mixing them up, he 
showed the first that came out, and it had by chance 
as the device of its seal a trophy of victory. When 
the young men saw it, they cried aloud for joy and 
would no longer wait for the rest of the lot, but all 
dashed through the river as fast as they could and 
closed with the enemy. These could not withstand the 
violence of their onset, but fled, all alike losing their 
arms, and a thousand being left dead on the field. 

XXXI I. Not long afterwards Timoleon made an 
expedition into the territory of Leontini and cap- 
tured Hicetas alive, together with his son Eupolemus 
and his master of horse Euthymus, who were bound 
and brought to Timoleon by his soldiers. Hicetas, 
then, and his young son, were punished as tyrants 
and traitors and put to death, and Euthymus, though 
a brave man in action and of surpassing boldness, 
found no pity because of a certain insult to the 
Corinthians which was alleged against him. It is 
said, namely, that when the Corinthians had taken 
the field against them, Euthymus told the men of 
Leontini in a public harangue that it was nothing 
fearful or dreadful if 
" Corinthian women came forth from their homes." ^ 

An adaptation of Euripides, Medeia, 215 (KirchhoflF), 
where Medea speaks to the chorus in the first person. 

339 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

oi/T<M9 VTTO Xoyoyv jxaWov rj irpd^ewv Trovrjpcov 
dvidaOat Tre^vKacnv ol ttoWoI' 'x^akeircorepov 
'yap v(3pLV Y] 0\d^7}v (fyepovai. Kal to fi€v dfiv- 
veaOai Sl epycov &)? dvay/cacov BeSorat to?? 
TToXe/jiovaiv, at Be 0Xaa(j)r]/xLai TrepLOva-LO. ficaov^ 
rj KaKLa<; yiveaOai BoKovcnv. 

XXXIII. ^KiravekOovTO^ Be rov Tifjiokeovro^; 
ol ^vpaKOvaiOL to.? yvuaL/ca<; rcov irepX rov 'iKerrjv 
Kol Ta? Ovyarepat; iv eKK\7]aia KaTaaTi](7avre<; 
eh Kplaiv direKTeivav. koX ooksI tovto t&v 
TifjLo\.iovTO<; epycov dxctpLcrTorarov yeveaOav firj 
yap dv €KeLV0V kwXvovto^ ol/to)? Td<^ dv6pd)7rov<; 
diroOavelv. Bo/cel Be avrd^; virepLBelv Kal rrpo- 
eaOai ru) Ovjjlw tmv TroXtrayv Biicqv Xap,/3av6vr(ov 
virep Aici)Vo<; tov Atovvaiov €K0aX6vTo<;. 'iKerrj^ 
ydp €<ttIv 6 rrjv yvvaiKa rov Aia)vo<; ^Aperrjv Kal 
rrjv dBeXcjirjv ^ApiaTOfid^Tjv Kal top vlov en 
iralBa Kara7rovTLaa<; ^covra^, irepl oiv iv too 
Alcovo^; yeypairraL 0lo). 

XXXIV. MeTa Be ravra arpaTevaa^ eirl 
yLdfjiepKOV €t9 Kardvrjv Kal irepl to pevfia rrjv 
"AfioXov eK irapard^ewf; vTToardvra viK7]cra<; Kal 
rpe'^djievo'; virep Bia^i'^^ov^i dvelXev, wv piApo^ 
ovK oXiyov r/aav olirefK^OevTe'i viro TeaKwvo^ eiri- 
KovpOL ^o[vtK€<;. eK Be tovtov Ka/o%7;3o^'tot fiev 
elprjvrjv iiroLrjaavro irpo'^ avrov Be7}0evr€<;, coare 
rr}v €VTo<i rod Avkov ^(^oDpav ey^eiv, Kal to?? 
0ovXofjLei'ot<; ^ ef avTrj<; fieTOtKelv 7rp6<; XvpaKov- 
(TL0V<; ')(^prjfiara Kal yevea^ diroBiBovTe^, Kal roh 

^ To7s $ov\oiJ.4vois Coraes, Sintenis^, and Bekker, after 
Reiske (with AC) : rovs fiov\o/x4yovs. Coraes and Bekker 
bracket the preceding Kal. 



TIMOLEON XXXII. 2-xxxiv. i 

So natural is it for most men to be more galled hy 
bitter words than hostile acts : since insolence is 
harder for them to bear than injury. Besides, defen- 
sive acts are tolerated in an enemy as a necessary 
right, but insults are thought to spring from an 
excess of hatred or baseness. 

XXXIII. After Timoleon had returned, the Syra- 
cusans brought the wives and daughters of Hicetas 
and his friends to public trial, and then put them to 
death. And this would seem to have been the most 
displeasing thing in Timoleon's career ; for if he had 
opposed it, the women would not have been thus 
put to death. But apparently he neglected them and 
abandoned them to the wrath of the citizens, who 
were bent on taking vengeance in behalf of Dion, 
who drove out Dionysius. For Hicetas was the 
man who took Arete the wife of Dion, and Aristo- 
mache his sister, and his son, who was still a 
boy, and threw them- into the sea alive, concern- 
ing which things I have written in my Life of 
Dion.i 

XXXIV. After this, Timoleon made an expedition 
against Mamercus to Catana, conquered and routed 
him in a pitched battle near the stream of the 
Abolus, and slew above two thousand of his soldiers, 
a large part of whom were the Carthaginians sent 
him as auxiliaries by Cisco. Thereupon the Cartha- 
ginians made a peace with him which they sought 
themselves ; the terms were that they should keep 
the territory within the river Lycus, restoring their 
families and property to all who wished to change 
their homes from there to Syracuse, and renouncing 

^ Chapter Iviii. 4. 

341 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 TvpdvvoL<; airetTrdfievoL rrjv (rvfifjuax^civ. M.d/jL€pKo<i 
Be BvaOvfjLCJv Tal<^ iXiriarLV eirXei fxev eU ^IraXiav 
ft)? KevKavovq eird^cov TifioXeouTL koL ^vpaKov- 
aioL^y iirel he d7roaTpe-yjravTe<; ol avv avrw ra? 
TpLrjpeL<i KOL 7rXei)aavT€<; eh ^iKeXlav rw Tl/io- 
XeovTi T7)v Kardvrjv irapiBcoKav, dvajKaadel^ 
Koi avTo^ eh Meaatjvrjp KaTe^vye 7rpo<; "lirircova 

3 Tov rvpai^vovvra rfjf; ttoXgo)?. eireXOovro^; he rov 
Ti/jioXeoP70<; avroh koi iroXLOpKovvro^; e/c re yrj<; 
KoX daXdrrrj^i, 6 /juev "linTayv dirohihpdaKOiv eirl 
v€co<i rjXa), xal 7rapa\a06vre<; avrov ol WeaarjVLOL, 
KaX Tov<; 7ralha<; e/c rayv hihaaKaXeiwv co? eirl 
Oeafia KdXXiarov rrjv rov rvpdvvov rL/jLwplap 
d<yay6vre<; eh Oearpov, rjKiaavro Koi hie(f)6eipav' 
6 he M.dfiepKo<; eavrov TifioXeovri rrapebwKev 
eirl TO) hlKTjv VTrocr^elv iv ^vpaKovaiOL<; firj 

4 Karrjiyopovvro^ TifioXeovro<;. d')(jdeh he eh Taf; 
XvpaKovaa<;, irapeXOwv eh tov hrjfjLov e7re)(eLpei 
fiev riva auyKei/iievov €k rraXaiov Xoyop vw 
avTOV hie^ieifUL, dopv^oi<; he TrepLTrcTrrcov kol rrjv 
CKKXijatav opcjv dTTapalrrjrov eOeu piy\ra<^ ro 
Ifidriov hia /jiiaov rov Oearpov, koI iTp6<; ri rwv 
^dOpcov hpofJLW <f)ep6jj,evo<; avvepprj^e rrjv Ke^aXr^v 
(jd<i drrodavovfievo^i. ov firjv erv^^e ye ravrrjf; t^9 
reXevrrjf;, dXX^ en ^(ov diraxOeh rjvirep ol Xijcrral 
hiKTjv eho)/ce. 

XXXV. Ta? fjL€P ovv rvpavv.'ha<i 6 Tl/jLoXccov 
rovrov rov rpoirov i^e/coyfre kol rov'^ TroXe/iou? 
eXvae' rrjv he oXi-jv vrjaov i^rjypKOfievyjv viro KaKwv 
Kol hia/jLe/jLLarjfMevrjv vtto rcbv OLKrjropcov rrapa- 
Xa^cov ovra)<; i^rj/jLepcocre koi rroOetvyv eTroLrjae 
iracTLv ware irXelv olKi]crovra<; krepov<; odev ol 253 

342 



TIMOLEON XXXIV. i-xxxv. i 

their alliance with the tyrants. Then Mamercus, 
despairing of success, took ship for Italy with the 
purpose of bringing the Lucanians against Timoleon 
and Syracuse ; but his companions on the voyage 
turned their triremes back, sailed to Sicily, and 
handed Catana over to Timoleon, whereupon Mamer- 
cus himself also was compelled to seek refuge in 
Messana with Hippo the tyrant of that city. But 
Timoleon came up against them and besieged them 
by land and sea, and Hippo was caught as he was 
trying to steal away on board a ship. Then the 
Messanians took him into the theatre, brought their 
children thither from their schools to behold, as 
a glorious s})ectacle, the tyrant's punishment, and 
put him to torment and death. As for Mamercus, 
he gave himself up to Timoleon on condition that 
he should undergo trial at Syracuse, and that Timo- 
leon should not denounce him. So he was brought 
to Syracuse, and when he came before the peo[)le, 
attempted to rehearse a speech composed by him a 
long time before ; but being received with noise and 
clamour, and seeing that the assembly was inexor- 
able, he flung away his mantle, ran right across the 
theatre, and dasiied liead foremost against one of 
the stone steps, hoping to kill himself. However, 
he was not so fortunate as to die in this way, but 
was taken away, still living, and crucified like a 
robber. 

XXXV. In this manner, then, did Timoleon ex- 
tirpate the tyrannies and put a stop to their wars. 
He found the whole island reduced to a savage state 
by its troubles and hated by its inhabitants, but 
he made it so civilized and so desirable in the eyes 
of all men that others came by sea to dwell in the 



VOL. VI 



343 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 iroXlraL irporepov aTreBiSpaaKov. koX yap ^AKpd- 
yavra kol TeXav, Tro/Vei? /it€yd\a<; fiera roy 
^ Kttlkov TToXepbov viro Kap)(^7}8ovL(ov dvaardrovs 
yeyevr^fxeva^, tots KaTWKiaav, r7)v fiev ol irepl 
yieyeWov Kal ^ipLcrrov ef 'EX,ea9, Tr)v Be ol 
irepl Vopyov eK Ke« 'rrXevaavre^ koI avvayayovre^ 
TOL/? dpyaiov^ 7roXtTa9* ot? ov fxovov ua(f)dX€iav €k 
TToXe/bLOV ToaovTov Kal yaX^jvrjv iBpvo/nevoLf; irapa- 
(TxdiV, aXXd Kal raWa irapaaKevdaa^; Kal av/i- 

3 irpoOv^rjdeU oyairep OLKiarrjf; i^yaTrdro. Kal tcov 
dXkfov Be BiaKeL/jLevwv o/jlolox; dirdvTwv irpo^; 
avTov, ov TToXe/jLov Ti? Xv(jL<;, ov vo/jlwv OeaL<i, ov 
')((jopa^ KaTOiKKjpiO'^, ov TToXtreta? BLdTa^L<; eBoKei 
KaX(o<; ex^iv, 179 eKelvo^ fxtf irpoadylratro fjirjBe 
KaraKocT fjLrjaeLev, coairep epyo) avvreXov fievw 
Brj jjLtov pyo<i einOei'i riva X^P^^ OeocptXrj Ka\ 
TTpeTTovaav. 

XXXVI. UoXXmv yovv Kar avrov 'YiXXrjvwv 
fieydXcov yevo/iivwv Kal /jueydXa Karepyaaaixevcov, 
0)V Kal Ti^oOeo^; rjv Kal 'AyrjaiXao^ Kal IleXo- 
TTiBa^; Kal 6 p^dXiara ^qXcoOeh vtto T i fioXeovro^; 
^KiraixeivdivBa^;, at jxev eKeivwv iTpd^ei<i P'la tlvI 
Kal TTovo) TO Xa/jLirpov e^evrjvoxaat fiefiLyfievov, 
uxrre Kal /jue/jL-^iv eVtat? eiriyiveadai Kal fjuerdvoiav, 
Tuiv Be Tt/jLoXeovTo<i epycov, e^cj Xoyou defxevoi^ 
rrjv irepl rov dBeXcpov dvdyKrjv, ovBev eariv (o fir) 
ra rov ^ocpoKXeov^, w? (pr]cri Tifiaio^, iir v(f)a>V€LV 
eirpeTrev 

u) deoi, rL<; apa K.v7rpL<; t] Ti9 'ijbiepo<; 
TOvBe ^vprjyjraTo; 



344 



TIMOLEON XXXV. i-xxxvi. i 

places from which their own citizens used to run 
away before. Agrigentum and Gela, for instance, 
great cities which had been ruined and depopulated 
by the Carthaginians after the Attic war, were re- 
peopled at this time, one by Megellus and Pheristus 
from Velia, the other by Gorgus, who sailed from 
Ceos and brought with his company the old citizens. 
To these settlers Timoleon not only afforded safety 
and calm after so long a storm of war, but also 
supplied their further needs and zealously assisted 
them, so that he was revered by them as a 
founder. All the other inhabitants also cherished 
like feelings towards him, and no conclusion of war, 
no institution of laws, no settlement of territory, no 
arrangement of civil polity seemed satisfactory, 
unless he gave the finishing touches to it, like a 
master builder adding to a work that is drawing to 
completion some grace which pleases gods and men. 
XXXVI. At any rate, though in his time Greece 
produced many men who were great and wrought 
great things, such as Timotheus, Agesilaiis, Pelo- 
pidas, and Epaminondas (whom Timoleon most 
emulated), still, the lustre of their achievements 
was tarnished by a certain degree of violence and 
laborious effort, so that some of them were followed 
by censure and repentance ; whereas in the career 
of Timoleon, setting aside his necessary treatment 
of his brother, there is nothing to which it were 
not meet, as Timaeus says, to apply the words of 
Sophocles : — 

"Ye Gods, pray tell what Cypris or what winning 
love 
Was partner in this w^ork } " ^ 

* Nauck, Trag. Grate. Frag^ p. 316 

345 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

2 KaOd-rrep yap rj (lev ^AvTi/id^^ov 7roLrjai<; koI to, 
AwvvcTiOv ^wypa^rjfxaTa, tmv Kokofpwviwv, 1(T')(vv 
6\ovTa Koi rovov eKBefSiacr ixevoi<^ kol KaTair6voL<^ 
eoLK€, raL<; Be l>lifco/JLd')(ov <ypacf)al<i Koi roL<; 'OfMij- 
pov (7TL^0i<; fxerd rrj<^ dX\r]<; hwdfieoi^ Koi ^dpiTo<; 
TTpoaeari to hoKelv ev^^P^^ fcal paBL(o<; dweLp- 
ydaOai, ovr(o<; irapa rrjv ^ETrafietvcovSov (rrparr)- 
jiav Kol rrjv 'AyrjaiXdov, ttoXvitovov^ yei'Ofiei'a^; 
KoX 8vadya)va<;, rj Ti/jLo\eovTO<i dvre^era^opevr], 
KoX fierd Tov KaXov ttoXv to pdSiov eyovaa^ <^ai- 
v€Tai TOt? ev KOL BiKalco'; Xoyi^opuevoL^ ov TV'^r)<; 

3 epyov, dXX* dpeTf]<; €VTV)(^ovay]^. KaiTOi irdvTa y 
eK6lvo<^ eU Tr]V tv^V^ avr^irTe to, KaTopOov^eva- 
/cat yap ypd(f)CDV TOt<; ocfcoi (piXoi*; Kal Sijfxrjyopcov 
7r/)09 Tou? XvpaKovaLov<; iroXXaKLf; €(f)i] tw Oeo) 
Xdpiv e')(^eLV otl /3ovX6/jl€po<; aoicrav ^LKeXiav iire- 
ypdyjraTo ttjv avTOv TrpocTrjyopiav. iirl he Trj<; 
olfCia^; lepov lBpvadp,€vo^ AuTOfiaria^ eOvev, avTtjv 

4 Be Tr]v OLKiav UpM Baifiovv KaOtepcoaev. wKei Be 
OiKLav fjv e^eTXov avTco aTpaT7]yia<; dpicTTelov ol 
^vpa/covatoi, Kal tmv dypwv tov 7]Bi(jT0v koI 
KaXXiaTov ev o) Kal to rrXelcTTOV tov ')(^p6vov 
KaTea-x^oXa^e, p.eTaTrepyjrdpevQf; OLKoOev tijv yv- 
vaiKa Kal tou? iralBa^;. ov yap eTravrjXOev el^ 
K.6pivBov, ovBe KaTep^i^e toI<; EXXrjvLKol<^ Oopv- 
^0L<i eavTOV ovBe tw ttoXitckw (f)66v(p TrapeBwKev, 
eh OV ol TrXelcTTOi tcov aTpaTTjycjv aTrXijaTia tl/imv 
Kal Bvvdfiewi e^oKeXXovaiv, dXX* eKel KaTep,eive 
Toh vcj)' eavTOV p.€fiyx,^vr)p,evoi,<; dyad oh XP^~ 
fjievo^' o)V ixeyicTTOv rjv to TroXef? ToaavTa<^ Ka\ 
/iivpidBa<; dv6pd)7r(ov Be* eavTov i<f)opdv evBaipLo- 
vovo-a<;, 

346 



TIMOLEON xxx^t. i-4 

For just as the poetry of Antimachus and the pic- 
tures of Dionysius, both Colophonians, for all their 
strength and vigour, seem forced and laboured, 
while the paintings of Nicomachus and the verses 
of Homer not only have power and grace besides, 
but also give the impression of having been exe- 
cuted readily and easily ; so, if we compare the 
generalship of Epaminondas and Agesilaiis, which in 
both cases was full of toil and bitter struggles, with 
that of Timoleon, which was exercised with much 
ease as well as glory, it appears to men of just and 
careful reasoning a product, not of fortune, but of 
fortunate valour. And yet all his successes were 
ascribed by him to fortune ; for in his letters to his 
friends at home and in his public addresses to the 
Syracusans he often said he was thankful to God, 
who, desiring to save Sicily, gave him the name and 
title of its saviour. Moreover, in his house he built 
a shrine for sacrifice to Automatia, or Chance, and 
the house itself he consecrated to man's sacred 
genius. And the house in which he dwelt was 
picked out for him by the Syracusans as a prize for 
his achievements in the field ; they also gave him 
the pleasantest and most beautiful of their country 
estates, and at this he used to spend the greater 
part of his leisure time, after he had sent home for 
his wife and children. For he did not return to 
Corinth, nor did he take part in the disturbances of 
Greece or expose himself to the jealousy of his 
fellow citizens, the rock on which most generals, 
in their insatiable greed for honours and power, 
make shipwreck ; but he remained in Sicily, en- 
joying the blessings of his own creation, the greatest 
of which was the sight of so many cities and myriads 
of people whose happiness was due to him. 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXXVIL 'ETrel Se XPV^' ^^ eoiKcv, ov fiovov 
TTacJi KOpvSaWoU X6(f>ov iyylyveadai, Kara St- 
/hcjvlStjv, aWa /cal Trdarj Brj/jLOKparLa avKOcfidvTTjv, 
eTrex^Lprjcrav Kal Ti/jLoXeovri Bvo rcou Sij/iaycoyMv, 
Aacpvario^ Kal Ajj/iaivero^;. o)v Aacpvcrriov jxev 
avTOv 7rp6<; Tiva Blktjv KaT€yyvcovTO<; ovk eia 

2 Oopv/Selv ovSe KwXveiv rov^ iroXira'^' eKoov yap 
avTO^ virofjielvai roaovrov<^ Trovovf; Kal Kivhvvov^ 
virep rod roc<; v6p,oi^ ')(^prj(TdaL rov ^ovXofievop 
XvpaKOVCTLCov' rod Be ^tjixaiverov TToWa Karrj- 254 
yopr]aavro<i ev eKKX-^-jaia rrj<; arpari^yia^, Trpo^ 
CKelvov /jL€p ovSev dvrtlire, rol^ Be Oeol^i e(f)7j "xapiv 
ocpeiXeLV, oh ev^aro %vpaKovaiov^ iinhelv rrj<; 
Trapprjaia^; Kvpiov^ yevopevov<^. 

3 M.eyL(Tra 8' ovv Kal KoXXcara ra)v KaO' avrov 
'^XXrjVOiV ofioXoyovfievco^; BiaTrpa^dpievo'; epya, 
Kai p,6vo<;, €(f) a? ol aocpi.aral Blcl rcop Xoywv ro3V 
7rav7]yupLK(OV del TrapeKoKovv irpd^ei^; rov<; ''K\Xr]- 
va^, ev ravrau'^ dpLar€vaa<;, Kal rcop pev avroOi 
KaKwv, a rr)v dp-)(^aiav 'KXXdBa Kareay^ev, vtto 
rrjf; ru;^?/? irpoeKKop^iaOeU uvaipaKro<; Kal KaOa- 

4 yoo9, emBeL^dpL6vo<; Be Beivorijra pep Kal dpBpeiap 
roh /3apl3dpOL<; Kal rot<; rvpdvvot<i, BLKatoavpyju 
Be Kal irpaorrjra rolf; ' RXXtjo-l Kal roh (f)LXoi<;, rd 
Be irXelara rpoiraia rwp dycovcop dBdKpvra Kal 
direvdrj rot? iroXirai^ Karaar'tjaa^;, KaOapdp Be 
rrjv ^iKeXlap ep ovB' oXoL^i ereaip OKrco diBicop Kal 
348 



TIiMOLEON XXXVII. 1-4 

XXXVII. But since, as it would seem, not only 
all larks must grow a crest, as Simonides says, but 
also every democracy a false accuser, even Timoleon 
was attacked by two of the popular leaders at Syra- 
cuse, Laphystius and Demaenetus. Of these, La- 
phystius once tried to make him give surety that he 
would appear at a certain trial, and Timoleon would 
not suffer the citizens to stop the man by their 
turbulent disapproval ; for he himself, he said, had 
of his own accord endured all his toils and dangers 
in order that any Syracusan who wished might avail 
himself of the laws. And when the other, Demae- 
netus, brought many denunciations in oj)en assembly 
against his conduct in the field, to him, indeed, Ti- 
moleon made no answer, but said he owed thanks 
to the gods, for he had prayed them that he might 
live to see the Syracusans gain the right of free 
speech. 

So, then, having by general confession performed 
the greatest and most glorious deeds of any Greek 
of his time, and having been the only one to succeed 
in those achievements to which the rhetoricians, in 
their speeches at the national assemblies, were ever 
exhorting the Greeks ; having been removed be- 
times by a happy fortune, pure and unstained with 
blood, from the evils wliich were rife in the mother 
country, and having displayed ability and valour in 
his dealings with Barbarians and tyrants, as well as 
justice and gentleness in his dealings with the Greeks 
and his friends ; having set u}) most of the trophies 
of his contests without causing his fellow citizens 
either tears or mourning, and having in even less 
than eight years ^ handed over to her inhabitants a 

1 34G-338 B.C. 

349 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

crvvoifccov KUKcov KOL voa^fMarcov 7rapnSou<; tol<; 

5 KaroLKOvcnv, rjSr) irpea^vTepo^ mv airrj ijl^XvvO i] 
rrjv oyjnv, elra reXeo)? eTrijpcoOri jier oXiyov, ovre 
avro<i eavru) irpoc^aaiv irapaGywv ovre irapoivr]- 
6e\'^ viTO T^9 Tf^T;?, aWa (Tvyyei'iKTjf; tlvo^, co? 
eoLKev, alria^ /cal KaTa/3o\ri<; apa rw y^povw <tvv- 
eiriBep^kvif]^' \kyovTai yap ovk oXiyoi toov Kara 
yevo^ avT(p TrpoarjKovrcov 6p,OL(o<i diro^aXelv rrjv 

6 6y\nv vTTo yi]pco<i dirop.apavOela-av. 6 Se "AOavi^; 
en avveaTMTo<^ rod tt/^o? "iTTTrcova 7roXep,ov /cal 
^l(ip,€pKOv, ev Mt'Xat? iirl arparoTriSov (j)rjalv 
aTToyXavKdiO fjvaL rrjv oyfrcv avrov, /cal irdai (f)av€- 
pav yeveaOai rrjv Trrjpcocriv, ov p,r)V dTroaTYjVai Sid 
rovTO T% 'jToXLOpKia<i, aXX' ipp^eivavra too iroXi- 
fjL(p Xa^elv Tov<i rvpdvvov<;' co? Se iiravrjXdev e/? 
Xvpa/cov<Ta<i, ev6v<; diroOecrOat T-qv p.ovap')(iav Kal 
irapairelcrdai tov<; TroXtra?, rcof Trpay/Jbdroyv et<? 
TO /cdXXiarov rj/covrcov t6\o9. 

XXXVIIL ^EKetvov p,€v ovv avrov virop^ivavTa 
rrjv (TVfKpopdv dXv7r(o<^ rjrrov dv t^? Oavp^daew 
Tcov Be XvpaKOvcrlcov d^LOv dyaaOai ttjv tt/jo? tov 
dvSpa Tip.i]v /cal x^P^^ V^ iireBel^avTo TreTTTjpco- 
fxevw, (poLTMpre^; eVl Ovpa<; avrol /cal rcov ^evcov 
tou? irapeiTLhripbovvra^ dyovTe^i el<; ttjv ol/ciav Kal 
to ^crj/Jtoz^, OTTco'^ OedaaivTO rov evepyerrjv avrcov, 
dyaXXofievoi /cal p.kya ^povovvTe<^ ore Trap* avrolf; 
e'CXero /cara^rjcrai rov ^iov, ovrco Xa/xTT/oa? eiravo- 
hov T^9 €ts" Tr]v 'EXXdha 7rap€cr/ceva(TfjLevr)<; avrw 
2 Sid TMv evTV^Vf^^'^f^^ /caTa(f)pov7](Ta<;. ttoXXojv 
Be /cal peydXcov eh rrjv eKeivov Tip,T]v ypa(j)op,evcop 
Kal TTparroixevcdv ovBevo'; rjTTov rjv to ^Irrjcpio-aaOai 
TOP Tcop XvpaKovalcov BrjpLov, 6adKi<; aufiTrecroi 

350 



TIMOLEON XXXVII. 4-xxxviii. ^ 

Sicily purged of her perpetual intestine miseries and 
complaints; at last, being now advanced in years, he 
began to lose his sight, and then, after a little, 
became completely blind. He had done nothing 
himself to occasion this, nor was he therein the 
sport and mockery of Fortune, but suffered from 
some congenital disease, as it would seem, which 
came upon him with his years ; for it is said that not 
a few of his kindred lost their sight in a similar 
way, when it was enfeebled by old age. But Athanis 
says that while the war against Hippo and Mamercus 
was still in progress, in his camp at Mylae, his vision 
was obscured by a cataract in the eye, and it was 
plain to all that he was getting blind ; he did not, 
however, desist from the siege on this account, but 
persisted in the war and captured the tyrants ; yet 
after his return to Syracuse, he at once laid aside 
the sole command and begged the citizens to excuse 
him from it, now that matters had reached the 
happiest conclusion. 

XXXVIII. Well, then, that he himself should 
bear his misfortune without repining is less a matter 
for wonder ; but the gratitude and honour which the 
Syracusans showed him in his blindness are worthy of 
admiration. They often went to visit him in person, 
and brought strangers who were sojourning in the 
city to his house and to his country seat to see their 
benefactor, exulting and proud that he chose to end 
his days among them and thus made light of the 
brilliant return to Greece which had been prepared 
for him by reason of his successes. And of the many 
great things decreed and done in his honour, nothing 
surpassed the vote passed by the people of Syracuse 
that whenever they went to war against alien peoples, 

3SI 



PLUTARCH'S LIVE^ 

TToXe/JLOf; avToU tt/jo? aWo(f)vXov^, KopivOlw XPV' 
aOaL arpai '7]yw. /cdkrjv Be koI to irepX ra? eK- 
KXrjcrla^ yuvoiJievov 6-^iv eU tl/jltjv avTOV jrapel^^e' 
ra yap aWa 81* avrSyv Kpivovre^; iirl ra^; fji€L^ova<; 
3 Bt,aaK6yjreL<; eKelvov eKoXovv. 6 he KOfii^ofievo^; 8l 
ayopa<; iirl ^evyou^; 7rpb<i to deaTpov eiropevsTO' 
fcal T?79 a7nf)V7]<;, Mcnrep eTvyyave KaQr]pbevo^, elaa- 
yo/jLep7j(;, 6 fiev SrjjuLo<; rjaird^eTO fiLO, (jycovfj irpoaa- 
yopevcov avTOV, 6 S' avTaairacrafxevo^ Koi xpovov 
TLva 8ov<i Tal'i €V(f)r]fjiLai<; kul tol<; €7raLV0L<;, elTa 
Biaicovcra^i to ^7)tov/jl6vop, a7re(\)aiveT0 yuayfirjv. 
e7rL')(^€Lp0T0V7]6eLa7j<i 8e TavT7]<; ol fiev v7rr)p€Tai 
TToXiv airriyov Bia tov OeuTpov to ^evyo^, ol Be 
TroXiTac jSofj koX KpoTw IT poire fM^^avTe^i eKelvov 
rjBif] TO, XoLTTCL Tcbv Brj/xoaLcov KaO' avT0v<i e)(pq- 

/jLUTI^OV. 

XXXIX. ^Ev TOiavTrj Be y7]porpo(f)ovpLevo<; Tifiy 
/iieT evvoia^i, wairep iraTrjp kolv6<;, i/c iMLKpa<; irpo- 
^dae(ji)<i T& ')(^p6va> avvecf)aylrap,evr)^ eTeXevTTjaev. 
rj/iepwv Be Bo6eiao)v rot? fxev ^upaKovaLoi<; ei? to 
7rapa(TK€vd(Tai tcl irepl ttjv Ta(f)rjv, rot? ^e irepioi- 
KOL^ Kol ^evoL<; et? to avveXdelv, Ta t dXXa Xa/x- 
TTyoa? ')^opr]yia<; eTV')(e, koI to Xe)(o<; ol '^rj(^w tmv 
veavLCTKcov 7rpofcpL6evTe<i e(f>epov KeKoafirj/jLevov Bid 
TO)V AiovuaLOu Tvpavveicov totc KaTeaKajipievcov. 
2 TrpovTre/jLTTOv Be rroXXal fivpidBe<; dvSpcjv teal yv- 
vaiKcov, Mv 6^^n(; /juev -^v eopTJ} irpeirovaa, jrdvTcov 
e(TTe^av(0[jievcDv kol KaOapd^ €aOP]ra(; (popovvToyv, 
<f)(oval Be Kol BdKpva avyKe/cpajxeva to) jiaKa- 

352 




TIMOLEON xxxviii. 2-xxxix. 2 

they would employ a Corinthian as their general. 
Moreover, the proceedings in their assemblies afforded 
a noble spectacle in his honour, since, while they 
decided other matters by themselves, for the more 
important deliberations they summoned him. Then 
he would proceed to the theatre carried through the 
market place on a mule-car ; and when the vehicle in 
which he sat was brought in, the people would greet 
him with one voice and call him by name, and he, 
after returning their greetings and allowing some 
time for their felicitations and praises, would then 
listen carefully to the matter under debate and pro- 
nounce opinion. And when this opinion had been 
adopted, his retainers would conduct his car back 
again through the theatre, and the citizens, after 
sending him on his way with shouts of applause, 
would proceed at once to transact the rest of the 
public business by themselves. 

XXXI X. Cherished in old age amid such honour 
and good will, like a common father, a slight cause 
co-operated with his great age to bring him to his 
end.^ A number of days having been allowed in 
which the Syracusans might prepare for his funeral, 
while the country folk and strangers came together, 
the whole ceremony was conducted with great mag- 
nificence, and besides, young men selected by lot 
carried his bier with all its decorations through the 
precinct where the palace of Dionysius had stood 
before Timoleon destroyed it. The bier was escorted, 
too, by many tliousands of men and women, whose 
appearance was one that became a festival, since all 
were crowned with garlands and wore white raiment; 
while cries and tears, mingled with benedictions 

» In 337 or 336 b.c. 

353 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

pi(T/j,& rov redprjKOTO^i ov rifirjf; d<f>oaLO)aiv ovBe 
Xeirovpytav eK Trpo/SovXev/jLarof;, aXXa iroOov hi- 
Kaiov eireheiicvvvTo koX %a/9ti/ aXijOivrj^; evvoLa<;. 

3 Te\o<; Be rr}? K\ivrj<; iirl rrjv irvpav TeOeiarj^i Ar)- 
fi7]TpL0(;y 09 ^v /ji€'ya\o(f>(ov6Taro<{ rcop rore xrjpv- 
Kcov, yeypa/jL/ievov avelire Krjpvyfia tolovtov 

"'O BrjfjLO<; 6 ^vpaKovaicov Tt,/io\eovra Tt- 
fioBrj/jiOV KopLvdiov- TOvBe OaTrrei /lev Biuko- 
(t[(i)V fwS)Vy €TL/jL7j(r€ 6* eh TOP airavra \povov 

ayVXTl IJLOVaLK0l<^, ITTTriKol^, yV/jLVLKOL<;, OTl 

Tov<i TVpdvvov<; /caTa\v(ra<; koI tou? ^ap^d- 
pov<^ KaraTToXe/i'^craf; koX ra^ fieyiaTa^ ro)v 
dvaardroov iroXecov olKi(Ta<; direBwKe tov<; 

4 ^KiTOi^cravro Be rrjv ra(l>r)v rov o-toyLtaro? ev 
dyopa, Kol arod<; varepov 7repi,0a\6vre<i Koi ira-, 
XaicTTpa^ evoLKoBop.rj(TavTe<s yvpuvdaiov rol^ veoi^i 
dvTjKav Koi Ti/uLoXeopreiov Trpoarjyopevo'ap. avrol 
Be 'x^pdy/xevot iroXiTeia koL vo/jloi'; ov<i eKelvo<^ Kare- 
arrfaevy eirl iroXvv )(^p6pov evBaifiopovpre^i Biere- 
Xeaap, 



^?4 



TIMOLEON XXXIX. 2-4 

upon the dead, betokened, not a formal tribute of 
respect, nor a service performed in obedience to 
public decree, but a just sorrow and a thankfulness 
arising from genuine good will. And finally, when 
the bier had been placed upon the funeral pyre, 
Demetrius, who had the loudest voice of any herald 
of the time, read from manuscript the following 
decree : — 

" By the people of Syracuse, Timoleon, son 
of Timodemus, from Corinth, is here buried at 
a public cost of two hundred minas, and is 
honoured for all time with annual contests, 
musical, equestrian, and gymnastic, because he 

I overthrew the tyrants, subdued the Barbarians, 
re-peopled the largest of the devastated cities, 
and then restored their laws to the Greeks of 
Sicily." 

Furthermore, they buried his ashes in the market 
place, and afterwards, when they had surrounded it 
with porticoes and built palaestras in it, they set it 
apart as a gymnasium for their young men, and 
named it Timoleonteum. And they themselves, using 
the civil polity and the laws which he had ordained, 
enjoyed a long course of unbroken prosjierity and 
happiness. 



355 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 



AIMIAI02: nAYAOS 

II. Tov Ai/jLiXL(t)v oIkov ev 'Pcofirj twv evTrarpi- 
Smv yeyoievai, /cal TraXatwv ol TrXelarot avy- 
ypa(f}€L<i ofjLoXoyovdLV. on 3* o 7rpa)ro<; avrcov 25 ( 
Kal T(p yevei rrjv eTrcovv/JLiav airoXiTTODV Ma/iep/co? 
^v, TLvdayopov irah tov ao(f)ov, 8i alfivXlav 
Xoyov Kol %apti' A/yLttXto? Tpoaayopevdel^;, elprj- 
/caaiv evLOL tmv TlvOayopa rrjv No/jud tov ffaac- 

2 X€(o<; TralSevaiv avaOevTwv. ol /jueu ovv irXelaTOi 
TMP et9 Bo^av airb tt;? oiKia^; TavTtjf; iTpoeXOovTwv 
hi ap€Ti]v, Tjv €^T]Xco(Tav, evTV')(rj(jav, AeuKLov he 
UavXov TO irepl Karya? aTV')(r] jjua ttjv re (j>p6vrjaLV 
cifia Kal Tr)v dvSpelav eheu^ev. 009 ydp ovk eireiae 
tov avvdp')(ovTa /ccoXvcov fjLd')(6(TdaL, tov /xev 
dywvof; aKwv p.€Tea)(ev avTW, t;}? he (f)vyr]<; ovk 
€KOLV(t)vr}a€V, dXXd tov avvd^lravTO^ tov Kivhvvov 
€yKaTaXt,7r6vTO<i avTo<i ecrro)? kol [xa')(^6fievo^ Tot<i 
'7roXefiiot<i 6TeXevTri(T€. 

B To^TOU OvydTTjp [lev KlfiLXia '^KrjTrloyvt tw 
fieydXo) o-vvwKTjaeVf u/09 he TlaOXo? At/At\to«?, 
Trepl ov Tdhe ypd(j)€Tai, yeyovo)^ ev rjXiKLa KaTa 
Kaipov dvOovvTa h6^at<; Kal dpeTaL<; iirKpaveaTd- 
Tcov dvhpoiv Kal fjLeyicjTwVy hueXap^-y^ev, ov TavTcu 



^ The first chapter has been transposed to serve as Intro- 
duction to both the I'imoleon and the Aimilius Faulua. 

358 



AEMILIUS PAULUS 



II.i That the Aemilii were one of the ancient and 
patrician houses at Rome, most writers agree. And 
that the first of them, and the one who gave his 
surname to the family, was Mamercus, a son of 
Pythagoras the philosopher, who received the surname 
of Aemilius for the grace ^ and charm of his discourse, 
is the statement of some of those writers who hold 
that Pythagoras was the educator of Numa the 
king.3 Now, most of this family who rose to dis- 
tinction by their cultivation of virtue, were blessed 
with good fortune ; and in the case of Lucius Paulus, 
his misfortune at Cannae gave testimony alike to his 
wisdom and valour. For when he could not dissuade 
his colleague from giving battle, he took j)art with 
him in the struggle, though reluctantly, but would 
not be a partner in his flight; nay, though the one 
who had brought on the peril left him in the lurch, he 
himself kej)t his post and died fighting the enemv.^ 

This Paulus had a daughter, Aemilia, who was the 
u ife of Scipio the Great, and a son, Aemilius Paulus, 
whose Life I now write. He came of age at a time 
which abounded in men of the greatest reputation 
and most illustrious virtue, and yet he was a con- 

^ Phitarch suggests the identity of the Latin Aemilius 
with the Greek ai/xv\ios (ivinning). Cf. Odyssey, i. 56. 

• See the Numa, i. 2 f. 

* See the Fabius MaximuSf chapters xiv. and xvi. 

359 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tot9 €vBoKifiov(Ti T0T6 veoi<; eTTLTrjhevfjiara f/;Xa)- 
cra9, ovhe rrjv avTr}v oBbv avr* ^PX^^ iropevOei^. 
4 0VT6 yap Xoyov Tja/cei irepl hiKa<;, aairaaiJiov^ re 
KoX 8€^L(t)aei<; Kal ^iko^poavva^, aU v7roTp€XovT€<; 
01 TToXkol Tov Srjpov i/CTMVTO OepanrevrLKol Kal 
airovBacoi yevopevoi, iravrdiraaLv e^ekiirs, rrpo^ 
ovherepov d(f)uw(; e^wv, &>? S' eKarepov Kpeirrova 
TT)v dii dvBpeLa<; Kal hiKaLoavvr)^ Kal iriarew^ 
ho^av avTW irepnTOLovpbevo'^, oh evOv'^ Bii^epe rcop 
KaO r)\iKLav. 

III. TlpcoTTjv yovv TMV iiTL(^avo)v dp-)((i}v dyopa- 
vopiiav pL€T€\Ocbv irpoeKpidr} heKahvolv avhpwv 
av7'a7roypayjrap.€vcov, ou? varepov diravja^ vna- 
revaat Xiyovai,. yevopevo^ 3' lepev^ roiv Av- 
yovpcov irpoaayopevopevcov, ou? r^? air opvidwv 
Kal hioa-qpeiwv dTroSeiKvvovcTi 'FcopaLOL pai'TiKpjf; 

2 eiriaKOTTOv^; Kal <^v\aKa<^, ovrco irpoaea^^e roh 
7raTp(poi<s eOeai Kal Karevorjae ttjv tmv TraXaicbv 
irepl TO Oelov evXd/Seiav Mare ripr)v nva Bokov- 
aav elvai Kal ^rjXovpevrjv dXXaxi eveKa S6^r]<; rrjv 
lepcocrvvrjv rwv aKpordrcov piav d7ro(f)fjvai r€)(V(oVf 
Kal paprvprjaaL roh (f)LXoa6(f)oi';, oaoi rrjv ev- 
ae^eiav oyplaavro 6€paireLa<; 6eo)v €7ria-rt]p,rjv 

3 elfcn. nrdvra yap iSparo p,er 6piT€ipla<^ l/tt' 
avrov Kal aTTOuSrj^;, a^oXrjv r(ov dXXcov ayovro<; 
ore yiyvoiro 7rp6^ rovrw, Kal 7rapaXei-7rovro<; 
ouSei ovSe Kaivorop^ovpro^, dXXd Kal roh avvie- 



36b 



AEMILIUS PAULUS ii. 3-111. 3 

spiciioiis figure, although he did not pursue the 
same studies as the young nobles of the time, nor 
set out on his career by the same path. For he did 
not practise pleading private cases in the courts, and 
refrained altogether from the salutations and greet- 
ings and friendly attentions to which most men 
cunningly resorted when they tried to win the favour 
of the peo{)le by becoming their zealous servants ; 
not that he was naturally incapable of either, but he 
sought to acquire for himself what was better than 
both, namely, a reputation arising from valour, 
justice, and trustworthiness. In these virtues he 
at once surpassed his contemporaries. 

III. At all events, when he sued for the first of 
the high offices in the state, the aedileship, he was 
elected over twelve competitors, ^ all of whom, we 
are told, afterwards became consuls. Moreover, 
when he was made one of the priests called Augurs, 
whom the Romans appoint as guardians and overseers 
of the art of divination from the flight of birds and 
from omens in the sky, he so carefully studied the 
ancestral customs of the city, and so thoroughly 
understood the religious ceremonial of the ancient 
Romans, that his priestly function, which men had 
thought to be a kind of honour, sought merely 
on account of the reputation which it gave, was 
made to appear one of the higher arts, and testified 
in favour of those philosophers who define religion 
as the science of the worship of the gods. For all 
the duties of this office were performed by him with 
skill and care, and he laid aside all other concerns 
when he was engaged in these, omitting nothing 
and adding nothing new, but ever contending even 

1 In 192r,.c. 

361 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

pevaiv ael ical irepl tmv /iiKpcjv Bia(f)€poiiiepov, Kal 
SLBdaKovTO<; ft)? el to Oelov evKoXov ri? r^jelraL Kal 
afi€/ji(p€<; elvai rcov afieXeiSyVt aXka ttj ye iroXei 
')(^ci\€TTov ?; irepl ravra avyyvcofirj Kal irapopaai^' 
ovSeU yap i^ o.p')(rj^ ev6v<i /jbeyaXo) Trapavo/jLyj/jLart. 
Kivel TToXLTeiav, aXka Kal rrjv tmv pLet^ovcov 
(^povpav KaraXvovcTiv ol irpolefxevoi rrjv ev toI<^ 
p,LKpol<; cLKpi/Seiav. 

4 "OfjLoiov Se Kal reov <rrpaTLcortK(ov iOcov re Kal 
Trarpicov e^eraarrfv Kal <pvXaKa irapel^^ev eavrov, 
ov Brj/jLaycoycov ev tw dTparrjyelv, ovS", uxnrep 
ol rrXeldTOL rore, hevrepa^ ^PX^'^ Tal<; TrpcoTac^ 
fjLV(t)/ii€vo<; Sia Tov 'Xjoipi^eaOaL Kal 7rpao<; elvai 
Tot? ap')(pixevoi'^, aXX! (aairep lepev^ dXXwv opyUov 
heivwVy ro)v irepl Ta<; (TTpaTeLa<s iOcov e^rjyovfxei'O^; 
eKaara, Kal (j)o/3€po<; 0)v rol<^ aireiOovai Kal 
Trapa/SaivovaLV, a>pOov rr^v TraTplSa, pLiKpov Selv 
irdpepyov rjyov/ievof; ro vlkclv tou? iroXeiiiov; tov 
TraiBevetv tou? iroXiTa^. 

IV. Xvo'Tavro^ Be rov Trpo? 'Avrloxov tov fieyav 
TToXeixov TOL<; *Vwp,aioi<i, Kal roiv rjye/uioviKcoTdTcov 
dvBpoyv TerpapbjjLevoDV tt/oo? CKelvov, dXXo^ d'jro tt}? 
eairepas dvearrj iroXepio^, ev ^l^rjpia KtvijpaTcov 
fieydXcov yevo/ievQ)v. eirl tovtov 6 At/itX,£09 e'fe- 
TTejJL^dr] cTTpaTrjyof;, ou% ef ^X^^ rreXeKcif;, oaov<; 
e^ovaiv ol o-TpaTrjyovvTe<;, dXXa irpoaXa^cbv 
eT€pov<; ToaovTov;, cocrre ri}? dp')(rj^ viraTiKov 

2 yeveaOau to d^LCOjia. P'd')(r) p,ev ovv Bl^ Ik Trapa- 2bl 
Taf6ft)<? evLKfjae roi'? /3apfidpov<;, irepl Tpiafivpiov^ 

362 



AEMILIUS PAULUS iii. 3-iv. 2 

with his colleagues about the small details of cere- 
mony, and explaining to them that, although the 
Deity was held to be good-natured and slow to 
censure acts of negligence, still, for the city at least 
it was a grievous thing to overlook and condone 
them ; for no man begins at once with a great deed 
of lawlessness to disturb the civil polity, but those 
who remit their strictness in small matters break 
down also the guard that has been set over greater 
matters. 

Furthermore, he showed a like severity in scruti- 
nising and preserving his country's military customs 
and traditions also, not courting popular favour 
when he was in command, nor yet, as most men did 
at this time, courting a second command during his 
first by gratifying his soldiers and treating them 
with mildness ; but, like a priest of other dread rites, 
he explained thoroughly all the details of military 
custom and was a terror to disobedient transgressors, 
and so restored his country to her former greatness, 
considering the conquest of his enemies hardly more 
than an accessory to the training of his fellow- 
citizens. 

IV. After the Romans had gone to war with 
Antiochus the Great, and while their most experi- 
enced commanders were employed against him, 
another war arose in the West, and there were great 
commotions in Spain. For this war Aemilius was 
sent out as praetor,^ not with the six lictors which 
praetors usually have, but adding other six to that 
number, so that his office had a consular dignity. 
Well, then, he defeated the Barbarians in two pitched 
battles, and slew about thirty thousand of them ; 

» In 191 B.O. 

363 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

avekoiVy KoX SoKel rb KaropOwfjua rr}? crTpaTTjyLa<i 
TTepL<^av(f)<^ yeveaOat, ^coptcoz^ ev(j>vta koX irora/jLoO 
TLVO^ hia^daei paarcoprji' iTapa(T)(^6vT0'i avTOV 
7rpo<; TO vLKr]/uia toI<; crTyoartwrat?* TToXei? Se 
TrevTijKovra koX hiaKoaia^ i^eLpwo-aro Be^afieva^ 

3 avTov eKovaico<;. elpr)vr) he koX TTiaret avvr]p/io- 
o-fji€V7)v airoXiTTcav rrjv iirap^iav ei^ 'Pco/jltjv irrav- 
rjkOev, ovhe BpaxP'fj /iia yeyovoi^ eviropcorepo^; 
UTro T^? (TTpaTeia^. rjv he ical irepl raWa XPV~ 
fiarLarr)^ dpyorepo^i, evhairavo^ he /cal a^etS^? 
€K TMV xjTrap')(^ovTa)V. ov TToXXd h^ Tjv, dWd kol 
(pepvfj^; o^etXofjbevT]^ rfj yvvaiKt /jberd rov Odvarov 
avTov 7Xto-^yo&)9 e^ijp/cecrev. 

Y. "Fiyrj/jLe he YlaTTipiav, dvhpo<; virariKov Md- 
awvo<; Ovyarepa, Koi ')(^p6vov crvvoLKi]aa^ iroXvv 
d<^r]Ke Tov yd/jiov, Kaiirep e^ avrrj'^ KaWire/cvora- 
T09 yevofxevo^i' avrrj yap -qv 7) rov KKeivorarov 
avTU) ^Ki]7rL0)va TCKOvaa /cat Md^ifMov ^d/Siov. 
aiTLa he yeypajxiievr] Trj<; hiaaTdaeco<i ov/c rfkOev 
eh r)/jLd<;, dXV eoiKev d\7)07J<; rt? elvat X0709 irepl 
ydfjLov Xucreo)? yevopevo^, ct)9 dvrjp 'FcofjLalo^; dire- 
TrefjLTrero yvvaiKU, rcov he <j>ik(ov vovderovvTcav 

2 avTov, ** Ol';yI a(t)(f)pa)v; ovk evpopcpcx; ; ov'xi irai- 
ho7roi6<; ;^' irporeiva'^ to V7r6hi]p,a (/cdXTtov avTO 
'Vwp,aloi KoXovaiv) elirev ** Ovk evir peirrf'^ ovto<; ; 
ov veovpyrj<i ; dX)C ovk dv elheir) Tt9 vp(bv KaO^ 6 
TL OXi^eTat p,epo<; ou/jlo^ 7rou9." rw yap ovtl 
fxeydXat, p^ev dp^apTiat Kal dvaireirTapievat yvval- 
Ka<; dvhpoiv dXXa<i dmfXXa^av, ra 8' eV tlvo^ 
dijhia^ Kal hvcrapp,ocrTia^ rjOcbv puKpa Kal irvKvd 
irpoaKpova-fiaTa, XavddvuvTa toi'9 aXXov^i, dir- 



364 



AEMILIUS PAULUS iv. 2-v. ± 

and it would seem that his success was conspicuously 
due to his generalship, since by choosing favourable 
ground and by crossing a certain river he made 
victory easy for his soldiers ; moreover, he made 
himself master of two hundred and fifty cities, which 
yielded to him of their own accord. He left the 
province in peace and bound by pledges of fidelity, 
and came back to Rome, nor was he richer by a 
single drachma from his expedition. And, indeed, 
in all other ways he was a rather indifferent money- 
maker, and ^ent generously and without stint 
of his substance. But this was not large ; indeed, 
after his death it barely sufficed to meet the dowry 
due to his wife. 

V. He married Papiria, a daughter of Maso, who 
was a man of consular dignity, and after he had lived 
with her a long time he divorced her, although she 
had made him father of most glorious sons ; for she 
it was who bore him that most illustrious Scipio, and 
Fabius Maximus. No documentary grounds for 
the divorce have come down to us, but there 
would seem to be some truth in a story told about 
divorce, which runs as follows. A Roman once 
divorced his wife, and when his friends admonished 
him, saying : " Is she not discreet } is she not 
beautiful ? is she not fruitful } " he held out his shoe 
(the Romans call it "calceus "), saying : " Is this not 
handsome ? is it not new } but no one of you can 
tell me where it pinches my foot .'' " For, as a 
matter of fact, it is great and notorious faults that 
separate many wives from their husbands ; but the 
slight and frequent frictions arising from some un- 
pleasantness or incongruity of characters, unnoticed 
as they may be by everybody else, also produce 

365 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

€pyd^€Tai tA? avTjKi(jTov<; iv Ta2<i a-v/jL^iaxrea-iv 
aWorpioTTjra^;. 

3 'O S* ovv Alfu\io<; airaWayeh rrj^ Tlairipiaf; 
€T€pav riydyero' koI Svo iralha^ dpp€va<; r6Kova7]<f 
TOVTOv<; /jL€V iirl rrjf; oiKia^ ^^X^* Tov<i he irpoTepov; 
elaeiroirjaev oIkol^ rot? fieyiaroL'; koI ykveai toI^ 
i7rL(f)av€(TTdT0i<;, rov jxev TrpecrjBvTepov rco Maft- 
ixov (t>a^LOV rov TrevraKii; virarevaavTO^, rov he 
veoorepov ^A^ptKavov ^Kr)7rL(opo<i f/o? dveyjribv 

4 ovra Oefievo^ ^KTjiTiwra Trpoarjyopevae. rcjv Se 
Ouyarepoiv rayv AI/jLlXlov rrjv fjuev 6 Kdr(ovo<i u/o? 
eyrj/JLe, rrjV S' AtXto? Tov^epwv, dvr)p dpLaTo<; kol 
fieyaXoir peirearara 'Pcofiaicov irevia 'X^prjadfievo^i. 
Tjaav yap CKKatSeKa crvyyevel^, AtXioc irdvTef;' 
olklBcop Be irdw fiiKpov rjv avTOt^;, koI 'y^copiBiov 
ev rjpKei ttclgl, fjLiav eartav ve/juovai fierd iraiSayv 

5 iroWo)!/ Kol yuvaLKMv. ev ah xal r) AI/il\lov 
rovBe Ovydrrjp r)v 8t? viraTevcravro^ Kal BU Opi- 
a/jL/SevaravTO^s, ovk ala^vvopievr] rrjp ireviav rov 
dvBp6<iy dWa dav/jid^ovaa rrjp dperrjv BC fjv 
irevr)^ rjv. o'l he vvv dheX^ol Kal avyyeveh, av fir) 
KkifJiacn Kal iroTapbol^ Kal BtareiXi'f^P'acnv opl- 
(T(onL rd Koivd Kal iroWr^v evpv^wpiav ev fieacp 
Xd^cocTLV diT d'KKrjKwv, ov Travovrai Bia^epopevoi. 
ravra /lev ovv i) laropia Xoyl^eaOai Kal irapeiri- 
aKoirelv BiBcoat rot? aco^ea-Oai ^ovXopievoL^. 

VL 'O h^ AlfjLiXiO'^ v7raro<; aTToheix^eU earpd- 
revaev eirl tou? irapaXiriov^; Aiyva<^, ou<; evioc Kal 
AiyvaTLVov^s ovopd^ovai, fid^^^i/jLov Kal dupoeihe^ 

366 



AEMILIUS PAULUS v. 2-vi. i 

incurable alienations in those wliose lives are linked 
together. 

So tlien Aemilius, having divorced Papiria, took 
another wife ; and when she had borne him two 
sons he kept these at home, but the sons of his 
former wife he introduced into the greatest houses 
and the most illustrious families, the elder into that 
of Fabius Maximus, who was five times consul, while 
the younger was adopted by the son of Scipio 
Africanus, his cousin-german, who gave him the 
name of Scipio. Of the daughters of Aemilius, one 
became the wife of the son of Cato, and the other 
of Aelius Tubero, a man of the greatest excellence, 
and one who, more than any other Roman, combined 
tlie greatest dignity with poverty. For there were 
sixteen members of the family, all Aelii ; and they 
had a very Httle house, and one little farm sufficed 
for all, where they maintained one home together 
with many wives and children. Among these wives 
lived also the daughter of that Aemilius who had 
twice been consul and twice had celebrated a triumph, 
and she was not ashamed of her husband's poverty, 
but admired the virtue that kept him poor. Brethren 
and kinsmen of the present day, however, unless 
zones and rivers and walls divide their inheritances 
and wide tracts of land separate them from one 
another, are continually quarrelling. These, then, 
are considerations and examples which history 
presents to those who are willing to profit by 
them. 

VI. Aemilius, then, having been appointed con- 
sul,^ made an expedition against the Ligurians along 
the Alps, whom some call also Ligustines, a warlike 

* In 182 B.a 

367 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

6Uvo<^y €/jL7r€ip(o<; Be TroXe/iecv BiSaaKOfievov viro 
'Pcofiaiwv Bia rr)p jeiTvlaaiv. ra yap ea^ara tt}? 
^\Td\ia<^ /cat KaraXyjyovra 7rpo9 Ta<; "AX7rei9 av- 
TMP re T03V " AXirewv ra fcXv^o/ieva rw TvpprjvLKO) 
TreXdyei koI 7rpo<; rrjv Ai/3vr]v avTaipovra ve- 
fiovrai, fj£/jLiy/jLevoc TaXdraL'^ koI rot? irapaXioL^ 

2 '1^7]pcov. Tore Be Kal t?)? OaXdrrrjf; d\jrd/jL€VOC 
<TKd(j)6cn ireLpaTiicol^ dcpypovvro Kal TrepieKoinov 
ra? ifiTTOpla^;, d^pt arrjXcop 'HpaKXeucop dva- 
TrXeovre'^. iTrcovro^ ovv rod Al/ilXlov TerpaKicr- 
fivpLoi yevopevoL to itXyjOo^ vTriarrjcTav' 6 Be 
Tov<; avp7ravTa<^ 6KTaKca)(LXLov<i ex^^ irevrairXa- 
aiOL<^ ovaiv avrol^ avveBaXe, Kal Tpey\rdpevo<i Kal 
KaraKXeicra^ et? rd ret^V BieBcoKe Xoyov (piXdv- 
OpwiTOV Kal avp^ariKOv ov yap rjv ^ovXopevoi^ 25^ 
Tot? 'Pwyuatot? iravrdiraaiv eKKoyjrai to Aiyvcov 
Wuo^, onGirep epKo^ rj irpojBoXov ipTToBcop Keipevov 
Tot? VaXaTLKol<; Kivr]p,aaiv eiraiwpovpbkvoi^ del 

3 irepi rrjv ^IraXiav. TnarevaavTe^ ovv rw Alp^iXiw 
Ta9 T€ vav<i Kal Ta? TToXet? evex^ipiaav. o Be rd<i 
pev 7r6\ei<; ovBev dBiK}](Ta<; rj povov rd TeL^V 
irepteXoiv direBcoKe, Ta? Be vav<; d'jrdaa<; dipeiXero, 
Kal itXoIov ovBev avrol^ rpiaKdXp^ov p^el^ov dire- 
XiTre' TOL'9 B' rjXwKora'^ vir avrcbv Kara yrjv rj 
Kara ddXarrav dvecrdxraro 7ToXXov<s Kal ^evov<i 
Kal 'Pftjyu-atou? eijpe6evra<^. eKeivrj pev ovv r) 
virareia Ta? el pr] pev as 7rpd^et,<; eiTL<paveh €(T)(ev. 

4 "Tarepov Be ttoXXukis iroirjaas cpavepov avrov 
av6i<; virarevaaL ^ovXopevov KaL irore Kal rrapay- 
yeiXa's, o)? dirervye Kal TrapuxfyOr], ro Xoiirov 
r]av)(f'Civ e2%e, royv lepcov e7ri,p,eXovp,evo<; Kal rov<: 



AEMILIUS PAULUS vi. 1-4 

and spirited folk, and one whose proximity to the 
Romans was teaching it skill in war. For they 
occupy the extremities of Italy that are bounded 
by the Alps, and those parts of the Alps themselves 
that are washed by the Tuscan sea and face Africa, 
and they are mingled with Gauls and the Iberians 
of the coast. At that time they had also laid hold 
of the sea with piratical craft, and were robbing and 
destroying merchandise, siiling out as far as the 
pillars of Hercules. Accordingly, when Aemilius 
came against them, they withstood him with a force 
of forty thousand men ; but he, witli eight thousand 
men all told, engaged their fivefold numbers, and 
after routing them and shutting them up in their 
walled towns, gave them liumane and conciliatory 
terms ; for it was not the wish of the Romans to 
extirpate altogether the Ligurian nation, since it lay 
like a barrier or bulwark against the movements of 
the Gauls, who were always threatening to descend 
upon Italy. Accordingly, putting faith in Aemilius, 
they delivered their ships and cities into his hands. 
Their cities he restored to them, either doing them 
no harm at all, or simply razing their walls ; but he 
took away all their ships, and left them no boat that 
carried more than three oars ; he also restored to 
safety those whom they had taken captive by land 
or sea, and these were found to be many, both 
Romans and foreigners. Such, tlien, were the 
conspicuous achievements of this first consulship. 

Afterwards he often made it clear that he was 
desirous of a second consulship, and once actual Iv 
announced his candidacy, but when he was passed 
by and not elected, he made no further efforts to 
obtain the office, giving his attention to his duties 

369 



PLUTARCH*S LIVES 

ntalha^ aa-KMv rrjv fiev iinx^P^ov TraiZeiav Kal 
Trdrpiov Mairep avrb^; rjaKrjTO, rrjv 5* ^^WrjvtKrjv 
6 (jyiXoTifiorepop, ov yap jjlovov jpafifiaTLKol Kal 
(Tocf)LaTal Kal p^Top6<;, aXka Kal TrXdarac Kal 
^coypdcftoi Kal ircoXayv Kal (TKvXaKwv iTrLaraTac 
Kal SiSdaKaXoi Orjpa^ ''EXX?7i/e9 rjaav irepl rov<; 
veaviaKov^. 6 Se nrarrip, el p,rj re Brj/xoaiov i/nro' 
Scov €Lr), TraprjV del jieXercdai Kal yv/jLva^o/Jievoi,<i, 
<j>LXoreKv6raTo<i 'Fco/iaicov y€v6/jL€vo<i. 

VII. T(bv Be hr)iJboaio3v irpd^ecov KaLpo<; rjv 
eKelvof; rore KaO' op JJepael tS> MaKeBovcov 
^aaiXel iroXsjiovvTe'^ iv ahiai^i tou? arparyyovf; 
el'xov, ft)? Bl aTreiplav Kal droXiiiav ala'^pco'; Kal 
KarayeXdaTw^ rol^ irpdyfiacri ■)(^pfo/jLepov<; Kal ird- 

2 a'x^ovra^; KaKCt)<i fiaXXov r) iroiovvra^, dpri p,€v 
yap WvTLo')(^ov TOP eiriKXTjOevra jMeyav eX^avra 
T)}? aXXr]<^ Waia'^ virep rov Tavpov eK/3aX6vre<^ 
Kal KaraKXeiaavTe<i et? Svpiav, eVl /iivpLOL<; Kal 
7revTaKia')(^i.XL0L<; raXdvroii^ dyaTrrjaavra rd^; 
BiaXvaei^, oXtyco Be irpoaOev ev Secra-aXia aw- 
TpLyjravref; ^iXLirirov Kal TOv<i "^XXr}va<; aw 6 
MaxeBovoyv eX€vOepMcrnvTe<i, cS re 0aaiXev<i ovBel's 
Trapa^XrjTo^i et? roXfiav rj BvvafiLV, ^ Avvi^av 

3 Kara'jroXe/j.'^(TavT6<;t ovk dveKTOv rjyovvTo Tiepael 
KaOdirep avmraXw r?}? 'P<w/a?;? Xctov (f>ep6/JLevoi 
av/jL7r€'7rXe)(^dai, ttoXvv tjBtj ')(^p6vov drro rcov Xet- 
yjrdi'oyv t^9 TrarpcDa? rJTT7)<i iroXefiovvri irpb^ 
avTov<;, dyvoovvTe<i on 7roXXa> rrjv MaKeBovcov 

370 



AEMILIUS PAULUS vi. 4-vii. 3 

augur, and training his sons, not only in the 
native and ancestral discipline in which he himself 
had been trained, but also, and with greater ardour, 
in that of the Greeks. For not only the grammarians 
and philosophers and rhetoricians, but also the 
modellers and painters, the overseers of horses and 
dogs, and the teachers of the art of hunting, by 
whom the young men were sunounded, were Greeks. 
And the father, unless some public business pre- 
vented, would always be present at their studies 
and exercises, for he was now become the fondest 
parent in Rome. 

VII. As to public affairs, that was the period when 
the Romans were at war with Perseus,^ the king of 
Macedonia, and were taking their generals to task 
because their inexperience and cowardice led them 
to conduct their campaigns ridiculously and disgrace- 
fully, and to suffer more harm than they inflicted. 
For the people which had just forced Antiochus, 
surnamed the Great, to retire from the rest of Asia, 
driven him over the Taurus mountains, and shut him 
up in Syria, where he had been content to buy 
terms with a payment of fifteen thousand talents ; 
which had a little while before set the Greeks free 
from Macedonia by crushing Philip in Thessaly ; and 
which had utterly subdued Hannibal, to whom no 
king was comparable for power or boldness ; this 
people thought it unendurable that they should be 
compelled to contend with Perseus as tho'igh he 
were an even match for Rome, when for a long time 
already he had carried on his war against them with 
the poor remains of his father's routed army ; for 
they were not aware that after his defeat Philip had 

171-168 B.C. 

37' 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hvvajJLLV rjrrrjdeU ^lXctttto^; eppco/nevea-Tipav xai 
IJba\LIJua3T€pav iiroLrjcTe, irepl (ov BUi/jll ffpa^€a)<; 
avwdev ap^dixevo^. 

VIII. 'AvTLyovo<; fjuiyiaiou BvvrjOel'; twv 'AXe- 
^dvBpov Siah6)(^(i)v koI (TTparrjycov, Krrjcrdfievof; 
eavTM KOL yevsL ttjv tov paaikew^ Trpoa-rjyopLav, 
vlov ecr;^e Arjfi'^Tptov, ov irah ' AvTiyovo*; rfv 6 
TovaTa<i eTrovofiacrOeifi' tovtov Be A7]/i7]t pLo<;, o? 
auTO? T€ /SaaiXevaa^; y^povov ov ttoXvv, vlov re 
iralBa ttjv rfKiKiav diroXiiTcjov ^iXtinrov ereXev- 

2 rrjae. B€iaavr€<i Be ti]V dvapx^cLV ol Trpwroi 
MaveSoi^ftiy ^ Kvriyovov eirdyovrai rod reOvrjKoro^ 
dvty\nov ovra, kol avvoLKi(Tavre<; avrut rrjv f^rjrepa 
rov ^iXlttttov, irpcorov jnev errirpoirov koX crrpa- 
rrjyov, elra TreLpcofxevot fxerpiov koI Koiva)(j}eXov<; 
^aatXea irpoar^yopevaav. iireKXifjOi^ Be Acoacov 
ft)? eirayyeXriKO^, ov reXeaiovpyo^ Be rwi^ viro- 

3 cr')(eae(ov. fiera rovrov /SacnXevcra^; 6 ^LXiTrrro^ 
rjvdr}(Tev ev roi? fidXiara rcov ^acriXerov en 
fxeipdKiov Ot)v, KOL Bo^av €a-yev co? dvaarrjawv 
^aKeBovlav eh ro -naXaLov d^lcofia fCdl /jl6vo<; eirl 
7rdvra<^ rjBrj rrjv 'Tco/J-aicov BvvapLLv alpofievrjv 
KoOe^cov. rjrrr}Oel<; Be fieydXr) (Jbd^H frepX ^k6- 
rovaav viro Tirov ^Xa/uLtvLvou rore fxev eirrrj^e 
Kol rrdvra ra kuO^ eavrov eTrerpeyfre 'PcofiaLoi^, 

4 Kal Ti^%ft)i' e7rLrifjLT]a€co<i fjLerpia<i riydir-qijev. vare- 
pov Be /3ape(o<; (^epwv, koI ro /SacnXeveiv 'X^dptrt, 
'Pw/jLaiQ)v r)yov/ji€VO<; aly/jLaXooTov rpv(f)7]V dyarrSiV- 

372 



AEMILIUS PAULUS vii. 3-viii. 4 

made the Macedonian armies far more vigorous and 
warlike than before. This situation I will briefly 
explain from the beginning. 

VIII. Antigonus, who was the most powerful of 
Alexander's generals and successors, and acquired 
for himself and his line the title of King, had 
a son Demetrius, and his son was Antigonus sur- 
named Gonatas. His son in turn was Demetrius, 
who, after reigning himself for a short time, died, 
leaving a son Philip still in his boyhood. The lead- 
ing Macedonians, fearing the anarchy which might 
result, called in Antigonus, a cousin of the dead 
king, and married him to Philip's mother, calling 
him first regent and general, and then, finding his 
rule moderate and conducive to the general good, 
giving him the title of King. He received the 
surname of Doson, which implied that he was given 
to promising but did not perform his engagements. 
After him Philip succeeded to the throne, and, though 
still a youth, flowered out in the qualities which 
most distinguish kings, and led men to believe that 
he would restore Macedonia to her ancient dignity, 
and that he, and he alone, would check the power 
of Rome, which already extended over all the world. 
But after he was defeated in a great battle at 
Scotussa by Titus Flamininus,^ for a time he took 
a humble posture, entrusted all his interests to 
the Romans, and was content to come off with a 
moderate fine. Afterwards, however, his condition 
oppressed him, and thinking that to reign by favour 
of the Romans was more the part of a captive 

^ In 197 B.C. The battle is usually named from a range of 
hills near Scotussa called Cynosceplialae. See the Flami- 
ninus, chapters iii. and iv. 

373 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

T09 eTvai fxaXkov rj (ppovrj/xa koX OvfJLOv €Xovto<; 25S 
avBp6<;, iirelx^ rw TroXeyLtw rrjv yvcofirjv koI avve- 
TaTTero \dOpa kol iravovpyw';. tmv yap ttoXcwv 
Ta9 €1'oSlov9 /cal TrapaOaXaTriovfi aaOevel^ yevo- 
/jL€va<; irepLopMv Kal virepij/xovf;, o)? Karacfypovel- 

5 adai, rroWrjv dvco auvfjye Svva/jLLV, Kal rd fxeao- 
yeia 'xaypla /cal (fypovpia Kal TroXet? oirXwv Kal 
')(^pi]lxdT(OV TToWoyv Kal acofidrwv uKfial^ovTcov 
€/jL7r€7r\r)Ka)f; iawfjidaKEi rov iroXepiov Kal avvel-)(ev 
wcnrep iyxeKpufifJievov dSi]\a)<;. oirXwv fxev yap 
upyovvTcov direKeiVTo Tpel<; fivpidhe^, OKraKoaiaL 
he alrov /leBi/jLvcov rjaav iyKarcpKoSofjLTjfievov roU 
TeL-)(€(Ti, 'XprjfjidTcov he ttXtJ^o? oaov rjpKei jjlktOo- 
^6pov<; errj BeKa fivpiov; rpecpeiv 7rpo7ro\€/jLovuTa<i 
T-^? ')(dipa<;. 

6 'AXX' eKelvo^ [xev ovk €(f)drj ravra Ktvrjaai Kal 
TTpoayayelv eh epyov, viro Xvirrif; Kal hvaOnfiia*; 
TTpoifievo'^ TOP piov eyvw yap dhiKw<; rov erepov 
T(t)V vImv At) /jLijrpLov €K Bial3oXrj<; rov ')(eipovo^ 
dvr)prjKco<^' 6 8' d'7roX€i7rd/jL€vo<; vlo<; avrov Hep(T€v<i 
d/xa rfi ^acTLXeia htehe^aro rrjv tt/oo? *P(o/jLalou<i 
e^Opav, OVK oiv e')(^eyyvo^ iveyKelv hid /jLLKporrjra 
Kal /jLOX^Tjpiav 7]$ov<;, iv g5 iradSiV re Travroha-rrcov 
Kal voarj/jidrcov evovrcov iirpcoTevev r) (ptXapyvpia. 

7 Xeyerai he fiyhe yvrjcno<i (pvpat, Xa^elv 5' avrov 
Tj (JvvoiKOvaa rw (PlXltttto} veoyvov aKearpia^; 
rivo^ ^ApyoXiK7]<i VvaOatviov rovvofia reKovarjt;, 
Kal XaOelv viro^aXojiivt]. hi o Kal pudXiara 

374 



AEMILIUS PAULUS viii. 4-7 

satisfied with meat and drink than of a man pos- 
sessed of courage and spirit, he turned his thoughts 
to war, and made his arrangements for it in secrecy 
and with cunning. Thus, those of his cities wliich 
lay on the highroads and the seashore he suffered to 
become weak and rather desolate, so as to awaken 
contempt, while in the interior he was collecting a 
large force ; he also filled the fortresses, strongholds, 
and cities of the interior with an abundance of arms, 
money, and men fit for service, in this way prepar- 
ing himself for the war, and yet keeping it hidden 
away, as it were, and concealed. Thus, he had arms 
to equip thirty thousand men laid up in reserve, 
eight million bushels of grain had been immured 
in his strongholds, and a sum of money sufficient to 
maintain for ten years ten thousand mercenaries 
fighting in defence of the country. 

But Philip, before he could put these plans and 
preparations into effect, died of grief and anguish of 
mind ^ ; for he came to know that he had unjustly 
put to death one of his sons, Demetrius, on false 
charges made by the other, who was his inferior. 
The son, however, whom he left, Perseus, along with 
his father's kingdom, inherited his hatred of the 
Romans, but was not equal to the burden because of 
the littleness and baseness of his character, in which, 
among all sorts of passions and distempers, avarice 
was the chief trait. And it is said that he was not 
even a true-born son, but that Philip's wife took 
him at his birth from his mother, a certain semp- 
stress, an Argive woman named Gnathaenion, and 
passed him off as her own. And this was the chief 
reason, as it would seem, why he feared Demetrius 

* In 179 B.O. 

VOL. VI. N 375 



PLUTARCH'S IJVES 

SoK€L TOV ArjfMTjrpLOV (f)O0r]O€U dlTOKTeiPaL, fit) 

yvrjaiov ey^wv 6 oIko<; hidho'Xpv airoKaXv-^rj rrjv 
iKelvov voOeiav. 

IX. Ov /jLtjv aXXd, Kanrep oiv dyevvr]^ /cal 
raTretvo^;, vivo pct)/jbr]<; rcctv irpayjxdTwv dva(f)€p6- 
fi€vo<; TTyoo? T()i> TToXefiov ecTTr) fcal SiripeLcraTo 
iToXvv y^povov, ri^ejjiova^ re 'Fcofiaicov VTrarcKov^ 
Kal aTparevfiara kol aroXovfi pbe^dXovf; aTrorpL- 

2 ylrdfievo^;, evitov he Kal KpaTr]aa<^. YloirXLov re 
yap AcKLVvwv ifi/SaXovra irpcorov eh MaKeSovlai' 
Tpey^rdfjuevo^ LTTTro/jba'XLa hLayLXiov<; irevraKoaiov^ 
dvhpa<i dyaOov<; direfcreLve Kal ^a)PTa<; aXXov^ 
e^aKoaiovf; eXajSe, rod re vavardOfiov irepl ^flpeov 
6piJL0vvT0<i aTTpoaSoKTjTOv iTTiirXovv OepLepo^ eiKoai 
fiev avro(f>6pTov<i oXKdSa^; exeipdiaaro, Ta<; S* 
dXXa^ alrov yefiovaa^; KareBvaev eKpdrrjcre Se 

3 Kal irevT'qpLKa reaaapa. Kal fidyv^ eTToXifirjae 
TO Bevrepov, ev rj rov vTrariKov 'OariXiov dire- 
Kpovaaro Kara/Sia^o/ievov ^ Kara ra? ^EXifiia<i' 
XdOpa Be Bid SeaoaXia^; ifi^aXovra irpoKaXov- 
fievo^ eU fidyv^ icfyo/Sqae. Trdpepyov Be rov 
rroXe/Jbov (npareLav eirl AapBaveU Oefievo^, co? Br] 
Tov<; Vcofxaiovi virepopcdv Kal ayoXd^cov, fivpiov^ 
T^v ^apjBdpwv KareKoy^e Kal Xeiav r)XdaaTo 

4 TToWtjv. vireKLvei Be Kal TaXdra^ tou«? irepl rov 
"IcTTpov (A)KriiJievov<i, ot ^aarepvai," KaXovvrai, 
arparov iTTTrorrjv Kal fid)(L/iov, 'lXXvpi.ov<; re Bid 
VevOiov TOV jBaaiXew^ irapeKdXei avve(j)d-y}raaOat 

^ Kara^iaCoixcvov Coraes and Sintenis, after Bryan, for the 
Koi ^iaC6/uLevop of the MS8., where Bekker brackets /cat. 

2 0? BaaTfpvai Coraes and Bekker, after Stephanus : 
Baarfpyai. 



AEMILIUS PAULUS viii. 7-ix. 4 

and compassed his death, lest the royal house 
having a true-born heir to the throne, should un- 
cover his own spurious birth. 

IX. However, although he was ignoble and mean, 
the strength of his position led him to undertake 
the war, and he kept up the struggle for a long 
time, repulsing Roman commanders of consular rank 
with great armies and fleets, and actually conquer- 
ing some of them. Publius Licinius, for example, 
who was the first that invaded Macedonia, he routed 
in a cavalry battle, slew twenty-five hundred good 
men, and took six hundred prisoners besides ; then 
he made an unexpected attack upon the Roman 
fleet which was lying at anchor near Oreus, seized 
twenty ships of burden with their cargoes, and sank 
the rest together with the grain that filled them ; he 
also made himself master of four quinqueremes. He 
fought a second battle, too, in which he repulsed the 
consul Hostilius as he was trying to force his way 
into Macedonia at Elimiae ; and after Hostilius had 
broken into the country undetected by way of Thes- 
saly, he gave him a challenge to battle which he was 
afraid to accept. Furthermore, as a side issue of the 
war, he made an expedition against the Dardanians, 
implying that he ignored the Romans and that time 
hung heavy on liis hands ; he cut to pieces ten 
thousand of the Barbarians and drove off much booty. 
He also secretly stirred up the Gauls settled along 
the Danube, who are called Bisternae, an equestrian 
host and warlike ; and he invited the lllyrians, 
through Genthius their king, to take part with him 

377 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov TToXe/jLov. Kal X670? Karicrx^v co? tmv ^ap- 
pdpcov fjLLadSi ireTTeKTiievcov vtt avrov Bia t>)<? 
Kara) FaXarta? irapa tov ^ASplav ifx^aXelv eh 
Tr)v ^IraXlav. 

X. Tavra to?? 'P&jyLtatof? irvvOavofievoif; iSoKei 
ra? Tcov arparrjyicovrwv ^dpiraf; Kal irapayyeXia'^ 
idaavrwi avrovt; KaXelv eVl rrjv ip/epiovlav avhpa 
vovv exovra /cal irpdypacn 'X^prjaOai fieyaXofi 
€7nardp,€vov. ovrof; rjv IlaOXo? Al/ull\io<;, rfkiKLa^ 
fxev TjS)] nrp6<Tco Kal irepl e^i^Kovra yeyovax; err], 
pcofiTj 5e crco/xaT09 aK/id^cov, irecppay/ievo^ Be KijBe- 
(TTai<; Kal Tratal veaviai<i Kal (piXcov irXyjOei Kal 
avyyevMV fxeya Svvafiivfov, ot irdyre^ avrov vrra- 
Kovaai KaXovvrt rw Stj/juq) 7r/309 rrjp vrrareiav 

2 erreiOov. 6 he Kar dp^^a^ /nev eOpvirrero irpo^ 260 
T0U9 TToXXoif; Kal BieKXive ri]v (^iXorLpbiav avrwv 
Kal (TTTovSijv, ft)? fir) Beop-evo^; rov apyeiv, ^oiroav- 
rwv Be KaO' rjpiepav iirl Ovpa<^ Kal irpoKaXovfjie- 
vcov avrov et? dyopav Kal Kara/Socovrcov erreiaOrj' 

Kal (paveU evOu<i ev roh p^eriovcn rrjv inrareiav 
eBo^ev ovK dp')(^rjv Xrjyl/op.evo'^, dXXd vlktjv Kal 
Kpdro^ rroXepLov Kop,i^wv Kal 8t3ou9 Tot9 7roXirai<; 

3 Kara(3aiveiv eU ro ireBiov fiera roaavrr]^ eXirl- 
809 Kal irpoOvp.ia^ eBe^avro 7rdvre<i avrov Kal 
Karecrrijaav virarov ro Bevrepov, oIjk edaavre<^ 
KXrjpov yeveaOai, KaOdirep elcoOec, rrepl rwv 
errapxi-f^J^) aXV ev6v<; eKeivo) 'yjrrjcfiLa-dpevot rov 
'MaKeBoviKov TroXep-ov rrjv yyep^oviav. Xeyerai 3' 
avrov, ft)9 dvr)yopev67) Kara rov Hepaew'^ arparrj- 
709, viro rov Byjpov rravro^ ocKaBe irpoirep^devra 
Xa/jL7rp(b<; evpelv ro dvydrpiov rrjv Teprlav BeBa- 



378 



AEMILIUS PAULUS ix. 4-x. 3 

in the war. And a report prevailed that the Bar- 
barians had been hired by him to pass through lower 
Gaul, along the coast of the Adriatic, and make an 
incursion into Italy. 

X. When the Romans learned of these things, 
they decided that tliey would bid good-bye to the 
favours and promises of those who wanted to be 
generals, and themselves summon to the leadership 
a man of wisdom who understood how to manage 
great affairs. This man was Paul us Aemilius, now 
advanced in life and about sixty years of age, but in 
the prime of bodily vigour, and hedged about with 
youthful sons and sons-in-law, and with a host of 
friends and kinsmen of great influence, all of whom 
urged him to give ear to the people when it sum- 
moned him to the consulship. At first he was for 
declining the appeals of the multitude, and tried to 
avert their eager importunities, saying that he did 
not want office ; but when they came daily to his 
house and called him forth into the forum and 
pressed him with their clamours, he yielded ; and 
when he presented himself at once among the candi- 
dates for the consulship, he did not appear to come 
into the Campus in order to get office, but as one 
who brought victory and might in war and offered 
them to the citizens. With such eager hopes did all 
receive him, and they made him consul for the 
second time,^ and did not permit a lot to be cast for 
the provinces, as was the custom, but at once voted 
him the conduct of the Macedonian war. And it 
is said that when he had been appointed general 
against Perseus, and had been escorted home in 
splendid fashion by the whole people, he found 
there his daughter Tertia, who was still a little child, 

1 In 168 B.O. 

379 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

4 fcpvfievrjv ert iraihiov ovaav ao-ira^ofievov ovv 
avrrjv ep(ordv e(p^ orcp XeXvirrjTar rrjv Be nrepi- 
^aXovaav koI Kara^iXovaav, " Ov yap olaOa^^ 
elireiv, *' o) irdrep, on rj/jilv o Uepaeuf; reOvqKe ; " 
Xeyovaav kvvlSlov avvrpo^ov ovrco irpoaayopevo- 
fjL€vov' Kol Tov KljilXiov "'AjaOfj Tv)^7],^' (f)dvai, 
" 0) dvyarep, koI hexofxat tov olwvovr ravra 
fiev ovv KiK€po)v 6 pijrcop ev tol<; ire pi /jLavriKrjf; 
laToprjKev. 

XI. ^la)66ra}v Be t(ov vTrareiav Xa^ovrcov olov 
dvdojioXoyelaOai TLva ^apti^ Kal irpoaayopeveiv 
(f)iXo(pp6vo)<; TOV 8P]/jiov ciTTo TOV Pi]fJLaT0<i, Ai/iiXcof; 
et? eKKXi^aiav avvayayoov tou? iroXiTaf; ttjv fiev 
TTpoTepav viraTeiav fxeTeXOeiv €(j>rj avTo<; dp)(^i)<; 
SeoyLtei^o?, Tr)v Se hevTepav i/celvcov (TTpaTijyov 

2 Seofievcov 8c o firjSe/jLLav avTol<^ X^P^^ e'^eiv, 
aXX\ el vo/jLL^ovac St €T€pov ^eXTiov e^eiv tcl 
KUTCL TOV TToXejjLov, i^LCTTaaOaL T% Tjyefioi'ias, el 
Be TTiaTevovaiv avrw, /irj TrapaaTpaTTjyelv /njhe 
XoyoiToielv, dXX' virovpyelv atcoTrfj to, BeovTa 
7Tpo<; TOV TToXefiov, ft)9, edv dp)(^ovTO<; dpx^iv ^rjTcj- 
(Tiv, eTL fiaXXov rj vvv fcaTayeXdaTOV<; ev rat? 

3 (TTpaTeiai^ eaojjLevnv^;. drrb tovtcov twv Xoycov 
TToXXrjv fiev alBo) irpo^ avTov eveirolrjae Tol<f 
TToXtrat?, fieydXijv Be irpocrEoKLav tov /jLeXXovTo<;, 
rjBo/jievayv dirdvTwv oti to 1)9 KoXaKevovTa<; irapeX- 
06vTe<; eiXovTo irapp-qaiav e^ovTa kol ^p6vr](ia 
(TTpaTrjyov. oi/ro)? eVt t« KpaTelv fcal p.eyiaT0<; 
elvai Tcov dXXcov dpeT7]<; Kal tov kuXov BovXo<; 
r)v 6 'P(i)/jLaL(ov Bij/xo'^. 

XII. AI/jllXlop Be UavXov, &)? i^copfjLrjaev iirl 



380 



AEMILIUS PAULUS x. 3-xii. i 

in tears. He took her in his arms, therefore, and 
asked lier why she grieved. And she, embracing 
and kissing him, said : " Pray dost thou not know, 
Father, that our Perseus is dead ? " meaning a Httle 
pet dog of that name. And Aemilius cried : "Good 
fortune ! my daughter, I accept the omen." Such, 
then, is the story which Cicero the orator relates 
in his work "On Divination." ^ 

XI. It was the custom for those who obtained the 
consulship to return thanks, as it were, for the great 
favour in a friendly speech to the people from the 
rostra ; ])ut Aemilius, liaving gathered an assembly 
of the citizens, said he had sued for his first consul- 
ship because he himself wanted office, but for his 
second because they wanted a general ; wherefore 
he was under no obligation to them ; on the contrary, 
if they thought the war would be carried on better 
by another, he resigned the conduct of it ; but if 
they had confidence in him they must not make 
themselves his colleagues in command, nor indulge 
in rhetoric about the war, but quietly furnish the 
necessary su})plies for it, since, if they sought to 
command their commander, their campaigns would 
be still more ridiculous than they were already. 
By these words he inspired the citizens with great 
reverence for himself, and with great expectations 
of the future, and all were glad that they had 
passed by the flatterers and chosen a general who 
had resolution and frankness of speech. Thus was 
the Roman people, to the end that it might prevail 
and be greatest in the world, a servant of virtue and 
honour. 

XII. Now, that Aemilius Paulus, after setting out 

* Cicero, De divinatione, I, 103. 

381 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(rrpareiav, irkov /lev €VTV)(^ia kol paarcovjj XPV' 
aaaOat iropeia^ Kara Saifjuova TL0r}/jLi, <jvv rdyet 
KOL /jL€t da(j)a\eLa<; et? to aTparoTvehov KO/iiaOev- 
TW Tov Be TToXe/JLov Kol Trj<; aTpar7]yLa<; avrov 
TO fJLev ToXfirj^i o^vrrjrt, rb Be ^ovXev/iacn XPV~ 
crT0t9, TO ^€ (jylXwv CKOvfioi^ vTrripeaiai^, to ^e rw 
irapa ra Beiva Oappelv Kal ^pTjcr^at \oyi(Tfioi<i 
apapoaiv opoiv Biaireirpayixevov, ovk e%a) t^ 
\eyopevri TOV dvBpb<^ evrvx^a Xapuirpov diroBovvav 
fcal Btda7)[jL0v epyov olov erepfor o-rparijycjp. 

2 €i fxr) rt<; dpa rrjv Il€pae(i)<; ^iXapyvpiav KlfJLtX'Kp 
rvxv^ dyaOrjv irepl rd irpdyp^ara yeviaOat ^rjaiv, 
r) XapLirpd Kal fieydXa tt/oo? toz^ iroXef.LOv dpdevra 
Tat9 eXiriai rd ^lafceBcvcov di'irpeyjre koi Kare- 
^aXe, TT/DO? dpyvpiov diroBetXidaavTo^, rjKov fiev 
yap avTcp BerjdevTi Baarepvai,, /ivpioi fxev lirirel'^t 
fivpiOL Be irapa^drai, fiLa6o(f)6poL irdvre^y dvBpe<; 
ov yecopyetv €lB6Te<^, ov TrXelv, ovk diro TToipviayv 
^rjv vefJbovTe^i dXX^ ev epyov Kal fiiav re^v^W 
fieXercovre^ del fidx^crdaL Kal Kparelv rwv dvrt- 

3 TaTTopievwv. o)? Be irepl rrjv MaiBiKrjif Kara- 
arpaT07reBevcravT€<; iirepiiyvvvTO to?? irapd rod 
^acnXecof; dvBpe<; vyjrrjXol puev rd acofiara, 6av- 
fjLaarol Be rds /zeXera?, fxeydXavxoi Be Kal Xa/j,- 
irpol Ttti? Kara rcov iroXejJLiwv d7r€tXal<;, 6dp<T0^ 
irapeaTTjaav rot<; MaKeBoai Kal Bo^av o)? rcov 
^PcopaiMV ovx vTTOjJLevovvrwv, dXX^ eKirXayrjao- 26 
fievwv rrjv oyjriv aurrjv Kal rrjv KLvrjcTLV €K(f)v\op 

4 ovaav Kal BvcrirpocroTTTov. ovrco Bia0el<; tov? 
diOpd}7TOV<; 6 Uepaev^i Kal roiovrcov e/irrXijaaf; 
eXirlBcDV, alrov/jLevo<i KaO' eKaarov riyejxova %At- 



38» 






AEMILIUS PAULUS xii. 1-4 



upon his campaign, had a fortunate voyage and an 
easy passage and came speedily and safely to the 
Roman camp, I attribute to the favour of Heaven ; 
but when I see that the war under his command was 
brought to an end partly by his fierce courage, 
partly by his excellent plans, partly by the eager 
assistance of his friends, and partly by his resolute 
adoption of fitting conclusions in times of danger, 
I cannot assign his remarkable and brilliant success 
to his celebrated good fortune, as I can in the case 
of other generals. Unless, indeed, it be said that 
the avaricious conduct of Perseus was good fortune 
for Aemilius, since it utterly subverted the great and 
brilliant prospects of the Macedonians for tlie war 
(wherein their hopes ran high), because Perseus 
played the coward with his money. For there came 
to him from the Bisternae, at his request, ten 
thousand horsemen with ten thousand men to run at 
their sides, all professional soldiers, men who knew 
not how to plough or to sail the seas, who did not 
follow the life of herdsmen, but who were ever 
practising one business and one art, that of fighting 
and conquering their antagonists. And when these 
had encamped in Maedica and mingled with the 
soldiers of the king, — men of lofty stature, admirable 
in their discipline, great boasters, and loud in their 
threats against their enemies, — they inspired the 
Macedonians with courage and a belief that the 
Romans could not withstand them, but would be 
utterly terrified by their looks and movements, which 
were strange and repulsive. But after Perseus had 
disposed the feelings of his men in this way and 
filled them with so great hopes, upon being 
asked to pay each captain of the mercenaries a 

3^3 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

0^9, TTyao? TO yLyv6/j,€vov rou ')(^pvaiov irXrjdo^ 
l\iyyLdcra<; koX Trapacppov^aa^; vtto /jLLKpoXoyiaf; 
aireLTraro xal Trpo^^Karo rrjv au/xfiaxi'Civ, axTirep 
ol/covofiMV, ov 7ro\e/jL(ov Ywfiaioi.<s, koI XoyiafMov 
aTToBcocrcov aKpt/Brj r?}? et? rbi^ iroXefJiov BaTrdvrjf; 
0I9 iiroXifjuer KairoL hihaaKciXov^ el^ev eKeivov^, 
ol? dvev Trj<; dXX7]<; 7rapa(TK€vrj<; arparKorcov SSku 
fivpcdSef; rjcrav rjOpoicrfJievaL Koi irapearodaat Tac<i 

5 ')(^peLaL<;. 6 Be tt/jo? Svvafiiv dvraipwv rr)XiKavTr]i' 
KoX iroXe/JLOv ov toctovtov rjv to '7rapaTpe(f)6iii€vov, 
BL€/JL6Tp€t Kol 7rap€a7]fiaiveT0 TO ')(pvo-iov, dyjraaOaL 
BeBt,Q)<i oyairep dXXoTpicov. kol TavT eirpaTTev 
ov AvBcjv T£9 ouBe ^oLVLKcov yeyovax;, dXXa rrjf; 
^AXe^dvBpov KOI ^lXIttttov KaTa avyyeveiav dpe- 
Trj<; iJb€TaTroLovfX€vo<i, o'l t& to, irpdyfjuaTa tmv 
')(^pr}p,dTCi)V ooVTjTd, fir} tcl 'X^prjpiaTa twv TTpayfxdTwv 

6 'qyelaOai irdvTWV eKpaTr^aav. eppeOrj yovv oti 
ra? TToXet? alpeZ tmv ^KXX'^vmv ov ^lXltttto^, 
dXXa TO ^iXiTTTrov ')(^pvaiov. ^AXe^avBpo<^ Be t/}? 
eV ^lvBoi)<; GTpaTeia^ dirTopievo^, koi (3apvv opcov 
Kal Bvaoy/cov rjBr) top liepaiKov e<j>eXicoixevov<i 
nrXovTov rou? MaAceSoj^a?, irpcoTa^; vTrenprjae ra? 
^aaiXiKa^ dfj,d^a<;, elTa tov<; dXXov^ eTrecae TavTO 
TTOiTjaavTa^; eXa(f)pov<; dva^ev^at tt/jo? top ttoXc- 

7 fiov axTirep XeXvfievov^. Ilep(7ev<; Be top ')(pvaop 
auT09 avTOV Kal tckpcop kol ^aaLXeia^ KaTa- 
')(edpevo^ ovk rjOeXriae Bl oXiywp crcoOfjpai XPV' 
fidTOOP, aXXa fieTO, ttoXXcjp KOfiiadeU 6 7rXovcrio<i 

384 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xii. 4-7 

thousand pieces, he was bewildered and crazed at 
the amount of gold required, and out of parsimony 
renounced and abandoned the alliance, as if he were 
a steward, rather than a foe, of the Romans, and was 
to give an exact account of his expenditures for the 
war to those against whom he waged it ; and yet he 
had his foes to give him lessons, for, apart from their 
other preparations, they had a hundred thousand 
men assembled and ready for their needs. But he, 
though contending against so large a force, and in a 
war where such large reserves were maintained, 
measured out his gold and sealed it up in bags, as 
afraid to touch it as if it had belonged to others. 
And this he did although he was no Lydian or 
Phoenician born, but laid claim to a share in the 
virtues of Alexander and Philip, whose descendant 
he was, — men who mastered the world through their 
belief that empire was to be bought with money, not 
money with empire. At all events, it was a common 
saying that the cities of Greece were taken, not by 
Philip, but by Philip's money. And Alexander, when 
he was starting on his expedition to India, and saw 
that his Macedonians were dragging along after them 
their Persian wealth, which was already burdensome 
and heavy, set fire to the royal baggage-waggons 
first, and then persuaded his followers to do the same 
with theirs, and to set out for the war in light 
marching order, like men released from bondage. 
But Perseus would not consent to pour out liis 
gold upon himself, his children, and his kingdom, 
and thus purchase salvation with a small part of 
his treasures, but chose to be carried with many 
treasures as the wealthy captive, and to show the 



385 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

alx^akwTO^ iiriSeL^aa-Oai 'PcofiaiOLf; oaa (peiard- 
/jL€VO<i iTijprjaev avTOL<;. 

XIII. Ov yap fjLOvov aTreTrefjuylre rov<; Ta\dTa<; 
■y^ey(rdfievo<;y dWd koI TevOtov iirdpaf; rov *lX\u- 
piov iirl TpiaKocrLot<; ra\dvTOL<i avve(pd\jraa6ai 
Tov TToXifjLOV rd fiev 'X^prjfiara T0t9 Trap' avrov 
7r6ya^^e?(rt TrpovOrjKev ypiO/jLTj/jieva Kal Kara- 
arip^rjvaaOaL mapkcr^ev o)? h\ iretaOelfi e^^ecv a 
rjrrjaev 6 VevOio^ epyov dae^e^ koX hetvov ehpaae 
{irpecTpeK; yap eXOovra^ ^Vwjiaicov 7rp6<; avrov 

2 (TVveXa/Se Kal Karehrjaev), rjyov/juevo^ 6 Tl6p(T€v<i 
ovBev en BeJaOat twp ')(^prifidTU)v rrjv i/cTroXe/ncoaiv, 
dXvra rod VevdLov irpohehwKOTO^; e')(6pa<^ ive')(vpa 
Kal Bid rr)\i,Kavrri<^ dSiKta^ ifi^e/SXijKorof; eavrov 
eh rov TroXe/Jiov, dTrearepyjae rov Kafcohaip,ova 
rcov rpiaKocTLcov raXdvrcov, Ka\ ireptelhev oXiyw 
XPo^V fJ'^'^cL reKvcov Kal yvvaiKo<i &)? diro veomd<; 
dpOevra rrjf; ^aaiXela^ vifo AevKiov ^AvlkLov 
arparrjyov Tre/x^^eVro? eV avrov fxerd 8vvd/jL€0}<;. 

3 'Etti roLovrov dvriiraXov iXOcov 6 AljiiXio^ 
avrov fiev Karecppovet, rrjv 8* utt' avrw nrapa- 
aKCvrjv Kal BvvapLiv lOavfia^ev. rjcrav yap iinreh 
/jL€v rer paKLa')(iXL0L, ire^ol S' et? (f>dXayya rerpa- 
Kia/jLvplcov ov TToWot? diroBeovre^. lhpviiivo<i 
he rrpo tt}? daXdrrrj*; irapd rtjv 'OXvp,7nKr)v 
vTTcopecav eirl ')((opiwv ovhafModev rrpoaaycoyTjv 
i)(^6vrQ)v Kal TrdvroOev vtt avrov B i aire (f) pay /J,e- 
vcov ipv/jLaai Kal rrporeix^afiacn ^vXivoi^ ttoXXtjv 
dheiav rjyev, dirorpvaeiv ')(p6v(p Kal ')(^p7]fjidr(ov 

4 ha-TTuvr) rov Al/jLlXiov rjyovfievo^. o Be rfj yvdyfirj 
fjL€V rjv €vepyb<; eirl irdv ^ovXeu/na Kal irdaav 
rperrofxevo^ irelpav^ vir dBela*; Be rrj<; irpoadev 
386 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xii. 7-xiii. 4 

tomans how much he had saved and watched 

or them. 
XIII. For he not only sent away the Gauls aftei 

)laying them false, but also, after inducing Genthiu- 
the Illyrian, on payment of three hundred talents, 
to assist him in the war, he showed to the king's 
messengers the money all counted out, and suffered 
them to put their seals upon the hags ; then, when 
Genthius, convinced that he had the price he had 
asked, committed a dreadful and impious deed, 
arresting and imprisoning a Roman embassy that 
had been sent to him, Perseus, thinking that the 
money was no longer needed to make Genthius an 
enemy of Rome, since before getting it he had given 
a lasting earnest of his hatred and had involved 
liimself in the war by the great wrong which he had 
done, deprived the poor wretch of the three hundred 
talents, and suffered him in a little while to be taken 
from his kingdom with his wife and children, as 
birds from their nest, by Lucius Anicius, a general 
sent against him with an army. 

Aemilius, coming against such an adversary, 
scorned him indeed, but admired his preparations 
and his army. For Perseus had four thousand 
horsemen, and not much fewer than forty thousand 
heavy-armed footmen. And planting himself with 
the sea behind him, along the foot-hills of Mount 
Olympus, on ground which nowhere afforded an 
approach, and which had been fortified on all sides 
by him with bulwarks and outworks of wood, he lay 
in great security, thinking that by delay and expense 
he would wear out Aemilius. But Aemilius was a 
man who clung to his purpose, and tested every plan 
and method of attack ; seeing, however, that his 

387 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tov arparov 6po)v Sva-avaa^erovvra kol \6yco 
iroWa Biaarparrjyovvra rSiv aTrpd/croyv, eTrerZ/xr;- 
aev avTol^^Kal ira ujyyetXe firjSev TroXvirpayfioveip 
fiijBe (j)povTL^€LV, aXX' rj to oM/ia to eavTov Kal 
Tr]P Travoifkiav cKaaTOv ottco? evepyov irape^et 
Kal 'Xp7]aeTaL 'Fco/iai/ca)<; t^ p^ay^alpa, top Katpov 

5 irapahovTO^ tov aTpaTTjyov. ra? Se vvKTepLva^ 262 
iKeXeuae ^vXuKa^i avev Xoyx^l^ ^vX(ltt€lv, a)<; 
fidXXov rrpoae^ovTa^ koI Sia/jLaxov/jLevov<; 7rpo<; 
TOV viTVOVy av a^vvaaOai Tov<i iroXeiilov; /jLT] 
BvvcovTat, TTpoaiovTa^. 

XIV. ^Kvo')(Xovfiei'wv he twv civOpcoircov fid- 
Xi(TTa irepl Tr)v tov ttotov 'x^peiav (kol yap oXiyov 
Kal iTovr]pov eirihve Kal orvveXeipeTo irap avTrjV 
Tr)v OdXaTTav), opcov 6 AlfxiXLo^ jxeya Kal KaTij- 
p€(f)€<; BevBpeaiv 6po<; tov "OXv/jlttov iTriKei/jievov, 
Kal TeK/jiaLp6p,€vo<i ttj '^XcopoT^TC T^9 vXr]<; lapbd- 
Tcov e'xeiv dp^d<; Sia /3d0ov<i viTO(^epopLev(i)V, 
dva7TVod<i avTol<i Kal <^peaTa iroXXd irapa ttjv 

2 virdipetav MpvTTC. to, 5' €vOv<i iTTL/jLirXaTo pev- 
fidT(ov KaOapcov, iirKTwhiBovTcov oXkt} Kal (f>opa, 

TOV 0Xt/3o/JL6VOV TT/OO? TO K€V0V/1€V0V. 

KatTOt Tive<i ov (paaiv vgutcov eTOtpLcov K6Kpvfi- 
fievcov irrjydf; evaTTOKeladai toI^ t6'7Tol<^ e^ a)V 
peovcriv, ovS* iiTroKuXvy^iv ovSe prj^iv elvau Trjv 
iK,8oXr)v avTcov, dXXd yeveacv Kal avaTaaiv 
evTavOa ttj^; vXr}<; i^vypaLvopiivrj^;' i^vypaiveardaL 
Be TTVKVOTrjTL Kal yjrvxpoTrjTi ttjv voTepav dva- 
388 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xiii. 4-xiv. 2 

army, by reason of their former license, was im- 
patient of delay, and inclined to dictate to their 
general many impracticable things, he rebuked 
them, and instructed them to take no thought or 
concern for anything, except how each man might 
keep himself and his armour in readiness for action, 
and ply his sword in Roman fashion, when their 
general gave them the opportunity. Furthermore, 
he ordered the night Avatchmen to keep watch 
without their spears, with the idea that they would 
be more on the alert and would struggle more 
successfully against sleep, if they were unable to 
defend themselves against their enemies when they 
approached. 

XIV. But his men were annoyed especially by the 
lack of drinking water, since only a little of it 
issued forth and collected in pools at the very edge 
of the sea, and that was bad. Aemilius, therefore, 
seeing that the lofty and wooded mountain of 
Olympus lay near, and judging from the greenness 
of its trees that there were veins of water coursing 
under ground, dug a number of vents and wells 
for them along the foot of the mountain. These 
were at once filled with streams of pure water, 
which, under the weight and impulse of the pressure 
that was upon them, discharged themselves into the 
vacuum afforded. 

And yet some deny that stores of ready water lie 
hidden away beneath the places from which springs 
flow, and that they merely come to light or force a 
passage when they issue forth ; they hold rather 
that the water is generated and comes into existence 
then and there through the liquefaction of matter, 
and that moist vapour is liquefied by density and cold, 

389 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Ou/jLiaaiv, orav iv ^dOet KaraOXt^elara pevaTiKT) 

3 yevijraL. KaOdirep yap oi fiaarol tmv yvvaLKCJi' 
ot'^ coairep dyyeia irXrjpeLfi elalv iTnppiovTO^; 
€ToC/jLov yd\aKTo<;y dWa fiera^dWovre^i ttjv 
Tpocf)r]V iv avTOL<; ipyd^ovrac ydXa koI hirjOovaLV, 
ovT(o<s ol irepiy^vKTOL Koi it uhaKmhei^i roiroi ri}^ 
7^9 v8(op fiev ovK exovcL KaXvirro/jievov, ovhe 
koXttov^ pevfiara kol ^dOi] rrora/icjv roaovTCOV 
ef 6T0i/j.7}<; KOL v7roK€Lfi€vr}<i d(j>LivTa<; dp')(ri<^, to 
Be TTvevfjLa kol top depa t« Trie^eiv koI Karairv- 

4 Kvovv diTo9Xi^ovTe<; et? vhwp rpeirovcjL. ra yovv 
opvTTOfieva tcov y^wpiwy jxaXXov dvainhveL Kal 
BiavdcL 7r/309 rrjv roiavrijv yjrrjXdcbTjaLV, uyairep 
ol /lacTTol T(ov yvvaiKcbv irpo^ top drfXacrfiov, 
dvvypalvovTa Kal /juaXdTTOvra ttjv dvaOv/ilaatv 
oaa S' dpya t/}? 7% (TVfnrecppaKTai, TV(f)Xd 7rpo9 
yeveaLV vBdTCDv icTTLV, ovk e^ovTa ttjv ipya^o/JLevrjv 

5 TO vypov Kivrjo-Lv. ol Be TavTa XeyovTe^ iin- 
'^(eipelv BeBcoKaai T0t9 dirop^'^TLKol^, 609 ovBe to 
alfMa T0t9 ^o)OL<; eveaTiVt dXXd yevvuTac 7r/)09 ra 
Tpav/MLTa TTvev/jLaTo^i tlvo<; rj aapKcav /jL€Ta^oXfj, 
pvcnv direpyaaafxevr} Kal avvTij^iv. iXey')(^ovTaL 
Be Tot9 7r/309 Toi'9 virovo/jLouf; Kal Ta9 p,eTaXXeia<; 
aTravTCjaiv els ^ddi] 7roTafjiOL<;, ov KaT oXiyov 
avXXeyofJLevoi';, coaTrep clkos eaTiv el yeveaiv ex 
Tov TrapaxprjfjLa Kivov/jL6Pr)(; t/}9 y>]<i Xafi/Sdvovatv, 
aXX' dOpooLS dvaxeofievoi^;. opoiv Be Kal 7reTpa<: 
irXijyfj pay€L<T7]<i e^eirrjBrjae pevfia Xdfipov vBaros, 
etra eireXiire. TavTa fjuev nrepl tovtcov, 

390 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xiv. 2-5 

whenever, that is, it is compressed in the depths of 
earth and becomes fluid. For, they argue, just as the 
breasts of women are not, like vessels, full of ready 
milk which flows out, but by converting the nourish- 
ment that is in them produce milk and strain it out ; 
so those places in the ground which are chilly and 
full of springs do not have hidden water, nor reser- 
voirs which send forth the currents and deep waters 
of all our rivers from a source that is ready at hand, 
but by forcibly compressing and condensing vapour 
and air, they convert them into water. At all 
events, those places which are dug open gush and 
flow more freely in response to such manipulation, 
just as the breasts of women do in response to suck- 
ing, because they moisten and soften the vapours ; 
whereas all places in the ground which are packed 
tight and unworked, are incapable of generating 
water, since they have not been subjected to the 
agitation which produces moisture. But those who 
hold this doctrine give the sceptical occasion to 
object that, on this reasoning, there is no blood in 
living creatures, but it is generated in response to 
wounds by a transformation of some vapour or flesh, 
which causes its liquefaction and flow. Moreover, 
they are refuted by the experience of men who dig 
mines, either for sieges or for metals, and in the 
depths encounter rivers of water, which are not 
gradually collected, as must naturally be the case 
if they come into existence at the instant that the 
earth is agitated, but pour fourth in a great mass. 
And again, when a mountain or rock is smitten 
asunder, a fierce torrent of water often gushes 
forth, and then ceases entirely. So much ou this 
head. 

39J 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XV. 'O 3* Al/jiiXio^ r}fjL€pa<; fiev Ti,va<; r^pefiei^ 
Kai ^aai /irjirore tijXlkovtcov arparoTreScov €771;? 
ovT(o (TVpeXOovTcov r^avxiav yeviaOai roaavrrjv. 
iirel Be kip<ov airavra /cat ireipcofievo*; iirvvOdveTO 
fxiav ela^oXrjv en fiovov a(f)povpop aTroXeiTrecrOai, 
rrjp Sia Ileppai^la<; irapa ro Jlvdiov koX ttjv 
UerpaVy rw fii] (jyvXarTeaOai rov toitov iXiriaa^ 
/jLoXXov rj hi Yjv ovK icj^vXarrero hva^wpLav Koi 

2 TpaxvTTjra Settra? elBovSevero. 7rpcoTO<; Be ruiv 
irapovTwv 6 ^aaiKa^ i'mKaXov/j,€vo<; '^k'tj-ttlcov, 
ya/jL^po(; ^AcjipLKavov %Krj7ricovo<;, vcnepov Be fxe- 
fyiarov ev rfj av'yKXrjT(d BwrjOel'^, vireBe^aro rr}? 
KVKXcoaeo)<; rjye/jLoov yevecrOai. B€VTepo<; Be ^d^io<i 
IfAa^LIJLO^, 6 7rp6afivraT0<i twv AlfiiXiov iraiBcoVt 

3 en fieipcLKLOv cov, dveaTrj irpodv/iovpuevof}. t)a6e\<i 
ovv o AlfiLXio<; BiBcoaiv avroU ou^ ocrov^ HoXu- 
^io<; etpyjKev, a\X' ocrov<; auT09 NaaiKd<; XaBelv 
(f>7](rt, yey pa(j)oo<i irepl tmv irpd^ewv tovtwv eiri- 
(ttoXlov irpo^ Tiva tmv ^aaiXewv, ol fxev eKTO'i 
Td^e(o<; ^IraXiKol Tpia-)(^iXiOL to TrXfjOo^i rjaav, ro 

4 8* evcavvfjiov Kepa<; eh 'iTevTaKL(T)(^iXiov^. tovtol<; 26 
TT poaXa^uiV 6 Naai/cd'^; ivrTret? eKarov eL/coaL kol 
tS)V Trap 'ApTraXft) SpaKcop kol }Lpi^Tcov dva/uie/jLi- 
yfievwv BiaKoaLOV<;, i^copfirjae ttj tt/jo? OdXacraav 
oBw, Kol /cuTeaTpaTOTTeBevae irapd to 'YLpaKXeiov, 

&)9 Br) Tac'i vaval jjueXXcov eKirepLirXelv koI kv- 

5 fcXovadai to aTpaToireBov tmv TToXefxioiv. eirel 5* 
eBeLirvrjaav ol aTpuTiMTUL Kai (tk6to<; eyeveTO, 
T0L<; TjyejJiocrc <j}pdaa<i to dX7]de<i rjye Bid vvKTO<i 

392 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xv. 1-5 

XV. Aemilius kept still for several days, and they 
say that never was there such quiet when armies of 
such size had come so close together. But when, as 
he was trying and considering everything, he learned 
that there was one passage and one only that still 
remained unguarded, namely, the one through Per- 
rhaebia past the Pythium and Petra, he conceived 
more hope from the fact that the place was left 
unguarded than fear from the roughness and diffi- 
culty of it which caused it to be so left, and held 
a council of war upon the matter. Among those 
present at the council, Scipio, surnamed Nasica, a 
son-in-law of Scipio Africanus, and afterwards of 
tlie greatest influence in the senate, was first to 
offer himself as leader of the enveloping force. And 
second, Fabius Maximus, the eldest of the sons of 
Aemilius, though he was still a young man, eagerly 
volunteered. Aemilius, accordingly, delighted, gave 
them, not as many men as Polybius states,^ but as 
many as Nasica himself says they took, in a short 
letter which he wrote concerning these exploits to 
one of the kings, that is, three thousand of his 
Italians who were not Romans, and his left wing 
numbering five thousand. In addition to these, 
Nasica took a hundred and twenty horsemen, besides 
two hundred of the mixed Thracians and Cretans 
with Harpalus, set out on the road towards the sea, 
and encamped by the Heracleum, as though he 
intended to sail round by sea and envelope the camp 
of the enemy. But when his soldiers had taken 
supper and darkness had come, he told his chief 
officers his real design, and then led his forces by 
night in the opposite direction, away from the sea, 

^ In a lost portion of Book XXIX. 

393 




i^LUTARCH'S LIVES 

rrjv ivavTiav airo Oa\drTT)f;, koi KaraXvaat; ave- 
irave rrjv arpanav vtto ro TLvOlov. evravOa rod 
^OXv/jLTTOV TO v^jrof; avarelvet irXeov rj heKa araBi- 
0U9' (Trj/jLaCverdi Be iTnypdfjL/iiaTL rod fierpqaavTo^ 

OVTW<^' 

6 OvXviJLirov Kopv(f)rjf; eirt HvOlov 'AttoWwi^o? 

lepop vyjro<; '^yei, irpo^ kcWctov Be jxerpov} 
irXrjp-q fiep BeKaSa cnaBioDv fxiav, avrap eir aurfj 

TrXeOpov rerpaTreBcp Xeiiroiievov jxe'yeOeL. 
lSiV/jLrj\ov Be fJLLV vi6<i eOr'jKaTO fierpa KeXevOov 

"Beivayoprj^i' av B\ dpa^, %at/3€ Kal eaOXa 
BiBov, 

7 KairoL Xejovaiv ol yecofierpLKol firjre opov^ vyjrof; 
fjLrjTe pdOo^ OaXd(Tar]<; vTrep/SdXXeiv Be/ca ara- 
Blov(;. 6 fievTOi 'B»evay6pa^ ov irapepyw^;, dXXa 
fieOoBo) Kal Bl opydvcov €lX7)(j)epai Boxei rr^v 
fierprjaiv. 

XVI. 'O fiev ovv Na<TLKa<i evravOa BievvKre 
pevae' tw Be Ilepael rov KlfjuiXiov drpe/jLovi^ra 
Kara 'X^copav opcovri Kal /jltj XoyiXofJLevfp to yivo- 
p,evov aTToBpa^ eK t% ohov ^pr)<; avT6/jLoXo<^ rjKe 
/uLTjvvcov TrfV rrepioBov tcov 'Vcofiaiwy. 6 Be avv- 
rapa^^el? to p,ev (TTpaTOTreBov ovk eKLVijae, 
fjLVpiovi Be fiicrOo(f)6pov(} ^evov<; Kal Bi(T)(^lXlov<; 
lS/[aK€B6va<; MlXcovi, 7rapaBov<; e^aireaTeCXe, irapa- 
KeXevadiievo<^ Ta^vvai Kal KaTaXa/3e2v Ta<; virep- 
2 /SoXd'i. T0VT0i<i 6 jxev IIoXu/Qio? (fyrjaiv €ti KOifio)- 
fievoif; eimrecrelv tou<; 'F(o/jLaLov<i, 6 Be Natrt/ca? 

, * irphs . . . /x(Tpov a correction suggested by Sintenis (and 
adopted by Bekkor) of the unmetrical irphs tV KaStrov f 
ifj.erpi}eij of the MSS. 

394 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xv. 5-xvi. 2 

and halted below the Pythium, where he gave his 
army a rest. From this point Olympus rises to a 
height of more than ten furlongs, as is signified in 
an inscription by the man who measured it : — 

"The sacred peak of 01ymj)us, at Apollo's 
Pythium, has a height, in perpendicular 
measurement, of ten full furlongs, and besides, 
a hundred feet lacking only four. It was the 
son of Euraelus who measured the distance, 
Xenagoras ; so fare thee well, O King, and be 
propitious in thy gifts." 

And yet the geometricians say that no mountain has 
a height, and no sea a depth, of more than ten 
furlongs. It would seem, however, that Xenagoras 
took his measurement, not carelessly, but according 
to rule and with instruments. 

XVI. Here, then, Nasica passed the night ; but 
to Perseus, who did not infer what was going on 
because he saw Aemilius remaining quietly in his 
position, there came a Cretan deserter who had run 
away on the march, bringing him news of the circuit 
which the Romans had taken. Though Perseus was 
confounded at this, he did not move his camp, but 
sent out ten thousand foreign mercenaries and two 
thousand Macedonians under Milo, with orders to 
make haste and occupy the passes. These men, 
according to Polybius,^ were still asleep when the 
Romans fell upon them ; but Nasica says that a 
* lu a lost portion of Book XXIX. 

395 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

o^vv dycova irepl rot? a/cpoL<; yeveadav koL kIv- 
hvvov, avTO<; Be ®paKa /itaOo<p6pov eh '^€Lpa<; 
avvBpa/iioVTa tw ^varw Blcl tov aTrjOov<; Trard^a^; 
KarafiaXelv, eKjSiaaOevrcJv Be tmv iroXe/Jiiwv, fcal 
TOV M/Xcofo? aiax'^ara <j)evyovTO<; dvev twv 
ottXwv fJbovo-^LTcovo^, dcr(f)a\co^ aKoXovOelv, dfia 
Karafic/Sd^wv eh rr]V 'X(*ipav to aTpdTev/uLa. 

3 TovTcov Be TM Ylepael irpoairecrovTWV KaTa 
Td^o<; dva^ev^a^; rjyev oirlacD, irepi^o^of; yeyov(o<; 
Kal (TvyK€XVf^^^o<; Ta2<; eXiriaiv. avTov 5' o/xw? 
TTpo T% IlvBvr]<^ vTTOfievovTa TreipdaOat /jid^V^ 
dvayKalov tjv, r) tw aTparw aKeBacrdevTi Trepl 
Ta9 7roX.€i9 Be-)(^ea6ai tov irokefiov, eTreiirep dira^ 
efiffijSrjKe tt] %«/>«, Bi^a ttoWov (f)6pov Kal 

4 veKpayv eKireaelv /jurj Bwd/xevov. TrXijdeo fiev ovv 
dvBpoiv avToOev irepielvai, Trpodu/jLiav Be TroXXrjv 
vTTdp')(eiV didbwofievot^ Trepl tckvcov kol yvvaiKcov, 
e^opoiVTO^ €KaaTa tov /3a(TiXeco<; Kal TrpoKivhv- 
vevovTO<^. eK tovtcov eddpavvov oi (jiiXoi tov JJep- 
aea' Kal ^aXop,evo^ aTpaToireBov avveTdTTCTo 
TT/oo? fid^V^f '^^^ '^^ X^P^^ KaTeaKOTreiTO, Kal 
Birjpei Td<; rjyefiovLa<;, 009 evOv<; ef e(f)6Bov rot? 

5 'Pco/jLaLOt<; dTravrrjaayv. 6 Be totto? kol ireBiov tjv 
TT) ^dXayyc ^daeci)<; eiTLireBov Kal ^coplcov ofiaXoiv 
Beo/jLevT), Kal X6<poL arvvex^U dXXo<; ef dXXov tol<; 
yvpLvr)T€vovcn Kal i/riXot? dva(f)vyd<; kol irepiBpo- 
fjid^ e^oi^re?. Bid /ueaov Be ivoTap.ol peovTe^ X'lcwv 
Kal AevKOf; ov fidXa ^a6el<^ Tore (depov; yap ^v 
396 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xvi. 2-5 

sharp and perilous conflict took place for possession 
of the heights, and that he himself slew a Thracian 
mercenary, who engaged him, by striking him 
through the breast with his javelin, and that after 
the enemy had been driven away, and while Milo 
was flying most disgracefully without his armour or 
his cloak, he followed after them without danger, 
and brought his army with him down into the plain. 
After this disaster, Perseus hastily broke camp 
and retired ; he had become exceedingly fearful, and 
his hopes were shattered. But nevertheless he was 
under the necessity of standing his ground there in 
front of Pydna and risking a battle, or else of 
scattering his army about among the cities and so 
awaiting the issue of the war, which, now that it 
had once made its way into his country, could not be 
driven out without much bloodshed and slaughter. 
In the number of his men, then, he was superior 
where he was, and they would fight with great 
ardour in defence of their wives and children, and 
with their king beholding all their actions and risk- 
ing life in their behalf. With such arguments his 
friends encouraged Perseus. So he pitched a camp 
and arranged his forces for battle, examining the 
field and distributing his commands, purposing 
to confront the Romans as soon as they came 
up. The place afforded a plain for his phalanx, 
which required firm standing and smooth ground, 
and there were hills succeeding one another con- 
tinuously, which gave his skirmishers and light- 
armed troops opportunity for retreat and flank attack. 
Moreover, through the middle of it ran the rivers 
Aeson and Leucus, which were not very deep at 
that time (for it was the latter end of summer), 

397 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

wpa <f)Bivovro<i) ehoKovv riva Svcrepyiav o/xo)? T0Z9 
'V(OfiaiOL<; Trape^eiv. 

XVII. 'O 8' Al/jllXlo^, ft)? et? ravrov avve/jn^e 
ra> NaaiKa, KarejBaLve avvr6ray/iievo<; iirl tov<; 
TToXe/xiou?. ft)? S' elSe rrjv irapdra^iv avrcov koX 
TO ttXtjOo^;, 6avfidaa<; eirearr^ae rrjv iropeiav, 
auTo? TL iTpo^ kavrov avWoyL^ofievo'^, ol 8' rjje- 
fiovLKol peaviaKot irpoOviJ.ovp.evoL /jLd')(^€a9at irape- 
\avvovT€<; iSeovro fir) p,e\Xeiv, koI /naXiara irdv- 
rcov 6 NctcTi/ca? rrj irepl rov "OXvfnrov evTV')(ia 
reOapprjKcof;. 6 8' AifiLXi,o<j, fiecSidaa^;, " Et ye 264 
TTjv (T7]v" elirev, ** rjXtKiav elxov at he rroXXai 
jjbe vcKat BcSdaKovaai rd to)v rjrrcofievwv dpLapr/]- 
fxaTa, KwXvovaiv ef ohov /id)(^riv riOeaOai 7rpo<; 
(f)dXayya avpreray/jievrjv r^hr] Kal avvearwaav.^^ 
Ik tovtov rd jxev nrpcora Kal Karaff^avrj tt/oo? tol/? 
7ToXe/jLLov<; eKeXevcrev et? (T7reLpa<i KaOicrrdfieva 
TTOLelv a')(rjfxa 7rapard^€a)<i, toi)? S' air ovpa^ 
<TT/?a(^eWa? iv X^P^ X"^P^'^^ fiaXeaOat Kal orrpa- 
roTTcSeveiv. ovrco Be tmv (rvvexoiv tol<^ reXev- 
ratot? KaO^ vTraywyrjv e^eXtTTOfievwv eXaOe rrjv 
irapdra^iv dvaXvaa<; Kal KaTa<Trr]cra<; dOopvffoyf; 
€t? rov x^P^'^^ 7^a^'Ta?. 

'Evrel he vv^ yeyovet Kal fierd helirvov irpd- 
TTOVTO 7r/30? VTTVOv Kal avdiTavaiv, al(f)VLhiov 77 
aeXr^v^j irXi^pri^i ova a Kal jxeTewpo^ ifxeXalveTO Kal 
rod ^coTO'^ aTroXiTTovTO^; avrrjv XP^^'^ d/jLelyjraa-a 
7ravToha7rd<i iQCpaviadr]. tmv Be rwfxaiwv, wairep 
earl vevofxiapjevov, x^^^^^ "^^ 7rardyoi<; dvaKa- 
Xovfievcov TO (j)(x)<; avrr)<i Kal irvpa iroXXd BaXoU 
Kal Baolv dvexovTwv irpo^ rov ovpavov, ovBev 
o/jlolop err par rov ol MaKeBova, dXXd (f)pLK7] Kal 

398 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xvi. 5-xvii. 4 

but were likely, nevertheless, to give the Romans 
considerable trouble. 

XVII. Aemilius, after effecting a junction with 
Nasica, came down in battle array against the 
enemy. But when he saw how they were drawn 
up, and in what numbers, he was amazed, and came 
to a halt, considering with himself. His young 
officers, however, who were eager for battle, rode up 
and begged him not to delay, especially Nasica, 
who was emboldened by his success at Mount 
Olympus. But Aemilius, with a smile, said to him : 
*' Yes, if I had thy youth ; but many victories teach 
me the mistakes of the vanquished, and forbid me 
to join battle, immediately after a march, with a 
phalanx which is already drawn up and completely 
formed." After this, he ordered his foremost troops, 
who were in sight of the enemy, to form into cohorts 
and give the appearance of a battle line, while the 
others, wheeling to the rear, dug trenches and 
marked out a camp. And in this way, the troops 
next to the last wheeling off in due succession, before 
the enemy knew it he had broken up his battle line 
and brought all his men without confusion into their 
intrenchments. 

Now, when night had come, and the soldiers, after 
supper, were betaking themselves to rest and sleep, 
on a sudden the moon, which was full and high in 
the heavens, grew dark, lost its light, took on all 
sorts of colours in succession, and finally disappeared. 
The Romans, according to their custom, tried to call 
her light back by the clashing of bronze utensils 
and by holding up many blazing fire-brands and 
torches towards the heavens ; the Macedonians, 
however, did nothing of this sort, but amazement 

399 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Od/j,^o<: TO (TTparoirehov KaTel')(€ koX \6yo<s /^av^fj 
Sia TToWcjv i'^Mpei, /SacrtXeo)? to (pda/ia arj/jLai- 

5 veiv €K\€LyjrLv. 6 5' Al/jLlXio^; ovk r)v /jL€V dvr]KOo<; 
ovK diT6ipo<^ TravTCLiraai tmv efcXeiTrriKwv dvco- 
/jloXlcov, at Trjv a€\i]vr)u Trepixpepofxevyjv ei? to 
o-Kiaapa ty}^ yrj(; ipL^dWovac rerayfievai^ irept- 
6hoi<; KOI dTTOKpvTTTOVcnVy a)(pi ov irapekOovaa 
rrjv eTriaKOTOvpivyv x^p^^ irdXiv eTTiXd/jiyfrrj 7rpo<; 
Tov tjXlov ov p7]v dXXa tw Oelw ttoXv ve/jicov /cai 
(f)iXoOvTr]<; wv kuI /jtavrtKo^;, &)? elSe irpwrov ttjv 
aeXrjvr^v aTTOKaOaipo/Jievijv, evheKa fioa-xov^ avrf) 

6 Karedvaev. dpua B' rjpepa tm 'Hpa/cXel /SovOvrcov 
OVK eKaXXtepei p^e^pL^ eUoar T(p he TTpcorq) koX 
elKO(TT(fi Traprjv ra ar]p,€La fcal viktjv dp,uvo/jL6VOL<s 
€(ppa^€v. ev^dpevo^ ovv Kara /Somv eKajov Kal 
dycovo^; lepov tw 6e(h, irpoaera^e BiaKoapelv toU 
TjyepoaL tov GTpaTov et? p,d)(^r]V' auTo? Be Tr)V 
diroKXiaiv Kal 7rept4)opdv dvapevwv tov (/)«to9, 
OTTO)? pr) KaTCi TrpoacoTTOu pLa^op,€voi<; avTol<; ecoOev 
6 7]Xco<i dvTiXdpTTOi, iraprjye top \p6vov iv TJj 
(TK7]v^ KaOe^6p€vo<; dvaireTTTapievr) irpo^; to irehiov 
Koi TTjv (TTpaTOTTeBeiav tmv iroXepicov. 

XVIII. Tiepl Be BeiXt-}v ol pev avTov cfyaai tov 
AlpLiXiov T€Xi'd^ovTO<; €K TMv iToXepiwv yeveadai 
TT]v eTTL^eipTjaiv, d^dXivov lttttov e^eXdaavTa^ 
epijBaXelv avTot^ tou? *V(op.aiov<^, Kal tovtov 
dp^rjv pLd')(ri<i BicoKopevov irapaa'yelv' ol Be *Vco- 
pLa'tKOdv vTTO^vyLcov ')(^opTdap,aTa irapaKopi^ovTCdV 
diTTeaOai SpaKa<;, o)v *KXe^avBpo<; ^yeiTO, irpo^ 
400 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xvii. 4-xviii. i 

and terror possessed their camp, and a rumour 
quietly spread among many of them that the portent 
signified an ecHpse of a king. Now, AemiHus was 
not altogether without knowledge and ex})erience 
of the irregularities of eclipses, which, at fixed 
periods, carry the moon in her course into the 
shadow of the earth and conceal her from sight, 
until she passes beyond the region of shadow and 
reflects again the light of the sun ; however, since 
he was very devout and given to sacrifices and 
divination, as soon as he saw the moon beginning to 
emerge from the shadow, he sacrificed eleven heifers 
to her. And as soon as it was day, he sacrificed as 
many as twenty oxen to Hercules without getting 
favourable omens ; but with the twenty-first victim 
the })ropitious signs appeared and indicated victory 
if they stood on the defensive. Accordingly, having 
vowed to the god a hecatomb and solemn games, he 
ordered his officers to put the army in array for 
battle ; but he himself, waiting for the sun to pass 
to the west and decline, in order that its morning 
light might not shine in the f^ices of his men as 
they fought, passed the time sitting in his tent, 
which was open towards the plain and the enemy's 
encampment. 

XVIII. Towards evening, Aemilius himself, as 
some say, devised a scheme for making the enemy 
begin the attack, and the Romans, pursuing a horse 
which they had driven forth without a bridle, came 
mto collision with them, and the pursuit of this 
horse brought on a battle ; others say that Thracians, 
under the command of Alexander, set upon Roman 
beasts of burden that were bringing in forage, and 



40 ] 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Be TOVTOV<; iKBpofiTjv o^elav eTTTaKoatwv Aljvcov 
jevicrdai' irapa ^0^)6 ovvrwv he ifkeiovcov eKarepoL^ 

2 ovTco avvdineaOai rrjv /jud^^r^v dpLc^orepwv. 6 pev 
ovv KlpiXio^ wairep Kvffepi'ijrrjf; rw TvapovTi o-akm 
Kol KivrjpaTi TOdv arparoTTehwv TeKpaLp6p,evo^ to 
p,€ye6o(; rov yLteWoi^ro? dycovof;, €K tT;? aKT)vrj<; 
TrporjXOe /cal ra rdyp^ara roiv ottXltwv eiTLOiv 
irapedappwev, 6 Be l^aaLKd<; e^i'mraadpLevo':; irpo<; 
Tov<; uKpo^oXi^opevovf; 6pa irdvra'^ oaov outtco 
Tou? iToXepLiov^ ev ')(epa\v 6vra<;. 

3 IlpwTOL 5' ol Qpave^i e')((opovv, cov p,dXiaTd 
(j)T}(Tiv eKjrXayijvaL ttju o-yjnv, dvSpe<; vyjrrjXol ra 
(Tcopara, XevKW koI irepiXdpLTTOVTL Ovpecov kol 
TrepLKvrjplBwv oTrXiapLW p,eXava<; virevhehvpLevoL 
Xi^ro)va<;, opOd^ Be popcpata^ fiapvatBr]pov<; uTrb 
TMV Be^LMv wpLoyv €7rL(7eiovre<;. irapd Be tol>9 
SpaKa<; ol fxia6o(^6poL irapeve^aXXov, wv aKcvai 
re iravToBairai, koI fxepiypievoL Ilaiove<; rjaav 
eVl Be TOvroL^ dyrjpa rplrov ol XoydBe<;, avrwv 
Ma/ceBovcov dperfj kol r^Xircia to fcaOapJOTUTov, 
daTpdiTTovTe^ eiTL^pvaoifi oirXoi'; kol veovpyoU 

4 (f)0LviKLaiv. ol? Ka9i<TTapjevoL(; eh Td^iv al twv 265 
'^aXKao-TruBcov iiravaTeXXovcrai cfydXayye^; eK tov 
y^dpaKo^ eveirXriaav avyrj<i criBrjpov /cat Xapjirrj- 
B6vo<; ')(^aXK0V to ireBlov, fcpavyrj<; Be koI Oopvfiov 
Trapa/ceXevopevcov tt]v opeivi'p. ovtco Be dpnaeo)^ 

Kal pieTa Tdxov<; eTrrjeaav a>aTe tov(; Trpwrou? 
veKpoi)^ dirb Bvelv aTaBlcov tov 'F(op,aiKOV X^P^' 
K0<; KaTaireaelv. 

XIX. TiyvopLevr}<; Be tt)? e(f)6Bov Traprjv 6 Alpbi- 
Xio^if /cat KaTeXdp^avev rjBrj tou? ev tol^ dyrjpacri 
MaKeBova^i aKpa^ ra? aapiaa<i irpoaeprjpeiKOTa^ 
402 



WL AEMILIUS PAULUS xviii. i-xix. i 

that against these a sharp sally was made by seven 
hundred Ligurians, whereupon reinforcements were 
sent to either party, and thus the engagement 
became general. So then Aemilius, like a pilot, 
judging from the surging commotion in the armies 
the greatness of the coming storm, came forth from 
his tent and went along in front of his legionary 
troops encouraging them, and Nasica, after riding 
out to the skirmishers, saw that the whole force of 
the enemy was all but at close quarters. 

First the Thracians advanced, whose appearance, 
Nasica says, was most terrible, — men of lofty stature, 
clad in tunics which showed black beneath the white 
and gleaming armour of their shields and greaves, 
and tossing high on their right shoulders battle-axes 
with heavy iron heads. Next to the Thracians, the 
mercenaries advanced to the attack ; their equipment 
was of every variety, and Paeonians were mingled 
with them. Next to these came a third division, 
picked men, the flower of the Macedonians them- 
selves for youthful strength and valour, gleaming 
with gilded armour and fresh scarlet coats. As these 
took their places in the line, they were illumined by 
the phalanx-lines of the Bronze-shields which issued 
from the camp behind them and filled the plain with 
the gleam of iron and the glitter of bronze, the hills, 
too, with the tumultuous shouts of their cheering. 
And with such boldness and swiftness did they 
advance that the first to be slain fell only two fur- 
longs from the Roman camp, 

XIX. As the attack began, Aemilius came up and 
found that the Macedonian battalions had already 
planted the tips of their long spears in the shields 



403 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tot? OvpeoU TMV 'PctijjLaiwv Kot fir) irpocnejJLevov^ 
et9 i(f)iKTOv avTMu Ta? yLta;^at/3a<j. iirel Be Koi t(ov 
aWoov ^laKeSovcov ra<^ ts TreXrwi i^ m/jlov irepi- 
GiraadvTwv Koi ral^ aapiaai^i a(j> evo^ crvvOrj- 
/jiaTO<; KXiOeiaaL^ vTroardvrcov tov<; 6vp60(f>6pov<; 
elBe rr)v re pdy/xtjv rov avvaairia-pLov Kal rrjv Tpa- 
')(yT7)ra t>}? Trpo^oXrjf;, €K7r\rf^t.<; aurov ea)(^6 /cat 
3eo9, o)? ovBev ISovra TrcoTrore Oeafia (^o^eponTepov 

2 Koi TToXXa/ci? vaiepov ipep^vijro rov rrddov^ ifcei- 
vov Kal T/}? 6yfreco<;. Tore Be tt/jo? tou? p,a')(op,€vov<; 
iiriBeiKvvpeuo^ 'iXeco koX (^aiBpov eavrov avev Kpd- 
vov<; Kal 6(ji)paK0<; 'lttttw irapi^Xavvev. 6 Be rcov 
MaKeBovoyv l3a(TL\ev<;, w<; (jirjai UoXv^io^, t% 
/jLd)(^}]<; dp-)(7]v Xafiffavovcr')]<i d7roB€iXtdaa<; el^ tto- 
Xiv dc^LinrdaaTo, cTKi'i^dpevo'^ 'H/3a«:>i6t Oveiv, 
BeiXd irapa BecXcov lepa /jltj 8e%o/zeV&) /iiijB^ ev')(a<^ 

3 a6€fiLrov<; eirLTeXovvTi. OepbLTov yap ovk eanv 
0VT6 Tov p^rj ^dXXovra Karevaro^^elv ovre rov p,r) 
fievovra Kparelp ovO^ 6X(o<; tov dirpaKTOv euirpa- 
yelv ovT€ TOV KaKov evBaijuoveiv. dXXa Tah At- 
/jLiXiov Trap))v ev)(ah 6 Oeo^' ev^eTo 'yap KpdTO<; 
iToXepov Kal vifcqv Bopu KpaTwv, Kal payopevo'^ 
irapeKoXei avpipayov tov Oeov. 

4 Ov p,r)v dXXd noaeLBct}Vi6<i Tt9 eV iK€LVOL<i rot? 
')(p6voL<; Kal rat? irpd^ea-L yeyovevai Xiymv, Ictto- 
piav Be y6ypa(pco<; irepl U€pae(o<i ev irXeioaL /3t- 
^Xto£9, cfyijcrlv avTov ov^ v-rro BeLXia<^ ovBe ttjv 
dvdiav iroirjadpuevov avTiav direXOelv, dXXa tj} 
TrpoTCpa Ti)9 P'dxV'i TV)(eiv XeXaKTtapevov utf)* 
404 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xix. 1-4 

of the Romans, who were thus prevented from reach- 
ing them with their swords. And when he saw tliat 
the rest of the Macedonian troops also were drawing 
their targets from their shoulders round in front 
of them, and with long spears set at one level were 
withstanding his shield-bearing troops, and saw too 
the strength of their interlocked shields and the 
fierceness of their onset, amazement and fear took 
possession of him, and he felt that he had never seen 
a sight more fearful ; often in after times he used to 
speak of his emotions at that time and of what he 
saw. But then, showing to his soldiers a glad and 
cheerful countenance, he rode past them without 
helmet or breastplate. The king of the Macedonians, 
on the other hand, according to Polybius, as soon as 
the battle began, played the coward and rode back 
to the city, under pretence of sacrificing to Heracles, 
a god who does not accept cowardly sacrifices from 
cowards, nor accomplish their unnatural prayers. 
For it is not in the nature of things that he who 
makes no shot should hit the mark exactly, or that 
he who does not hold his ground should win the day, 
or, in a word, that he who does nothing should be 
successful in what he does, or that a wicked man 
should be prosperous. But the god listened to the 
prayers of Aemilius, who kept wielding his spear as 
he prayed for might and victory, and fought as he 
invited the god to fight with him. 

However, a certain Poseidonius, who says he lived 
in those times and took part in those actions, and 
who has written a history of Perseus in several 
books, says it was not out of cowardice, nor with the 
excuse of the sacrifice, that the king went away, but 
because on the day before the battle a horse had 

405 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

iTTTTOV TO (T/eeXo?* iv Be rfi fJid^^rj, Kaiirep e^ovra 
Bv(T^ptjaTa)<; kuI k(o\v6/jl€vov virb rcov (f)L\(i)v, 
iTTTTOV avT(h Kekevcai tS>v (popiwv TTpoaayayelv 
Koi irepLJBdvra (TviipX^aL to£? irrl tt)? (f)d\ayyo<i 

5 dQaypaKLCTTOV' <f)6po/jL€Vcop Be iTavTohairoiv eKare- 
p(o6ev ffeXcoVt iraXrov ifjuireaelv oXoalSrjpov avrq), 
KOI rfj fxev aKfir} p,7j Oiyelv, dWa irXdyiov rrapd 
Tr)v dpiarepav TTXeupav TrapaBpa/ietv, pvfijj Be r^? 
irapoBov Tov re ^^^ircova BiaKoyjrai, Koi rr)V adpxa 
(fyoLVi^at, rv(f)\a) /jLcoXcotti, ttoXvv ')(^p6vov Bia(pu- 
Xd^avTL TOP TVTTov. TUVTa fiev ovv 6 TLoaeiBcovio^; 
VTTep TOV U6pa6(o<; drroXoyelTaL. 

XX. Ta>2^ Be 'Pco/jLalcov, co? dvreaTTjaav tyj <j>d- 
Xayyi, firj Bvva/ievcov ^id^eaOaL, ^dXovio<; 6 tcov 
UeXcyvcov r^yovixevo^ dp7Td(Ta<^ to aijfjLelov TOiV v(f)' 
avTOV el<; tov<; 7ToXefiiov<^ eppLyjre. TOiv Be WeXi- 
yvoiv {ov ydp e<7Tiv 'IraXot? Oe/nLTov ovB^ ocnov 
eyfcaTaXiirelv arj/jielov) iTTcBpafjiovTcov 7r/9o? eKelvov 
TOV TOTTOV epya Beiva Kal Trddrj irap d/jL(f)OT€pcov 

2 uTTr/VTa av/jLTTeaovTcov. ol [lev yap eKKpoveiv re 
TOt? ^L(j)€o-c TCL^ oapL(7a<; e7T6Lp(ovTo fcal TTie^ecv 
T0F9 6vpeol<; Kal raZ? 'xepalv avTaL<; dvTiXafi^avo- 
jxevoL TTapa^epeiv, ol Be rrjv 7Tpo^oXr]v Kparvvd- 
/juevoi Bl dfKporepcov Kal tov^ TTpoaTTCTTTOvTa^ 
avToh oTrXoi^i BieXavvovre^, ovt€ dvpeov aTeyovTOf; 
ovTe OcopaKO^ ttjv ^iav r?}? crapL(rrj<;, dveppiiTTOVv 
VTTep Ke(f)aXr]v to, (ToofiaTa Tcav TleXcyvaw Kal 
WappovKLVCOv, KaT ovBeva Xoyia/jiov, dXXd dvfia> 
6r)pi(oBeLy TTpo? ivavTia^ TrXrjyd^ Kal TTpov-mov 

406 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xix. 4-xx. 

:icked him on the le^. He says further that in the 
battle, although he was in a wretched plight, and 
although his friends tried to deter him, the king 
ordered a pack-horse to be brought to him, mounted 
it, and joined his troops in the phalanx without a 
breastplate ; and that among the missiles of every 
sort which were flying on all sides, a javelin made 
entirely of iron smote him, not touching him with 
its point, indeed, but coursing along his left side 
with an oblique stroke, and the force of its passage 
was such that it tore his tunic and made a dark red 
bruise upon his flesh, the mark of which remained 
for a long time. This, then, is what Poseidonius says 
in defence of Perseus. 

XX. The Romans, when they attacked the Mace- 
donian phalanx, were unable to force a passage, and 
Salvius, the commander of the Pelignians, snatched 
the standard of his company and hurled it in among 
the enemy. Then the Pelignians, since among the 
Italians it is an unnatural and flagrant thing to 
abandon a standard, rushed on towards the place 
where it was, and dreadful losses were inflicted and 
suffered on both sides. For the Romans tried to 
thrust aside the long spears of their enemies with 
their swords, or to crowd them back with their 
shields, or to seize and put them by with their very 
hands ; while the Macedonians, holding them firmly 
advanced with both hands, and piercing those who 
fell upon them, armour and all, since neither shield 
nor breastplate could resist the force of the Mace- 
donian long spear, hurled headlong back the Pelig- 
nians and Marrucinians, who, with no consideration 
but with animal fury rushed upon the strokes that 



VOL. VI. O 407 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 aiOovfievwv Odvarov. ovrco Be rcov Trpoyua^coi/ 
Bta(f)6apePTcov aveKoirrjcrav ol Kardinv avrwv iin- 
rerayijAvoL' kol (j>vyTj fxev ovk rfv, ava')(^0Dpr)aL(; he 
7rp6<; 6po<; to /caXovfievov ^OXoKpov, coare xal rov 26( 
AlfiiXiov IBoina (^iialv 6 Tio(jeiB(jovio<i Karapprj- 
^acrOai rov ')(^LTa)va, tovtmv fiev ivBiSovTcov, rcov 

5' dWcoi/ 'VwfJLaiwv BiarpeTro/jbercov rrjv (fxiXayja 
Trpoa^oXyv ovk. eyovaavt oOOC oiairep ')(apaK(i)- 
fiari T(p TTv/cvcopari rcjv aapiacov vTravrid^ovaav 
TTavToOev dirpoGpaypv. 

4 'ETret Be tcop re ')(^(opiO)v dvco/jidXcov ovrcov, kol 
Bia TO iJLr)Ko^ rr}<i 7rapard^€co<; ov (f)vXaTTOvar]<^ 
dpapora rov avvcKnria/jLov, KarelBe rijv (f)dXayya 
rwv IS/laKeBovwv KXdaec^ re TroXXa? koI Bi,acnrd- 
(Tjiara Xafx/Sdvovaav, ox; et'/co? ev fieydXoL<; err pa- 
rol'^ Koi TTOLKiXaL^ op/xaif; rcov /jLa^opevojv, roL<; 
fjuev €K6Xi^op,evr]v pepeac, Tot? Be 'TrpoTTLTrrovaav, 
emoDV 6^ea)<; zeal Biatpcov rd<; aireipa^ CKeXevev eh 
rd BiaXeipfiara kol Kevaifxara rr}<^ rcov TToXe/iLcov 
rd^eco'^ irapepiriTrrovra^; fcal avpTrXeKOjievov^; p,r} 
fiiav 7r/3o? drravra^y dXXd 7roXXd<; kol /jLe/jLLyp,eva^ 

5 Kara fiepo^i rd<; fjbd)(a<s riOecrdaL. ravra rov fiev 
AI/jllXlov tou? r)ye/jL6va<;, Tft>i^ B^ rjyefiovcov roij<; 
arpariQ)ra<; BiBaaKOvrcov, &>? rrpwrov vireBvo-av 
Kal BLea')(ov ei'aco rcov oirXcov, Tot? /j.€V ck TrXayiov 
Kara yvfivd TrpocK^epofievoL, rov<; Be ral<; irepiBpo- 
fjLal^ d7roXap./3dvovr€<;y 77 fiev lo-x^^ Kal to kolvov 
epyov evOu<; dircoXcoXet t?}? (pdXayyo^; dvappr)- 
yvvfxevr]<i, ev Be ral^ KaO^ eva Kal Kar 6Xlyov<; 
crvcrrdaeaiv ol y[aKeB6ve<^ puKpol'^ pev eyx^ipiBioi^ 
arepeov<i Kal iroByjpei^ dvpeov'i vvaaovre^i, iXa- 

408 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xx. 2-5 

met them, and a certain death. When the first hne 
had thus been cut to pieces_, those arrayed behind 
them were beaten back ; and though there was no 
flight, still they retired towards the mountain called 
Olocrus, so that even Aemilius, as Poseidonius tells 
us, when he saw it, rent his garments. For this part 
of his army was retreating, and the rest of the 
Romans were turning aside from the phalanx, which 
gave them no access to it, but confronted them as it 
were with a dense barricade of long spears, and was 
everywhere unassailable. 

But the ground was uneven, and the line of battle 
so long that shields could not be kept continuously 
locked together, and Aemilius therefore saw that the 
Macedonian phalanx was getting many clefts and in- 
tervals in it, as is natural when armies are large and 
the efforts of the combatants are diversified ; portions 
of it were hard pressed, and other portions w^ere 
dashing forward. Thereupon he came up swiftly, 
and dividing up his cohorts, ordered them to plunge 
quickly into the interstices and empty spaces in the 
enemy's line and thus come to close quarters, not 
fighting a single battle against them all, but many 
separate and successive battles. These instructions 
being given by Aemilius to his officers, and by his 
officers to the soldiers, as soon as they got between 
the ranks of the enemy and separated them, they 
attacked some of them in the flank where their 
armour did not shield them, and cut off others by 
falling upon their rear, and the strength and general 
efficiency of the phalanx was lost when it was thus 
broken up ; and now that the Macedonians engaged 
man to man or in small detachments, they could only 
hack with their small daggers against the firm and 

409 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

' ^pol^ Se TreXrapLOL^ Trpo? ra? eKeivwv /ia)(^aLpa<; 
VTTO fidpov<; Koi Kara(f)opd<; Sea iravro^ ottXov 
^(^copovcra^i iirl ra acofiarUy KaKco^ avre-^ovTe<i irpd- 

TTOVTO. 

XXI. Kara tovtou<; Be fieya<; rjv dycov. ev6a 
Br) Kol MdpKO<; 6 KdTO)vo<; f/09, Ai/jll\lov Be yafi- 
^p6<;, irdaav dXKrjv eiTLBeLKVvixevo'^ dire^aXe to 
ft0o?. oca Be veavia<i ivredpa/jL/jievo^ irXeiaroLf; 
iraiBevixaat koi /xeydXro irarpl [ieydXri<; dperrj^ 
diToBei^ei^ ocjyeiXwv, ov ^icorov rjyr]adpevo<i elvai 
•Kpoefievcp aKvXov aurov ^(ovrof; roU 7roX€/jLLOi<i 
€7reBpafie rrjv iid')(r]V, eX rivd ttov (filXov /cal avvrjOr] 
KarlBoL, ^pdl^wv to av/jLTreaov avTcp koX Beofxevo'^ 

2 ^07]6elv. 01 Be ttoXXoI kol dyadol yevojMevoi koX 
Biaa'X^ovTe^i opixfj jxia tov<; aXXov;, irepl avTOV 
v(j)Tjyov/i€Vov ifjL^dXXovai To2(i evavTLoi,<i. /jueydXa) 
8* dySiVL Kol (f)6vrp ttoXXm koI TpavpLaaiv wcraz^Te? 
eK ')(^copa<i Kal tottov epyfiov kol yv/xvov xuTa- 
<r^oz^T69 iirl ^ijTTjacv eTpdirovTo tov ^l(J)ou<;, &)9 
^6 fMoXa ev TToWoi? ottXol^ Kal TTTco/iaat veKpCov 
K€Kpv/LifjLevov dvevpeOrj, TTG/ct^a/oet? yevofievoi Kal 
iraiaviaavTe^ eTi Xa/iir pore pop eveKeivTo tol<; avv- 

3 eaTwaiv eTi tmv TroXefxlcov. Kal reXo? 01 Tpia- 
'^'XioL XoydB6<s ev Td^ei p,evovTe<^ Kal p,a')(^6/jLevoi, 
/caTeKOTTTjaav diravTe^;' tcou B^ oXXcop (f)evy6vT0)V 
TToXu? ^v 6 ^ovo'^, wcTTe TO fi€V ireBiov Kal Tr)V 
vircopetav KaTaiTeTTXrjaOai veKpwv, tov Be AevKov 

TTOTa/jLOV TO pCVfia TOU? 'PwyUatOf? TJj fieTa TTjV 

pid')(7]v rji^epa BieX6elv €tc fiefnyjievov aifiaTt, 
410 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xx. 5-xxi. 3 

long shields of the Romans, and oppose light wicker 
targets to their swords, which, such was tlieir weight 
and momentum, penetrated through all their armour 
to their bodies. They tlierefore made a poor resist- 
ance and at last were routed. 

XXI. But the struggle between them was fierce. 
Here, too, Marcus, the son of Cato and the son-in- 
law of Aemilius, while displaying all possible prowess, 
lost his sword. Since he was a young man of the 
most generous education and owed to a great father 
proofs of great valour, he thought life not worth the 
living if he abandoned such spoil of his own person 
to the enemy, and ran along the ranks telling every 
friend and companion whom he saw of his mishap 
and begging them for aid. These made a goodly 
number of brave men, and making their way with 
one impulse through the rest, they put themselves 
under his lead and fell upon the enemy. With a 
great struggle, much slaughter, and many wounds, 
they drove them from the ground, and when they 
had won a free and empty place, they set themselves 
to looking for the sword. And when at last it was 
found hidden among great heaps of armour and 
fallen bodies, they were filled with exceeding joy, and 
raising songs of triumph fell yet more impetuously 
upon those of the enemy who still held together. 
Finally, the three thousand picked men of the Mace- 
donians, who remained in order and kept on fighting, 
were all cut to pieces ; and of the rest, who took to 
flight, the slaughter was great, so that the plain and 
the lower slopes of the hills were covered with dead 
bodies, and the waters of the river Leucus were still 
mingled with blood when the Romans crossed it on 



411 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Xeyovrai yap virep hiaixvpiov<^ irevraKia-x^L\iov<^ 
airodavelv. rcov Se 'Fciy/jbaioyv eireaov, &)? fxev 
UoaetBcovio^ (fujacv, e/carov, 0)9 Se NaaiKd<;, oyBo- 
rjKovTa. 

XXIL Kal Kpiaiv jiev o^vTarrjv iieyiaro'^ aycov 
ovTo^ eary^ev evdrrj^; yap (opa<i dp^d/jLevot fid^G- 
aOai TTpo SeKuTiji; eviKrjaav tw Se XeLTTOjievui r^? 
rj/jLepa(i ')(pr]adfjL6i'0t '7rpo<; rijv hico^iv kol fi^XP^ 
arahitov eKarov kol el'/coat Sidy^apre^i eairepa^; 
rjhr) ^a6eia<; direTpdirovTO. Kal rot'? /xev dWov(; 
ol depd'Trovre<; viro Xajjurdhcdv diravTiovTe^i /nera 
X^pd<i fcal /3o>}? dirrjyov iirl rd^; aKr-jvd<; (pwrl 
XapLTTOfieva^ Kal KeKoa/jir]/jieva<i klttov Kal Sd(j)pr)<; 
aT€(f)dvoi<i' avTOV Be top arparrjyov fiiya iTevdo<^ 

2 elx^. Bvelv yap vlwv avrov aTparevofxevwv 6 
veoorepo^ ovBa/iiov (f>avepo<; tjv, ov icpiXei re fid- 
Xiara Kal irXelarov eh dpeTi]P (f)vaet irpouxovra 267 
Tcoi^ dB€X(f)(oi/ ecopa. 6u/jLoetBfj Be Kal (fytXori/jLov 
ovra rrjv "^vxyjv, erL 5' dvTiiraLBa ttjv ifXiKiaVt 
TravrdiTaaLV diroXcoXivat, KareBo^a^ei', v-k direi- 
pLa<; dvafjLLxOevTa toI<; TroXe/xLois /J.axo/jL€Poi<;. 

3 uTTopov/iepov Be avrov Kal 7r€pi7ra6ovvTO<i f,a6eT0 
irdv 70 Grpdievfxa, kol /jLera^v BeiTTvovpref; dpe- 
TT-qBoiv Kal Biedeov fierd XapLirdBwPi iroXXol /xep 
eVt Tr]P aKifprjp rov AlfiiXlov, ttoXXoI Be irpo rov 
XdpaKO<; €P Tot9 7rpd)roL<; PCKpoh ^y]TuvPTe<;. Karrj- 
(f>eia Be to arparoTreBov Kal Kpavyr) to ireBiov 
Karelx^p dpaKaXovp,epcop top ^KrjTTLcopa. irdcn yap 
dyaara rjv ev6v<; e'f dp^^^y 7Tpo<; i)yeiiopiap Kal 
412 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxi. 3-xxii. 3 

the day after the battle. For it is said that over 
twenty-five thousand of their enemies were slain ; 
while of the Romans there fell, according to Poseido- 
nius, a hundred, according to Nasica, eighty. 

XXII. And this greatest of all struggles was most 
speedily decided ; for the Romans began fighting at 
three o'clock in the afternoon, and were victorious 
within an hour ; the rest of the day they spent in the 
pursuit, which they kept up for as many as a hundred 
and twenty furlongs, so that it was already late in 
the evening when they returned. All the rest were 
met by their servants with torches and conducted 
with joyful shouts to their tents, which were ablaze 
with light and adorned with wreaths of ivy, and 
laurel ; but Aemilius their general was a prey to 
great sorrow. For of the two sons who were serving 
under him, the younger was nowhere to be found, 
and Aemilius loved him especially, and saw that he 
was by nature more prone to excellence than any 
of his brothers. But he was of a passionate and 
ambitious spirit, and was still hardly more than a 
boy in years, and his father concluded that he had 
certainly perished, when, for lack of experience, he 
had become entangled among the enemy as they 
fought. The whole army learned of the distress and 
anguish of their general, and springing up from their 
suppers, ran about with torches, many to the tent 
of Aemilius, and many in front of the ramparts, 
searching among the numerous dead bodies. De- 
jection reigned in the camp, and the plain was filled 
with the cries of men calling out the name of Scipio. 
For from the very outset he had been admired by 
everybody, since, beyond any other one of his family, 



413 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

irokLTeiav co? aX\o<; ovSeU royv avyyevcov KeKpa- 
fjL€i'o<i TO rj6o<;. 

^Qyp-e 8' ovv 'IjSrj a^eSbv aireyvwafjievo^ €K Trj<; 
Bi(t)^€0)<; TTpocrrjei /lera Bvo rj rpicov eraipodv, 
aifJiaTO^; Kal cf)6uov TroXe/iiicov avdirXew';, wcnrep 
(TKvXa^ yevvalo<;, v0* r)Sov)](; d/cparco<; rfj vL/crj 
avve^evex^^i'^' ol'to? iart Xkijttlcov 6 TOt? lkvov- 
fievoL^ XpovoL<; ^ Kap^V^ova Kal No/xavrlav xara- 
aKiiyj/af; Kal iroXv tt/^wto? dperfj rcbv Tore 'Fco- 
fjLaiayv jevofievo'i Kal SvvrjOeh /jLeyiarov. Alp^tXicp 
/i€v ovv r7]v rod KaTopQoifjbaTO^ ve/xeaLV et9 erepov 
V '^^XV Kaupov vTrep^aXKo/jiivT] rore iravTekrj ttjv 
r)hovr]v aTreSiBov t^9 viKrj^. 

XXIII. nepo-eu? he (pvyfj fxev eK Tivhvrjfi eh 
TLeWav aTre^cope/, tcov liriTecov eineiKw^ irdvrwv 
diTO T^9 fid^fTi BiaaecraxTfiivcov. iirel Se Kara- 
\afjL^dvovTe<; ol Tre^ol tou? fTTTreZ? w? dvdv8pov<; 
Kal TrpoBeScoKora^; \oLSopovvT6<; diro tcov Ilttttcov 
coOovv Kal 7r\r]yd<; iSiSoaav, 8€Laa<; rov Oopvfiov 
eK rrj<i oBov irapeKXive rov lttttov, Kal rrjv Trop- 
^vpav, o)? fjLT) BtdarjfjLOf; eir], Trepiairdaa^ eOero 
TTpoaOev avTOv, Kal to BidS^^pa Sid x^ipayv el^ei^. 
ob? Be Kal TrpoaBiaXeyoiTo rot? eTaipoL^; d/na 
^aBi^oyv, KaTa^d<; ecpelXKCTO tov 'iinrov. twv Be 
6 fjuev T£9 v7r6Br]/j,a TrpoaTrotovpevo^; XeXv/uuevov 
(TwdTTTeiv, 6 Be Xititov dpBeiv, 6 Be itotov xP^^^iv, 
vTroXeiTrofievoL KaTa /iiKpov direBiBpaaKOV, ov^ 
ovTco TOv<; TToXe/i.toL'?, ax; ttjv eKelvov x^^XeTToTrjTa 
B€Boik6t€<=;. Kexapay/ievo^ yap vtto tcov KaKcov 



^ Xp6vois supplied bj Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske. 
414 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxii. 3-xxii 

he had a nature adapted for leadership in war and 
public service. 

Well, then, when it was already late and he was 
almost despaired of, he came in from the pursuit with 
two or three comrades, covered with the blood of the 
enemies he had slain, having been, like a young 
hound of noble breed, carried away by the uncon- 
trollable pleasure of the victory. This was that 
Scipio who, in after times,^ destroyed Carthage and 
Numantia, and became by far the most noble and 
influential Roman of his day. Thus Fortune, post- 
poning to another season her jealous displeasure at 
the great success of Aemilius, restored to him then 
in all completeness his pleasure in his victory.^ 

XXIII. But Perseus was away in flight from Pydna 
to Pella, since practically all his horsemen came 
safely off from the battle. But when his footmen 
overtook his horsemen, and, abusing tiiem as cowards 
and traitors, tried to push them from their horses 
and fell to beating them, the king, afraid of the 
tumult, turned his horse out of the road, drew his 
purple robe round and held it in front of him, that 
he might not be conspicuous, and carried his diadem 
in his hands. And in order that he might also con- 
verse with his companions as he walked, he dis- 
mounted from his horse and led him along. But of 
these companions, one pretended that he must 
fasten a shoe that had become loose, another that 
he must water his horse, another that he himself 
wanted water to drink, and so they gradually lagged 
behind and ran away, because they had more fear of 
his cruelty than of the enemy. For he was lacerated 

1 In 146 and 133 B.C. 

* The battle of Pydna is described by Livy in xliv. 36-41. 

415 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

et? 7rdvra<; e^yret rpeneiv acf)' avrov Tr)V alriav 

3 T?}? rjTT7)<;. eirel he vukt6<; et? UeWav elaeXOoov 
EvKTov Koi FjvXaLov, rot"? eVl tov vo/JLLO-fiaro^, 
aTTavT7]cravTa<i avrw koI ra fxev iyKa\ovvTa<i 
Trepl Tcov yeyovoTwv, ra Be Trapprja-ia^o/jLevov:; 
iiKaipw^ Koi av/j./3ov\evovTa(; opyiaOeU aireKTei- 
vev, ctuTo? Tft) ^LcfyiBiO) iraicov dfKJiOTepovf;, ouSet? 
irape/jbeLvev avrcp irdpe^ RvdvSpov re tov Kpr]To<; 
fcal ^Ap^e^d/jLov rod AlrcoXov koi tov BoiwroO 

4 Newvo?. Twv Be aTparicoTcov eirrj/coXovd 7]aav ol 
K/)^T€?, ov Bi evvoiav, dWd toI^ %/3;;//-acrii/, 
wcnrep Krjplotf; fieXiTTai, 7Tpoo-Xi,7rapovvTe<;. irdfju- 
TToXXa yap eirrjyeTO, koI irpovOrjKev ef avTcov 
Biapirdaai tol<; J^pijalv eKirdypLara koi KpaTrjpa^ 
Kol TTjv aXXt-jv ev dpyvpm koX ')(^pvaS> KaraaKevrjv 

5 6t9 iTevTi]K0VTa TaXdvTwv Xoyov. yev6pLevo<s S' ev 
'AibL(j)i7T6Xei TTpMTOV, cIt eKelOev ev TaXrjyjrw, koX 
TOV (po^ov fiLKpov V7rav€VT0<;, €l<; to avyyevh real 
TTpea/SvTaTOv avTOv twv voarj/iaTcov, ttjv /ii/cpo- 
\oyiav, avOu^ virevexOeh coBvpeTO Trpo^ tou? 
(f)LXov(; ft)? TCOV ^AXe^dvBpov tov jxeydXov ')(^pva(o- 
fiaTCOv evia rot? Y^^prjal Bi€ppL(^(ti<i vtt'' dyvoia^i, 
Kol irapeKdXei tov<; e^ovTa^ dvTt^oXMV koI Ba- 

6 icpvwv dpei-ylraaOai tt/OO? vofiia/ia. tov(; /iiev ovv 
iTTLCTTa/JLevovfi dKpt^a)<; avTov ovfc eXaOe KpiiTi^wv 
irpo^; Kp7]Ta<;, ol Be Tretcr^eVre? fcal d7roB6vT€<i 
diTeaTep->]6rjcrav. ov yap direBwKe TapyvpLOv, dXXd 
TpidKOvra rdXavTa KepBdva^ diro tcov c^iXcov, a 
fXLKpov voTepov e/xeXXov ol iroXepnoi Xrjxj/eaOac, 

416 



I 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxiii. 2-6 



y his misfortunes, and sought to turn the responsi- 
bility for his defeat away from himself and upon 
everybody else. He entered Pella during the night, 
and when Euctus and Eulaeus, his treasurers, came 
to meet him, and, what with their censure for what 
had happened and their unseasonably bold speeches 
and counsels, enraged him, he slew them, smiting 
both of them himself with his small-sword. After 
this no one remained with him except Evander the 
Cretan, Archedamus the Aetolian, and Neon the 
Boeotian. Of his soldiers, only the Cretans followed 
after him, not through good will, but because they 
were as devoted to his riches as bees to their honey- 
combs. For he was carrying along vast treasures, 
and had handed out from them for distribution 
among the Cretans drinking cups and mixing bowls 
and other furniture of gold and silver to a value of 
fifty talents. He arrived at Amphipolis first, and 
then from there at Galepsus, and now that his fear 
had abated a little, he relapsed into that congenital 
and oldest disease of his, namely, parsimony, and 
lamented to his friends that through ignorance he 
had suffered some of the gold plate of Alexander 
the Great to fall into the hands of the Cretans, and 
with tearful supplications he besought those who 
had it to exchange it for money. Now those that 
understood him accurately did not fail to see that 
he was playing the Cretan against Cretans; but 
those who listened to him, and gave back the plate, 
were cheated. For he did not pay them the money 
he had promised, but after craftily getting thirty 
talents from his friends, which his enemies were to 
get soon afterwards, he sailed across with them to 



417 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

fieT avTcbv BieTrXevaev et9 ^afioOpaKrjp kol Eta- _ 
(pevycov eVt roix; ALoaKovpov<; L/cerevev. fl 

XXIV. 'Ael fiev ovv Xeyovrat (pcXoffaaiXeioi, 2( 
MaKcBove^, t6t€ 8' &)? ipeiafiari KeKXaa/ievw 
nravTCdv afxa GVfMTTeaovTwv iy^€LpL^ovT€<; auTOv<; 
TOO AlfitXiO) Bvo r)fjiepaL^ oXr]^ Kvpiov avrov Kare- 
arrjaav ^laKeBouLa<;. kol SoKei tovto /laprvpelv 
TOt? evTV^LO, TLvl Ttt? TT/jafei? eKeiva^ y^yovevai 
(f)d(TKOvaiv, en he kol to irepl rrjv Ovaiav ovp,- 
TTTw/za haLpLOVLOv rjv Iv ^A/jL(pL7r6\ei Ovovto<; tov 
Al/jll\lov kol tmv UpMV ivrjpypLevcov K€pavvo<; 
ipgy K-qyjra^; et? tov ^copLov e7re</)\efe /cat avjKa- 

2 OrjyLae tt]V Upovpyiav. virepfBdWeL Be OetoTtjTi 

TTcivTCO^ KOi TV)(^r) TCL Tr}? (f)^p,7]<i. TjV pLCl/ yCLp 

Tj/iiepa TCTapTr] vtviKi]pL€vcp Uepael irepl UvSvav, 
iv Be Trj *Pa)p,r] tov BrjpLOV 6efopovvTo<; L7r7rLfcou<; 
aycdva^ i^ai(f)vr]<; eveireae X0709 et? to irpojTov 
TOV Oedrpov p.epo<; co? AlpiiXi,o<; pLeydXtj pidxy vevc- 
Kr/KOK; Ilepcrea KaTaaTpe<^oiTO avp-iraaav Ma/ce- 

3 Boviav. ifc Be tovtov tu^v ttj^; (f)i]pLrj<; dvax^o- 
/jiivrjf; 6i9 TO ttXtjOo^; i^iXapL-yjre %a/)a pteTa KpoTov 
KOI ^07]<; Tr)v rjpiepav i/ceivrjv KaTa(7')(^ovaa Trjv 
ttoXlv. eiTa, q)<; 6 X0709 ovk eL)(ev et? ^PXV^ 
dveXOelv jSeffaiov, aXX* iv iraaiv 6pLolo}<; i<paLV€TO 
7rXav(o/xevo^, t6t€ pev iaKeBdaOrj koI Bieppvrj tcl 
T?}? (f}7]pLr)(;, 6XiyaL<; S' vaTepov rjpLepai^ irvOopLevoi 
<Ta(f)(o<; iOavpia^ov ttjv irpoBpapiovaav dyyeXiav, 
o)? iv T(p yfrevSei to dXrjde^ ^^%^* 

418 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxiii. 6-xxiv. 3 

Samothrace, where he took refuge as a suppliant in 
the temple of the Dioscuri. 

XXIV. Now, the Macedonians are always said to 
have been lovers of their kings, but at this time, 
feeling that their prop was shattered and all had 
fallen with it, they put themselves into the hands of 
Aemilius, and in two days made him master of all 
Macedonia. And this would seem to bear witness 
in favour of those who declare that these achieve- 
ments of his were due to a rare good fortune. And 
still further, that which befell him at his sacrifice was 
a token of divine favour. When, namely, Aemilius 
was sacrificing in Amphipolis, and the sacred rites 
were begun, a thunderbolt darted down upon the 
altar, set it on fire, and consumed the sacrifice with 
it. But an altogether more signal instance of divine 
favour and good fortune is seen in the way the 
rumour of his victory spread. For it was only the 
fourth day after Perseus had been defeated at Pydna, 
and at Rome the people were watching equestrian 
contests, when suddenly a report sprang up at the 
entrance of the theatre that Aemilius had conquered 
Perseus in a great battle and reduced all Macedonia. 
After tins the rumour spread quickly among the 
multitude, and joy burst forth, accompanied by 
shouts and clapping of hands, and prevailed in the 
city all that day. Then, since the story could not 
be traced to any sure source, but seemed to be 
current everywhere alike, for the time being the 
rumour vanished into thin air ; but when, a few days 
afterwards, they were clearly informed of the matter, 
they were astonished at the tidings which had 
reached them first, seeing that in the fiction there 
was truth. 

419 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

XXV. Aeyerat Be kqI ttj^ iirl ^dypa Troza/io) 
A'^X^*? ^ItoXlcotmv avdi]/i€pov iv UeXoTrovvyjarp 
\6yov yeveaOai, koX TiXaiaiaai ttJ? ev MvKdXrj 
TT/JO? MtJ^ou?. tjV he 'Fco/ialoL TapKvviov<; fiera 
Aarivoiv i7riaTpaT6V(javTa<^ euL/crjaav, avrdyyeXoL 
cl)pd^ovT6<; axpOrjcrav diro rod (TTparov puKpov 
varepov dvBp€<; Svo /caXol /cal /leydXoi, rourov^ 

2 eLKacrav elvai ALO(TKOvpov<;. 6 8' evTV)(Uiv tt/jwto? 
avTol<s Kar dyopdv irpo t^9 fcpy]vr)<i, draylrv^ovcTL 
TOt'9 Xttttov^ lBpa)Ti ttoXXm Treptppeofiivovf;. iOav- 
fia^e Tov irepl t?)9 viki]^ Xoyov. eW ol fiev iiTL- 
yjravaat Xeyovrai rrj<; vtttjv)]^ avrov rolv ')(epolv 
drpi/jia iMeiBioyvre^' rj 3' evOvf; i/c fieXaLvr}^ rpL^o^i 
eh TTvppav fiera^aXovaa rw fiev Xoyw rrLariv, t5> 
8' dvBpl irapaayelv eiriKX-r^aiv tov 'Arjvo^ap^ov, 
oirep earl ')(aXK07rcoya)va. iracn Be rovTOL<; to 

3 Kad^ r)fid<; yevopLevov TrlarLv irapea'yev, ore yap 
^Avrcavio^i direaTTj Aoperiavov /cal ttoXu? TToXe/i.©? 
a-TTO Tep/jLavia<; irpoaeBoKCLTO, ttj^ 'Pco/jL7)(; rapar- 
TO/uLevr]<; d<pvco /cal avTopLdrcof; 6 Bijfiof; e^ avrov 
(j)7]/ji7]v dveBwxe viKrj^y /cal ttjv 'Vcofii^v iireBpafie 
X0709 avrov re rov ^Avrdiviov dvrjpvjadai /cal tov 
avv avrcp arparev/j,aT0<; rjrrTj/jievov firjBev puepo'^ 
XeXeK^6aL. roaavrrjv Be Xa/nrporrjra /cal pvpu-qv 
T) 7rtcrTt9 ea')(^ev ware Kal Ova at rcov ev reXei 

4 TToXXoix;. ^r]rov/ievov Be rod irpcorov <f)pdaavro<;, 

^ A battle between the Locrians and Crotoniats, at some 
time in the sixth century B.C. 

420 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxv. 1-4 

XXV. It is said also that a report of the battle 
fought by tlie Italian Greeks at the river Sagra^ 
reached Peloponnesus on the same day, and so did 
that of the battle with the Medes at Mycale come 
on tlie same day to Plataea.* And when the Romans 
conquered the Tarquins, who had taken the field 
against them with the Latins, two tall and beautiful 
men were seen at Rome a little while after, who 
brought direct tidings from the army. These were 
conjectured to be the Dioscuri. The first man 
who met them in front of the spring in the forum, 
where they were cooling their horses, which were 
reeking with sweat, was amazed at their report 
of the victory.^ Then, we are told, they touched 
his beard with their hands, quietly smiling the 
while, and the hair of it was changed at once 
from black to red, a circumstance which gave 
credence to their story, and fixed upon the man 
the surname of Ahenobarbus, that is to say. Bronze- 
heard. And all this is made credible by that which 
has happened in our time. When, namely, An- 
tonius was in revolt from Domitian,^ and a great 
war was expected from Germany, and Rome was in 
commotion, suddenly and spontaneously the people 
of their own accord spread abroad a report of a 
victory, and a story coursed through Rome that 
Antonius himself had been slain, and that of his 
defeated army not a portion was left alive. Belief 
in the story became so strong and distinct that many 
of the magistrates actually offered sacrifices. When, 
however, the author of the story was sought, none 

^ It was when the Greeks at Mycale were about to attack 
the Persians that a rumour came to them of the victory of 
the Greeks at Plataea over Mardonius (Herodotus, ix. 100). 

2 See the Coriolanus, iii. 4. * In 91 a.d. 

421 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

ft)? ovBeh r]v, aXk! o \6yo<; eh dWov ef dWov 
BicoKOfievo^; av€(f)€vy€, kol riXof; /caraSvfi oiairep 
eU ireXayo'; axcive<^ rov aireipov 6^\ov icbdvrj 
/jLr]h€/jLLav dp^tjv eyoiv ^epaiov, avrij fjuev 77 ^rjiMrf 
Ta-)(v T^9 7roXeft)9 i^eppurj, Tropevopevot he rw 
Aop.eTiava> perd Bvvdpe(o<; eirl rov iroXepov rfhif 
KaO^ 6S0V dyyeXla kol ypdpp^ara ^pd^ovra tt]v 
ViK7}v aTrrjVTrjaev. rj S* avrou ^ rov Karop0d)paro<i 
T)pepa KoX T?79 (j>r}p.r]<i eylvero, iirl irXeov rj BiapLV- 
piov<; arahlovf; rcou roircov hieardyrcav. ravra p,€V 
ovBel'i dyvoel roiv KaO^ i)pd<s. 

XXVL VvaL0<; he 'OKrd/Sio^; 6 vavap'x^Siv 
Alp^iXiw 7rpoaopp.iadp,evo<; rfj XapoOpaKrj rrjv 
puev davkiav irapel^e rw Uepael Sid rov<; Oeov<;, 
CKirXov he kol (f)vyr]<; elpyev. ov prjv dWd \av- 
Odvei 770)? 6 Tlepaev^ ^Opodvhi]v ripd Kpijra 
Xep^ov e-^ovra avpLTreiaa^ puerd ')(py]/j,dr(t)v dva- 
2 Xa/Belv avrov. 6 he /cprjria-pLU) ')(^prjadpLevo<i rd 
piev 'X^pijpbara vvKrcop dveXajSev, eKelvov he r7j<; 
erepa^ vvKr6<; rjKeiv KeXevaa<^ eirl rov 7rpb<; rw 26' 
ArjpLTjrpiw Xipieva pberd rcjv reKvwv /cat depairela^; 
dvayKaia<^y evdv<^ a<^' €a7repa<; aTreTrXevaev. 6 he 
JJepcrevf; ol/crpd pev eiraay^e hid arevrj^i Ovpiho^ 
TTapd ro rel^o^ eKpr]pv6p,evo<s avrov Kal rraihia 
Kal yvvaiKa ttovcov Kal irXavr)'^ direipov;, oiKrpo- 
rarov he arevaypiov dcjirjfcev, w? ri<; avrw irXa- 
vcopievq) irapd rov alyiaXov rjhr] ireXdyiov rov 

^ avTov Bekker adopts Reiske's correction to ovttj. 
422 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxv. 4-xxvi. 2 

could be found, but it eluded all pursuit from one 
man to another, and finally disappeared in the limit- 
less throng, as in a yawning sea, and was seen to 
have no sure source. This rumour, then, quickly 
melted away in the city ; but when Domitian was 
setting out with an army for the war and was already 
on the march, messages and letters announcing the 
victory came to meet him.^ And the success itself 
was gained on the day when the rumour of it came 
to Rome, although the distance between the places 
was more than twenty thousand furlongs. These 
facts are known to every one of our time. 

XXVI. But to resume, Gnaeus Octavius, the 
admiral of Aemilius, came to anchor off Samothrace, 
and while he allowed Perseus to enjoy asylum, out 
of respect to the gods, he took means to j)revent 
him from escaping by sea. However, Perseus some- 
how succeeded in persuading a certain Cretan named 
Oroandes, the owner of a small skiff, to take him 
on board with his treasures. So Oroandes, true 
Cretan that he was, took the treasures aboard by 
night, and after bidding Perseus to come during 
the following night to the harbour adjoining the 
Demetrium, with his children and necessary atten- 
dants, as soon as evening fell sailed off. Now, 
Perseus suffered pitifully in letting himself down 
through a narrow window in the fortress, together 
with his wife and little children, who were un- 
acquainted with wandering and hardships; but most 
pitiful of all was the groan he gave when some one 
told him, as he wandered along the shore, that he 
had seen Oroandes already out at sea and under full 

^ Antonius did not get the help he expected from German 
auxiliaries, and was defeated by Appius Norbanus. 

423 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

3 ^OpodvSrjv Oeovra Kanhoov e^paaev, vTreXaixire 
yap r)fjL6pa, koX Trdarjf; e'A-TTtSo? 6prip,o<; virexf^p^i 
(jivyfj 77/309 TO relxo^;, ov \adoDV fiev, v7TO(f)0daa<i 
Se TOv<; 'VcofMaLOv<;, fxera r^? yvvaiKo^;, ra he 
TraiSia avXXa^ctiv avroh "Iwv eVe^et/otcrei^, 09 
irdXai fjblv ipco/jL€vo<i rjv rod ITe/jcrea)?, rore Be 
7rpo86rr)<; yevojxevo^ alriav rcapeaye rrjv fidXiara 
(Tuvavay/cdaaaav rov dvOpcoTTov, w? Orjpiov dXi- 
aKOfievcov rwv reKvcov, et? ')(elpa<; eXOelv koI 
irapahovvai to acofia toI<; eKeivwv Kparovacv. 

4 'ETTta-TCue jiev ovv /idXiara tw Nao-i/cd, kukcl- 
vov cKoXer fxr] 7rap6vro<; Se KaraKXav(Ta<; rrjv 
rv-)(r)V Kol rrjv dvdjKrjv irepKJKe^^diJLevo^; eScoKev 
avTov vTTO'xetpi.ov rw Tvaiw, tots pidXiara iroci]- 
aa<; ^avepov otl t^9 (^iXapyvpia^ rjv ev avrw ri 
KUKOV dyevvearepov rj (^iXoylrvxia, hu rjv, o /jlovov 
T) Tv^n T03V eirraiKOTWv ovk dcjiatpelrai, rov 

5 eXeov, dTrecrreprjorev eavrov. SerjOeU yap d^Ofjvai 
77/009 Tov AlpblXtov, 6 fiev 0)9 dvBpl fjbeydXw ireiTTco- 
KOTi TTTftiyLta vefJie(Tr]Tov kclI hvcTTvye^ e^avaardf; 
vTTTjVTa fierd rcov (jiiXoyv BeSaKpvfievoi^' 6 S\ 
aia')(^iarov Oeajxa, Tpo/SaXcov avrov eirl GTOfxa koX 
yovdrcov Bpa^dfjuevo^ dve^dXXero (f)(jL>vd<; dyevvel^ 

6 Kal Berjaei^, a9 ovx virepLeivev ovB^ rjKovaev 6 
Al/jLiXL0<^, dXXd TTpo(T^\e'^a<^ avrov dXyovvrt kol 
XeXvTrrjfjLevai rw Trpoacoirq), " Tl rrj^ t^%^?>" 
elirev, " co raXaiiT(ope, to p^kyiarov d(f)aip€L<i rwv 
eyKXrjfjidrcov, ravra Trpd^rrayv dcf)^ oiv B6^€L<; ov 
irap* d^iav drvx^'^v, ovBe rod vvv, dXXd rod irdXai 
424 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxvi. 2-6 

sail. For day was beginning to dawn, and so, bereft 
of every hope, he fled back to the fortress with his 
wife, before the Romans could prevent him, though 
they saw him. His children were seized and de- 
livered to the Romans by Ion, who of old had been 
a favourite of Perseus, but now became his betrayer, 
and furnished the most compelling reason for his 
coming, as a wild beast will do when its young have 
been captured, and surrendering himself to those 
who had them in their power. 

Accordingly, having most confidence in Nasica, he 
called for him ; but since Nasica was not there, after 
bewailing his misfortune and carefully weighing the 
necessity under which he lay, he gave himself into 
the power of Gnaeus, thus making it most abund- 
antly clear that his avarice was a less ignoble evil 
than the love of life that was in him, and that led 
him to deprive himself of the only thing which 
Fortune cannot take away from the fallen, namely, 
pity. For when at his request he was brought 
to Aemilius, Aemilius saw in him a great man 
whose fall was due to the resentment of the gods 
and his own evil fortune, and rose up and came to 
meet him, accompanied by his friends, and with 
tears in his eyes ; but Perseus, a most shameful 
sight, after throwing himself prone before him and 
then clasping his knees, broke out into ignoble 
cries and supplications. These Aemilius could not 
abide and would not hear; but looking upon him 
with a distressed and sorrowful countenance, said : 
" Why, wretched man, dost thou free Fortune from 
thy strongest indictment against her, by conduct 
which will make men think that thy misfortunes 
are not undeserved, and that thy former prosperity, 

425 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Sai/jLOvo<: avd^LO<; yeyovevat ; ri Be julov Kdra- 
jSdWeK; rrjv vik^iv, kol to KaropOwfjua iroiel'i 
fiiKpov, i7nBeL/cpvfM€P0<; eavrov ov yevvalov ovBe 
irpeiTovTa 'Fcofialoyv avTaycoviar^v ; dpert] rot 
Bvarvxovo-L pieydXrjv e^ei fxolpav alSov<; kol 
irapd TToXefiloi^, BecXia Be 'Tcofialoi^;, kclv eviro- 
Tfifj, irdvTT] drL/jLorarov.^^ 

XXVII. Ou /jl))V dWa tovtov fxev dvaaTi]aa<; 
Kol Be^i(0(Tdfievo<; Tov^epcovL irapeBwKev, avro's 
Be TOL'9 iralBa'^ kol tou? yafJLJBpov^ kuI tcov dWcov 
rjyep^oviKMV p^dXtara tou? ve(orepov<; eaw tt}? 
aKr)vrj<; eiTLaiTaadpLevo<^ ttoXvv ^(^povov r)v tt/oo? 
avrw aKDirfj KuOijpevo^, ware davpd^eiv diravTa^. 
6pp,rjaa<i Be irepl Trj<i Tf^?;? Kal rcbv dvOpwrrivoiV 
BiaXeyeaOuL Trpaypdrcov, "^Apd 76," elrrev," d^Lov 
evTrpayta^i 7rapoicrr)<; dvOpwirov ovra 6 paavveaO ai 
Kal fieya (f)poveLV edvo<; 7) iroXiv rj ^acnXelav 

2 Karacrrpe'^dp.evov, rj ttjv pLera^oXriv ravTijv tt;? 
TvxV^f ^ ^ T^apdBeiypa rw iroXepovvri kolvtj^ 
dadei eLa<; irpoOelaa TratBeuei, p,rjBev o)? puovipov 
Kal ^ejBaiov BiavoelaOai; Troio? yap dv6p(O7r0L<; 
Tov Oappelv Kaipo^, orav to Kparelv erepcov 
/jidXiara BeBoiKevau rrjv rv^V^ dvayKd^r), Kal tw 
^(aipovTL Bv<j6vp,iav eirdyrj ToaavTr}v 6 Trj? irepL- 
(f)epopevr)<; Kal 7rpoacarap,€vrj<; dXXor dXXoc^ 

3 elpappevy]^ Xoyiapo^; r) rrjv ^AXe^dvBpov Bia- 
Box^Vf 09 eirl TrXeiarov rjpOr] Bui>dp.ew<; Kal 
/neyiarov ecr'xe Kpdro^;, Mpa<; p,id<; pbopUp Treaova-av 
VTTO 'ir6Ba<; dep,€Voi, Kal tov<; dpri pvpuicTL TTvifoii^ 



MSS. : 7) rvxn- 

426 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxvi.-6 xxvii. 3 

rather than thy present lot, was beyond thy deserts ? 
And why dost thou depreciate my victory, and make 
my success a meagre one, by showing thyself no 
noble or even fitting antagonist for Romans ? Valour 
in the unfortunate obtains great reverence even 
among their enemies, but cowardice, in Roman eyes, 
even though it meet with success, is in every way a 
most dishonourable thing." 

XXVII. Notwithstanding his displeasure, he raised 
Perseus up, gave him his hand, and put him in charge 
of Tubero, while he himself drew his sons, his sons- 
in-law, and of the other officers especially the younger 
men, into his tent, where for a long time he sat in 
silent communion with himself, so that all wondered. 
Then he began to discourse of Fortune and of human 
affairs, saying : " Is it, then, fitting that one who is 
mortal should be emboldened when success comes 
to him, and have high thoughts because he has 
subdued a nation, or a city, or a kingdom } or should 
his thoughts dwell rather on this reversal of fortune, 
which sets before the warrior an illustration of the 
weakness that is common to all men, and teaches 
him to regard nothing as stable or safe ? For what 
occasion have men to be confident, when their con- 
quest of others gives them most cogent reason to be 
in fear of Fortune, and when one who exults in 
success is thrown, as I am, into great dejection by 
reflecting upon the allotments of Fate, which take a 
circling course, and fall now upon some and now 
upon others ? Or, when the succession of Alex- 
ander, who attained the highest pinnacle of power 
and won the greatest might, has fallen in the 
space of a single hour and has been put beneath 
your feet, or when you see kings who but just now 

427 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kai -^^tXiaaiv iTnrecov Toaavrac<i OTrXocpopovfievovf; 
^acnXel^ opoyvre^ eK rcov TroXe/nicov ')(etp(tiv i(f>t]- 
fiepa cnrta koI itotcl Xafx^dvovTa^, oteaOe ra 
KaO^ rjfjba^ e^^i'V tlvcl ^e^aiorrjra tv^V^ hiapKY) 
irpo'^ Tov xpoi'ov; ov Kara^akovre^ u/xet? ol veoi 
TO Kevov (ppvajfia rovro koI yavpla/ia rry? vLKrj<; 270 
raTreivol KaTaTrryj^ere tt/so? to fjueWov, del fcapa- 
So/couPT€(; €19 o Ti KaraaKrjyjrei Te\o<i eKaarw r-qv 
T?)9 7rapovarj<; €V7rpayLa<; 6 Bau^cov vifieaiv ;^^ 
TOiavrd (paai TroXXa BiaXex^^vra top AlfxiXiov 
diroTrefiyfrai tou? veovf; ev fJudXa to Kavx*lP-<^ koX 
TTjv v^pcv, axTTrep '^(^aXipa), tw Xoyw kotttovtl 
KeKoXaajxevovs. 

XXVIII, 'E/c TOVTOV Trjv fjuev aTpUTidv tt/OO? 
avdiravaiv, avTOv Be 7rpo<; 9eav tt)? 'EXXaSo? 
eTpeyjre Kal Biaycoyrjv evBo^ov d/ia koI (^iXdvO pw- 
irov. iiTLoov yap dveXd/ji/Save tol/? hrjfjLou<^ Kal 
TO, TToXiTcV/JbaTa KaOlaTaTO, Kal S(j)p€d<i eSuBov, 
Ttti? /jL€v (tItov Ik TOV jSaaiXtKov, rat? 8' eXaiov. 
ToaovTov yap €vpe9r]vai (paaiv dTroKei/ievov w(JT6 
rov<; Xa/jb/BdvovTa'^ Kal B€o/j,6vov<; eiriXnTelv nrpo- 
Tepov T) KaTavaX(o9fjvai to 7rXrjOo<; tcov eupedev- 
Tcov. ev Be AeXcpol^; IBcov Kiova p^eyav TeTpdywvov 
eK XiOcov XevKOiv avvTjpfjLoafievov, €(j)' ov Yiepaeay^i 
CfieXXe XP^(^ou(; dvBpLd<; Ti6ea6a>, irpoaeTa^e tov 
auTov Te6r)var tov<; yap r)TTr]fievov<; tol<; viKcocrtv 
e^itjTaaOai ')(U)pa^ TrpoaijKetv. ev S' ^OXvfxiTia 
TOVTO Brj TO 7roXv6pvXr]TOV eKelvov dva<pOey^a- 
adat, cfyacTLV, &)? tov 'O/jurjpov Ato. ^eLBLa<; diro- 
irXdaaiTO. tcov Be BsKa TrpecrlSewv Ik 'I*ct)/j,7j<; 
d(l)CKO/jLevo)v MaKeBoai fiev uTriBcoKe ttjv )(^(t)pav 



428. 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxvii. 3-xxviii. 3 

were surrounded by so many myriads of infantry 
and thousands of cavalry, receiving from their 
enemy's hands the food and drink requisite for the 
day, can you suppose that we ourselves have any 
guarantee from Fortune that will avail against the 
attacks of time ? Abandon, then, young men, this 
empty insolence and pride of victory, and take a 
humble posture as you confront the future, always 
expectant of the time when the Deity shall at last 
launch against each one of you his jealous dis- 
pleasure at your present prosperity." Many such 
words were uttered by Aemilius, we are told, and he 
sent the young men away with their vainglorious 
insolence and pride well curbed by his trenchant 
speech, as by a bridle. 

XXVI II. After this, he gave his army a chance to 
rest, while he himself went about to see Greece, 
occupying himself in ways alike honourable and 
humane. For in his progress he restored the popular 
governments and established their civil polities ; he 
also gave gifts to the cities, to some grain from the 
royal stores, to others oil. For it is said that so 
great stores were found laid up that petitioners and 
receivers failed before the abundance discovered was 
exhausted. At Delphi, he saw a tall square pillar 
composed of white marble stones, on which a golden 
statue of Perseus was intended to stand, and gave 
orders that his own statue should be set there, for 
it was meet that the conquered should make room 
for their conquerors. And at Olympia, as they say, 
he made that utterance which is now in every 
mouth, that Pheidias had moulded the Zeus of 
Homer. When the ten commissioners arrived from 
Rome, he restored to the Macedonians their country 

429 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal Ta9 TToXei? e\ev6epa<; oIksIv kol avrovofiov^, 
exarbv Be raXavra 'Fcofialoif; virorekelv, ov irXeov 
Tj SLirXdcriov roU fiaaLXevaiv elae^epov. 6ea<^ 8e 
iravTohaTTwv u'^/oovwv kol Ovala^; eTnreXwv rol^ 
Oeol^ earidaei^i Kal helirva TrpovOero, ')(^opr)yLa 

4 fi'ev efc TMV ^aaiXiKMV dchOovw ')(p(t)/jb€vo<;, rd^iv 
Se KOL Koa/j-ov kol KaraicXiaeL'^ Kal Se^icocrei^; Kal 
Tr]V TTyao? efcaarov avrov t?}? Kar d^iav TL/Jirj<i 
Kal (f)iXo(t)poavpr]^ atodi^aiv ovtci)<; aKpL^r) Kal 
'TT€<^povTL(7 pevrjv evheiKvvpevof; ware Qavpud^e.v 
TOi;? "EW^^z/a?, el firjBe rrjv iraihiav apLOipov 
diroXeLTret airouBrj^, d\Xa TrjXiKaura irpdrTcov 
dvrjp TTpuy/jLara Kal rots' piKpoU to irpeiTov diro- 

5 hihwaiv. 6 he Kal tovtol^ e)(^aipev, on ttoXXcjv 
irapea Kevaa /jL€Pa)v Kal Xafiirpojv to tjBicttov avTO<i 
Tjv diToXavapia Kal Oea/ia rot? irapovai, Kal 7rpo<» 
Tovf; Oavjxd^ovTa^ ttjv iiri/jLeXeiav eXeye t^9 
avTrjf; elvat 'v/'"f%'^9 7rapaTd^e(i)<; re TrpoaTrjvac 
KuXoi^ Kal avfxiroaiov, t>}? fxev, ottco^; cf)o/3€pcoTdT7j 
ToU iroXepiOL^, tov S\ &)? ev^apcaTOTaTov fj roh 

6 avvovaiv. ovBevo<; 3' yjttov avTov Tr)v eXevOepio- 
TTjTa Kal Trjv peyaXoy\rv)(iav eiryvovv ol dvOpw- 
TTOiy TToXv fiev dpyvpiov, iroXv he y^pvaiov Ik twv 
^aaiXiKMV r)OpoL(T/JLevov ovh' Ihelv e6eXrjaavT0<;, 
dXXd TO?? Ta/jLiac^i €t9 to hrjfiocriov 7rapah6vTO<;. 
fjiova TO, pLpXia tov ^aaiXeax; (juXoypap-fiaTovcrt 
Tot9 vleatv eTreTpeyjrev e^eXiaOai, Kal hiape/jicop 
430 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxviii. 3-6 

and their cities for free and independent residence ; 
they were also to pay the Romans a hundred talents 
in tribute, a sum less than half of what they used 
to pay to their kings. He also held all sorts of 
games and contests and performed sacrifices to the 
gods, at which he gave feasts and banquets, making 
liberal allowances therefor from the royal treasury, 
while in the arrangement and ordering of them, 
in saluting and seating his guests, and in paying to 
each one that degree of honour and kindly attention 
which was properly his due, he showed such nice 
and thoughtful perception that the Greeks were 
amazed, seeing that not even their pastimes were 
treated by him with neglect, but that, although he 
was a man of such great affairs, he gave even to 
trifling things their due attention. And he was 
also delighted to find that, though preparations 
for entertainment were ever so many and splendid, 
he himself was the pleasantest sight to his guests 
and gave them most enjoyment ; and he used to 
say to those who wondered at his attention to details 
that the same spirit was required both in marshal- 
ling a line of battle and in presiding at a banquet 
well, the object being, in the one case, to cause 
most terror in the enemy, in the other, to give 
most pleasure to the company. But more than 
anything else men praised his freedom of spirit 
and his greatness of soul ; for he would not con- 
sent even to look upon the quantities of silver and 
the quantities of gold that were gathered together 
from the royal treasuries, but handed them over 
to the quaestors for the public chest. It was only 
the books of the king that he allowed his sons, 
who were devoted to learning, to choose out for 

431 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

apiatela tt)? /xa;^^^;? Al\i(p Tov/Sepwvc Tw ya/jL/Spu) 
7 (ptdXrjv eB(OK€ irevre Xirpcjv oX/ojv. ovt6<; iari, 
Tov/Sepcov ov ecjiafiev /lera avyyevMV oIkclv €fc- 
KatSe/carov, airo <yr]hi,ov puKpov B-iarpecpo/jevcov 
airavrayv. Koi irpayrov apyvpov eKelvov cj^aaiv 
eh Tov AlXlcov oIkov elaeXOelv, vtt aperi]^ koX 
TifJirj^i elaayoixevov, tov 6' aWov y^povov out 
avTOv<i 0VT6 ra? yvvalKa^ ^ apyvplov X/O/Jfef j/ rj 

')(^pV(JOV, 

XXIX. Aiw/crjfievcov Be TrdvTcov avrw Ka\co<i 
da7ra(jd/jievo<; rov<; "EX\r,va(;, koi irapaKoXeaa^i 
TOt'9 ^laKeBova^ /ie/uLV)]a6ai ttJ? BeBo/jLevTj^; vtto 
'Pwfxaiwv e\ev6epia<; aco^ovra^; avrrjv Be evvo- 
fxia<; KOI ofiovoia^, dvi^ev^ev eirl rrjv "HireLpov, 
e'xwv Boyfxa GvyKkrjTOV tou9 av/i/ie/J.aX7]fievov^ 
avra> rr)v tt/^o? Uepaia iid-)(7]v (TTpaTid)Ta<; uTrb 

2 rcoi/ ifcec irokecov dxpeXyaai. /3ov\6/j.€vo<i Be irdaiv 
ajjua Koi fi7]S€vo<; ttpogBoko)vto<^, dXX,' i^aLcf)V7]<; 
iTTiTreaetv, /jL€T€7r€/jL-\lraT0 tov<; irpcorov^i e^ eKdo-rrjf; o*; 
TToXect)? dvBpa^ Be/ca, kol rrpoaera^ev avTol<^y 6ao<; 
dpyvp6<; eart kol 'y^pvao^ ev olKiai^ Ka\ lepoU, 
rj/jiepa prjrfj Karacpepeiv. eKdaTOi<i Be avveirefjiy^ev 
o)? eiT avTO Br) rovro ^povpav arparKOTCov /cat 
ra^iapxop irpoairoiovixevov ^rjrelv kuI irapaXap,- 

3 ^dveiv TO j^pvaiov. ivaTdaij^; Be t?}9 r)fjLepa<i, 
u(/)' eva Kal tov avTov dfia Kaipov 6piJ,7]aavTe<; 
eTpdiTOVTo 7rpo<; KaTaBpojxrjV kol BtapTrayrjv tcov 
TToXecDV, odcTTe Mpa jjiia irevTeKaiBeica dvOpdiircov 
e^avB pair oBia 6 rival fJuvpidBa^, e^Bopn^KOVTa Bh «1 
TToXei? rropOrjOrjvai, yeveaOai V diro ToaavTi)^ •" 
(f)0opd<i Kal 7ravcoXeOpLa<; eKddTcp cTTpaTicoTrj ttjv 

^ Tos yji'aliias Bekker, after Reiske : ywalicai. 
432 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxviii. 6-xxix. 3 

themselves, and when he was distributing rewards 
for valour in the battle, he gave Aelius Tubero, his 
son-in-law, a bowl of five pounds weight. This was 
the Tubero, who, as I have said,^ dwelt with fifteen 
relations, and a paltry farm supported them all. 
And that is said to have been the first silver that 
ever entered the house of the Aelii, brought in as 
an honour bestowed upon valour, but up to that 
time neither they themselves nor their wives used 
either silver or gold. 

XXIX. VVlien he had put everything in good 
order, had bidden the Greeks farewell, and had 
exhorted the Macedonians to be mindful of the 
freedom bestowed upon them by the Romans and 
preserve it by good order and concord, he marched 
against Epirus, having an order from the senate to 
give the soldiers who had fought with him the 
battle against Perseus the privilege of pillaging the 
cities there. Wishing to set upon the inhabitants 
all at once and suddenly, when no one expected it, 
he sent for the ten principal men of each city, and 
ordered them to bring in on a fixed day whatever 
silver and gold they had in their houses and temples. 
He also sent with each of these bodies, as if for 
this very purpose, a guard of soldiers and an officer, 
who pretended to search for and receive the money. 
But when the appointed day came, at one and the 
same time these all set out to overrun and pillage 
the cities, so that in a single hour a hundred and 
fifty thousand persons were made slaves, and seventy 
cities were sacked ; and yet from all this destruction 
and utter ruin each soldier received no more than 

^ Chapter v. 4. 

433 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

hoatv ov fiet^ov evhsKa Spa')(^/jL(iov, (f)pL^at Be TraVra? 
uv6pco7rov<; to tov TroXe/xou reXo<i, eh /niKpov ovrco 
TO KaO eKaarov \rj/jL/jLa kol KepSo^ eOvov^ 6\ov 
KaraKep/iariafevTo^;. 

XXX. Al/jllXio<; /jl€v ovv tovto irpd^a'; fiaXicrra 
nrapa rrjv aurov (pvaiv eTrieiKT] koI '^^prjarrju ovaav 
et9 ^ripiKov Kare^rj' KaKeWev eh ^Irakiav fiera 
rcov Svvdfiecov irepaLwOeh aveifkev tov (&v^piv 
TTOTa/iov eirl r/)? /3a(ri\LKrj<; €KKaiSeK7]pov^ /caTe- 
a/cevaa/jiev7}<; eh Koa/jLov oirXoi^ al)(^/j.aXa)TOi<s fcal 
<l>oiviKiai, KOL TTop^vpaif}, ci)9 Kal iravrjjvpL^eip 
e^coOev KaOdirep eU Tiva 6pia/ji/3t,Kr]<; 6e<iv Trofnrrjf; 
Kal irpoaiToXaveLV tou? 'Pcofiaiov;, tw poOicp o*%e- 
hr)v virdjovTi Tr)v vavv dvTi7rap6^dyovTa<;. 

2 Oi Be aTpaTicoTai TOi<; ^aatXiKoh y^prifiaaiv 
i'7T0(j)da\fjiLaaPTe<;, ct)? ou;^ oawv iq^lovv €tv^ov, 
wpji^ovTO fxev dBrjXa)<; Bta tovto Kal ^a\eTr(o<i 
elxov TTpo^ TOV AlfiiXiov, alTLco/jLevoi Be cf^avepax; 
OTL fiapv<; yevoiTo Kal BeaTroTtKOf; avToh apywv, 
ov irdvv TTpodv/JLCo^i eirl tt]v virep tov Opid/jL^ov 

3 oTTovBrjv dmjvTTjo-av. aLad6fievo<; Be tovto Se/j- 
/3lo<; TdXffa<;, ex^po^ Al/jliXlov, jeyovm Be twv 
xjTT avTOV x^^t-dpx^^f eOdpprjaev dvacpavBbv elireLv 
&)? ov BoTeov etrf tov Opiajji^ov. eveh Be 7roXXa<i 
Tft) (TTpaTLcoTiKO) TrXijOei Bt-a/3oXa<; KaTa tov 
aTpaTrjyov Kal tijv ovaav opyrjv ctl fiaXXov 
e^epeOlaaf; j/TeiTO irapa twv Brj/idpxfi^v aXXrjv 
rjfiepav eKeivrjv yap ovk e^apKelv ttj KaTrjyopia, 

4 Teacrapa<^ eTt, XonTa<; o)pa<i ex^vaav. tcov Be 

434 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxix. 3-xxx. 4 

eleven drachmas as his share, and all men shuddered 
at the issue of the war, when the division of a whole 
nation's substance resulted in so slight a gain and 
profit for each soldier. 

XXX. Aemilius, then, after executing a commis- 
sion so contrary to his mild and generous nature, 
went down to Oricus. From there he crossed into 
Italy with his forces, and sailed up the river Tiber 
on the royal galley, which had sixteen banks of oars 
and was richly adorned with captured arms and 
cloths of scarlet and purple, so that the Romans 
actually came in throngs from out the city, as it 
were to some spectacle of triumphant progress 
whose pleasures they were enjoying in advance, and 
followed along the banks as the splashing oars sent 
the ship slowly up the stream. 

But the soldiers, who had cast longing eyes upon 
the royal treasures, since they had not got as much 
as they thought they deserved, were secretly en- 
raged on this account and bitterly disposed towards 
Aemilius, while openly tliey accused him of having 
been harsh and imperious in his command of them ; 
they were therefore not very ready to second his 
eager desires for a triumph. And when Servius 
Galba, who was an enemy of Aemilius, although he 
had been one of his military tribunes, perceived this, 
he made bold to declare openly that the triumph 
ought not to be allowed him. He also sowed many 
calumnies against their general among the masses of 
the soldiery, and roused still further the resentment 
they already felt, and then asked the tribunes of 
the people for another day in which to bring his 
accusations, since that day was not sufficient, of 
which only four hours still remained. But when 

435 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

B)]/jLdp')(^ci)v XeyeLv avrov, el ri /SovXerai., KeXev- 
6vT(ov, ap^dfjievo<; fiaKpS) koX /3\aa(f)r]/jLia's €X,ovti 
7ravToSa7Td<; y^prjadaL Xoycp top ')(p6vov dvifKwae 
T?}? Tjpepa^;' koI yevo/xevou aKorov^ ol piev 8;;- 
fxapxoi r7]V €KKXy]aLav d(f>rjvav, Trpo^ Be rov 
VdX^av ol crrpaTLwrai avvehpapbov Opaavrepoi 
yeyovorei;, koX (jv<yKpoTi]aavTe<; ainov^ rrepl rov 
opdpov avOif; KaTaXapfBdvovrai to KaTrerajXtoz^- 
CKel yap ol Sijpapyoi ttjv eKKXrjaiav epeXXov 
d^eiv. 

XXXL ' Ap.a 3 rjpepa r^? ■\ln](f)ov Sodelarj^; ij 
T€ irpcoTTj (J)vXt] top 0piap,/3ov d'7re'\jn](f)i^€T0, kuI 
Tov 7rpdypaT0<; aia07)ai<i ei? top dXXop Srjpop 
Koi T7]P avyKXi]TOP KaTTjei. koX to pep 'nXr,6o<; 
virepaXyovp tw tt poirifkaKil^eaOaL top AlpiXiop ev 
(f>(OPaL<; rjp dirpdKTOL^;, ol he yvwpipidiTaTOL tmp 
diTo ^ovXrj<i heivov elpai to yipopepov /Sowz^re? 
dXX7]Xov<; irape/cdXovp eiriXa^ea-OaL t^? tmp 
aTpaTLCOTCop daeXyeLa<i koi Opaa-vrrjTO^i, eirl ttclp 
d(f)L^opepr]<; dpopop epyop koI /Slaiov, el prjBep 
epLiToBoop avTol<; yevoiTO IlavXop AlplXtop dcpeXe- 

2 adai TMP eiTLPLKLWP TLpwv. (oadpepoL Be top 
6)(Xop fcal dpal3dpTe<; dOpooL to?? Sr]p,dp)(^oi'^ eXe- 
yop €7ria)(^eLP ttjp 'ylr7](l)0(f)opLav, ci')(^pi dp BieXOcoatp 
a ^ouXoPTUL 7rpo9 to 7rXi]0o<;. eTriayoprcop Be 
irdpTwp Koi <yepop,eP7)^ 0'£&)7r^9 dpeXOcop dpt]p 
iJiraTLKO'i Kol TToXe/xtoi/? eiKOGi koI Tpei? eK irpo- 
KXi)(jeo}<^ dp7)p7]Kd)(;, Xldp/co<i ^ep^lXio'^, AlplXiov 
pL€P €(j>r] HavXop, rjXiKOfi avroKpdrcop yevoiTO, pup 

3 pdXiaTa yiPcaaKeip, opoiP ocr?;? direiOeia'ii ykfioPTi 
KOL KaKLWi arpaTevpaTi ^/ocoyu.ez^'O? ovto) KaXa<i 



436 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxx. 4-xxxi. 3 

the tribunes ordered him to speak, if he had any- 
thing to say, he began a speech which was long and 
full of all sorts of injurious statements, and so 
consumed the time remaining in the day. When 
darkness came, the tribunes dissolved the assembly, 
but the soldiers, now grown bolder, flocked to Galba, 
formed themselves into a faction, and before it was 
light proceeded to take possession of the Capitol ; 
for it was there that the tribunes proposed to hold 
the assembly. 

XXXI. As soon as it was day the voting began, 
and the first tribe was voting against the triumph, 
when knowledge of the matter was brought down 
to the rest of the people and the senate. The 
multitude, deeply grieved at the indignity offered 
to Aemilius, could only cry out against it in vain ; 
but the most prominent senators, with shouts against 
the ignominy of the thing, exhorted one another to 
attack the bold license of the soldiers, which would 
proceed to any and every deed of lawlessness and 
violence if nothing were done to prevent their 
depriving Aemilius Paulus of the honours of his 
victory. Then pushing their way through the 
throng and going up to the Capitol in a body, they 
told the tribunes to put a stop to the voting until 
they could finish what they wished to say to the 
people. All voting stopped, silence was made, and 
Marcus Servilius, a man of consular dignity, and one 
who had slain twenty-three foes in single combat, 
came forward and said that he knew now better 
than ever before how great a commander Aemilius 
Paulus was, when he saw how full of baseness and 
disobedience the army was which he had used in 
the successful accomplishment of such great and 

437 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kai(op6co(7€ Kal fieyaXa^ irpd^eif;, 6avfid^€iv Be 21 
Tov SrjfjLov el tol<^ dir ^iWvpiMV /cal Aiyvcov 
dyaX\6/jL€V0<; 6pidjuLl3o'<; avrw (^Oovel rov Ma- 
Kehovoiv iSaaiXea ^cjvra Kal rr)v ^AXe^dvBpov 
fcal ^tXiTTTTov So^av eTriSetv viro to?? 'Fcofiatayv 

4 OTrXot? dyopievy^v alxP^dXwrov. " Ila)? yap ov 
Beivov" elireVt ** el, (f)fj/jir]<i irepl viKr)<; d0e^aLOV 
irporepov eU rr^v ttoXlv ifjureaovar]^, edvaare Toi<i 
0€OL<i evxop-evoi rod \6yov tovtov Taxeco<; diroXa- 
pelv ri]v o^iv, ijKOvrof; Be rov arparrjyov fiera 
rrj<i dXr)0LPrj(; vlktj^ d^aLpecaOe tmv puev Oeoiv rrjv 
tc/jli]v, avTWP Be rrjv 'X^apdv, co? (f^o/Sov/jievoi Bed- 
aaaOat to /jieyedo<; rcov KaTopOcofidrcov rj (f)eLB6- 
fxevoL TOV TToXe/jLLOV ; KaiTOi KpelTTOv rjv T(p Trpb^ 
ifcelvov iXefp, firj tCo 7rpo<; avTOKpdTopa (^66v(p 

5 XvOrjvai TOV Opia/i^oi'. aXX* et? ToaavTVjv,^^ ^'</>^» 
" TO KaKorjOe^ e^ovaiav it podyeTai Bi v/jlmv oiaTe 
irepl aTpaTr)yla<; Kal dptd/jL/Sou toX/jlo, Xeyeiv 
dvOpwiTO^ dTp(OT0<; Kal tm aw/xaTC (TtlX^cov vtto 
XetoTTjTo^; Kal aKiaTpacpla^ 7r/?o? rj/nd^; tov<; Toaov- 
Tot? Tpavfiaai ireiraiBeviievov^i dp€Td<; Kal KaKia^i 
Kpiveiv aTpaTTjyoyv" d/xa Be Tt;? eV^^TO? Bia- 
G^cov e^e(j>7]ve KuTa tmu aTepvwv a)TetXd<; diriaTovf; 

6 TO ttXyjOo'^. etTa fi6TaaTpa(f)el<i evLa tmv ovk 
evTrpeTTO)^ ev o)(X(p yupLvovcrdai Bokovvtwv tov 
aco/jLaTO<i dveKdXv-y^e, Kal irpo's tov VdX^av eirt- 
(TTpey\ra(i, *' ^v /xe/'," ecpt], " yeXdf; eVt tovtoi<;, 
€70) Be aefivvLOfiai 7rp6<i tol/? TroXtVa?" virep tov- 
Tcov yap rj/mepav Kal vvKTa avve^Mf; iTTTraadfievo^; 
TavT ea')(ov. aXX' dye Xa^cov avTov^ inl ttjv 
yjr7](j)ov' 6760 Be KaTafid<i TrapaKoXovOtjaco 7rd(Tt, 
Kal yvaoaofxai tou? kukoix; Kal d-)(apiaTov<^ Kal 

438 



■ 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxi. 3-6 

fair exploits ; and he was amazed that the people, 
while exulting in triumphs over Illyrians and 
Ligurians, begrudged itself the sight of the king of 
Macedonia taken alive and the glory of Alexander 
and Philip made spoil by Roman arms. " For is it 
not a strange thing/' said he, " that when an 
unsubstantial rumour of victory came suddenly and 
prematurely to the city, you sacrificed to the gods 
and prayed that this report might speedily be veri- 
fied before your eyes ; but now that your general is 
come with his real victory, you rob the gods of their 
honour, and yourselves of your joy in it, as though 
afraid to behold the magnitude of his successes, or 
seeking to spare the feelings of your enemy ? And 
yet it were better that out of pity towards him, and 
not out of envy towards your general, the triumph 
should be done away with. But," said he, "to such 
great power is malice brought by you that a man 
without a wound to show, and whose person is 
sleek from delicate and cowardly effeminacy, dares 
to talk about the conduct of a general and his 
triumph to us who have been taught by all these 
wounds to judge the valour and the cowardice of 
generals." And with the words he parted his gar- 
ment and displayed upon his breast an incredible 
number of wounds. Then wheeling about, he un- 
covered some parts of his person which it is thought 
unbecoming to have naked in a crowd, and turning 
to Galba, said : " Thou laughest at these scars, but 
I glory in them before my fellow-citizens, in whose 
defence I got them, riding night and day without 
ceasing. But come, take these people off to their 
voting ; and I will come down and follow along with 
them all, and will learn who are base and thankless 

VOL. VI. p 439 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

8r]/xaycoj6La0aL fidWov ev tol^ 7ro\€/jLoi<; rj arpa- 

XXXII. OvTW (paalv viro rcov \6ycov tovtwv 
avaKOirrjvai koI /jLera^aXecv ro arpaTLcoruKov 
ware irdaaL^ ral^^ (^v\ai<; liTLKvpcdOrjvai rep Al- 
fiiXitp Tov OpiafilSov. irepL^OrjvaL 8' avrov ovrco 
Xeyouaiv. 6 /xev Sy]p.o<i ev re rois iTrTriKol^; Oed- 
rpot<;, a KipKOv; Kokovai, irepi re r-qv dyopdv 
l/cpia TTTj^dfjLevoi, koi rdWa t?}? TroXeco? P'^pv 
Kardka^ovre^, w? eKaara irapelx^ t^? TTop,7r7]^ 
eiroylriv, iOewvro Kadapal^ eaOrjai lOcKoapLr^pLevoL. 

2 Tra? he vao<; dvecpKro kol arecfidvwv KaX Ovpnapd- 
T(ov rjv 7rX7]p7]<;, vTrrjperai re iroWol koX pa^hovo- 
p,oL Tou? draKTCo^ avppeovra^ eU ro p^eaov koi 
hiaOeovra^ e^eipyovre<^ dvaTreiTrap,ei'a<^ rd^ 6Sov<; 
Kol KaOapd<; irapelxov. rr}<; he 7rop,'JTrj<; et? r}p,epa^ 
rp€L<; vevepb7]p,evr]^, rj puev Trpcorr) p.6Xt<; e^ap/ceaaaa 
roL<; al')(^p.aXd)roi<; dvhpidat /cat ypa<^ai<; kcu 
KoXoaao2<i eirl ^evywv rrevTTjKovra koi ScaKoaucov 

3 Kop^i^opbevoL^ rovrcov eaye Okav. rrj 3' varepaia 
rd KdXXicrra kol TroXvreXearara rSiv Ma/ce- 
hovLKcbv ottXwv eirepurero iroXXalf; apbd^ai^, avrd 
T€ puappaipovra ;^aX/c« veoapbrjKrco koI o-iS^ptp, 
Ti]V re Oe<Jiv €k re)(yri<^ /cal auvapp,oyrj<; a)9 av 
pLaXiara avpiTTe<^oprjpLevoi^ yyhrjv kol avropbdrw^; 
ioLKOL TreiToiijpLeva, Kpdvrj Trpo? dairicn kol Oco- 

4 paKe<; eirl Kvr)p,iaL, /cat KprjriKal ireXrai KaX 
®paKLa yeppa Kal (paperpat pterd lttttlkcov dvap,e- 
pitypuevai ')(^aXtv(hv, Kal ^'i(j>tl yvpLvd Sid rovrcov 
rrapaviaxovra Kal adpiaai, TrapaTreTTTjyviac, avpL- 
puerpov exovTCdV ydXaapia rwv ottXcov, ware rrjv 
7r/oo9 dXXrjXa Kpovaiv ev rw BcacpepeaOac rpa^v 
440 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxi. 6-xxxii. 4 

and prefer to be wheedled and flattered in war rather 
than commanded." 

XXXII. This speech, they tell us, so rebuffed the 
soldiery and changed their minds that the triumph 
was voted to Aemilius by all the tribes. And it was 
conducted,^ they say, after the following fashion. 
The people erected scaffoldings in the theatres for 
equestrian contests, which they call circuses, and 
round the forum, occupied the other parts of the 
city which afforded a view of the procession, and 
witnessed the spectacle arrayed in white garments. 
Every temple was open and filled with garlands 
and incense, while numerous servitors and lictors 
restrained the thronging and scurrying crowds 
and kept the streets open and clear. Three days 
were assigned for the triumphal procession. The 
first barely sufficed for the exhibition of the captured 
statues, paintings, and colossal figures, which were 
carried on two hundred and fifty chariots. On the 
second, the finest and richest of the Macedonian 
arms were borne along in many waggons. The arms 
themselves glittered with freshly polished bronze 
and steel, and were carefully and artfully arranged 
to look exactly as though they had been piled to- 
gether in heaps and at random, helmets lying upon 
shields and breast-plates upon greaves, while Cretan 
targets and Thracian wicker shields and quivers 
were mixed up with horses' bridles, and through 
them projected naked swords and long Macedonian 
spears planted among them, all the arms being so 
loosely packed that they smote against each other 
as they were borne along and gave out a harsh and 
dreadful sound, and the sight of them, even though 

^ In November, 167 B.C. 

441 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kol (fyo^epov V7ry]')(6lv, kcli firfhe veviKrj/juevcov d(f)0- 
5 ^ov elvau rrjv 6^|rLv. /jLera Se ra? 67r\o(p6pov<i 
ajjbd^a^i avBp€^ iireiropevovro Tpio-)(^i\LOi vofjuaixa 
<^epovTe<; apyvpovv iv djy6L0L<i eTrraKoaioL^ TrevTi]- 
Kovra rptra\dvroL<;, oiv e/caarov dva riaaape^ 
i/cofiL^ov' dWoi Be KpaT7]pa<; dp<yvpov<; kol Kepara 
Kol cf)td\a<; KOL Kv\iKa<i, 61) SiaKeKoa/jir]fieva irpo^ 
Oeav EKaara kol irepLrrd rw [xeyeOei kol ttj 

XXXIII. Tt}? Be t/)/t>7? r)/jL€pa<; ecoOev fxev 
€vOv<i eiTopevovTO craXTrLjKTal /xeX,09 ov irpoaoBiov 
Kol TTopiTTiKoVy dX\! o'ico puayop^hov^ eirorpvvovdiv 21 Z 
avToi)^ 'VwfjialoLy TrpoaeyKekevofievoi. /lerd Be 
TOVTOV<s yjyovTo ')(^pvaoKep(p Tpoc^iai ySoi)? eKarov 
€LK0(7L, /jLiTpai<i rjcTKrjfjLevoL /cat are/j-jjiacrLV. ol 8' 
dyovre<; avrov<; veaviaKOL Trepi^cofjiaaLv evirapixfiOL^; 
iaraX/jLevoL Trpo? lepovpyiav e^copovv, koI iralBe^ 

2 dpyvpa XoL/Seia koX y^pvaa /cop-l^ovre^;. elra 
fierd rovTov<i ol to ^^pvaovv vo/jLiafia <^epovTe<^, 
€t9 dyyela rpLraXavTLala /jLe/juepLcr/jLevov 6fjL0LQ)<; 
T(p dpyvpiw. ro Be 7rXfjdo<; r/v tmv dyyeiwv 
oyBoi^Kovra rpLcov Beovra. tovtol<^ erre^aXXop 
o'l re rrjv lepdv cf)LdXrjv dve^ovre^;, rjv 6 Ai/jllXlo^ 
eK '^pvcrov BeKU raXdvrayv Bid XlOcov Kareaxeva- 
erev, ol re rd<; ^ AvnyoviBa^ /cal XeXeu/ct^a? kul 
%r)piKXeiov<i koL oaa irepl Belirvov ^/QucrcoyiiaTa 

3 Tov Ylepaecd^ eiriBeiKviipievoL. tovtoi^ eire^aXXe 
TO dpfxa TOV \\epaew<=; koI Ta oirXa kol to Bid- 
Brj/jua ToU ottXol^; eTTLKeijJLevov. cItu ficKpov Bca- 
Xei/n/JbaTOf; 6vto<^ -{jBt] tu TeKva tov 0aaLXeo)<; 
TfyeTo BovXa, kul avv avToi'i Tpo(p€(ov koI BiBa' 



442 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxii. 4-xxxiii. 3 

they were spoils of a conquered enemy, was not 
without its terrors. After the waggons laden with 
armour there followed three thousand men carrying 
coined silver in seven hundred and fifty vessels, each 
of which contained three talents and was borne by 
four men, while still other men carried mixing-bowls 
of silver, drinking horns, bowls, and cups, all well 
arranged for show and excelling in size and in the 
depth of their carved ornaments. 

XXXIII. On the third day, as soon as it was 
morning, trumpeters led the way, sounding out no 
marching or processional strain, but such a one as 
the Romans use to rouse themselves to battle. After 
these there were led along a hundred and twenty 
stall-fed oxen with gilded horns, bedecked with 
fillets and garlands. Those who led these victims to 
the sacrifice were young men wearing aprons with 
handsome borders, and boys attended them carrying 
gold and silver vessels of libation. Next, after these, 
came the carriers of the coined gold, which, like the 
silver, was portioned out into vessels containing 
three talents ; and the number of these vessels was 
eighty lacking three. After these followed the bearers 
of the consecrated bowl, which Aemilius had caused 
to be made of ten talents of gold and adorned with 
precious stones, and then those who displayed the 
bowls known as Antigonids and Seleucids and Thera- 
cleian,^ together with all the gold plate of Perseus's 
table. These were followed by the chariot of Perseus, 
which bore his arms, and his diadem lying upon his 
arms. Then, at a little interval, came the children 
of the king, led along as slaves, and with them a 
throng of foster-parents, teachers, and tutors_, all 

^ These last were named from a famous Corinthian artist. 

443 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

(TKoXcov Kol 7rai8aycoya)v SeBaKpvfievcov 6')(\o<;, 
avTcov T€ Ta9 %efcyoa9 opeyovrcov et? tov<; 0€aTa<; 
Kol TCL Tvaihia SeiaOaL kol XiraveveLV hihaaKov- 
4 Twv. rjv 8' appeva fiev Svo, OijXv Be €v, ov irdw 
av/JL(j>povovvTa tmv Ka/ccov to fteye^o? Bia rrjv 
rfKLKiav' rj kol fiaWov iXeeiva 7rpo<; tt^v jiera- 
^o\r)V Trj<^ avaLa6r}aia<; tjv, axrre /HL/cpov tov 
Uepaia ^aSl^eiv Trapopcofxevov ourco^ vir olktov 
ToU vr^TTLOL^ Trpoaetxov ra<; o-yjreL^ ol 'Fcofialoi, Koi 
BaKpva TToXXofc? eK^dWuv avve^rj, Trdcn he 
fiefiij/JLevrjv dXyrjBovi Koi x^piri rrjv deav elvai 
fiexpt' ov ra iraiBia iraprfkOev. 

XXXIV. Ai^TO? Be Twv reKvcov 6 Uepaev*; fcal 
Trj<i irepX avra Oepaireia^ KaroiTLV iiropevero, 
(paiov fiev l/jbdrtov a/XTre^j^o/xet'o? fcal KprjTrlBa^ 
6%a)i^ eiTi')((i}piov<;, vtto Be fxeyeOov^ rwv kukcov 
iravra Oa/x^ovvTC koI 7rapa7r€7rXrjy/ievq) pLdXiara 
TOV Xoyia/jLov €oik(o<;. koi tovtw S' etVero X^P^^ 
(f)iX(ov Koi avv7]0o)v, ^e^aprj/jievcov rd Trpoacoira 
irevOei, kol tw irpo^ Yiepcrea fiXeirecv del /cal 
BaKpveiv evvoiav TTapiaTdvrcov roi? Oeco/j,€voi.<; on 
rrjv eiceivov rv^V^ oXo^vpovrat rcov kuO' €avTOv<; 

2 eXd^to-ra (j)povrl^ovTe<;. Kairoi TrpoaeTre/jL-^e tw 
AlfiiXiq) Beofievo^i /jlt) irofiiTevOrjvaL kol Trapairov- 
fiepo^ rov dplafi^ov. 6 Be t?;? dvavBpla^ avTov 
Kol (fiiXo'^vxicL'^, &)? €OiK€, KarayeXcjv, " 'AXXa 
TovTo 7'," elire, " koI irporepov rjv eV avrw xal 
vvv earuv, av fiovXr]Tar " BrjXcov rov irpo alax^- 
1^779 ddvarov, ov ov^ VTro/nelva^; 6 BeLXaL0<;, dXX' 
vir eXTTiBwv tlvmv diro fxaXaKiaOel^ eyeyovei /nepo^ 
TO)v avTov Xa(f)vpa)v. 

3 'E^ 6^7)9 Be Tovroi^ eKOfii^ovro XP^^ot aTe<f>avoL 

AAA 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxiii. 3-xxxiv. 3 

in tears, stretching out their own hands to the 
spectators and teaching the children to beg and 
suppHcate. There were two boys, and one girl, 
and they were not very conscious of the magnitude 
of their evils because of their tender age ; wherefore 
they evoked even more pity in view of the time 
when their unconsciousness would cease, so that 
Perseus walked along almost unheeded, while the 
Romans, moved by compassion, kept their eyes upon 
the children, and many of them shed tears, and for all 
of them the pleasure of the spectacle was mingled 
with pain, until the children had passed by. 

XXXIV, Behind the children and their train of 
attendants walked Perseus himself, clad in a dark 
robe and wearing the high boots of his country, but 
the magnitude of his evils made him resemble one 
who is utterly dumbfounded and bewildered. He, 
too, was followed by a company of friends and inti- 
mates, whose faces were heavy with grief, and whose 
tearful gaze continually fixed upon Perseus gave the 
spectators to understand that it was his misfortune 
which they bewailed, and that their own fate least 
of all concerned them. And yet Perseus had sent 
to Aemilius begging not to be led in the procession 
and asking to be left out of the triumph. But 
Aemilius, in mockery, as it would seem, of the king's 
cowardice and love of life, had said : " But this at 
least was in his power before, and is so now, if he 
should wish it," signifying death in preference to 
disgrace ; for this, however, the coward had not the 
heart, but was made weak by no one knows what 
hopes, and became a part of his own spoils. 

Next in order to these were carried wreaths of 



445 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

rerpa/cocnot to ttX^^o?, ou? al TroXet? aptarela 
rr}? viKrj^ rco Al/jiLXifp fiera it pea ^eicov errefji-y^av. 
elr a WTO? €7r6/3aXXev apfiari /ce/cocr/nj/ubeva) Sca- 
irpeircd^ iTri^e^jjKco^, dvrjp /cat hi-)(^a ToaavTr]<; 
€^ov(rLa<; a^LoOearo^, aXovpyuSa y^pvaoiraarov 
afjiire^oiievof; /cal Sdcf)vi]^ K\a)va rfj Se^ta irpo- 
4 relvwv. iBa(f)vr](f)6p€L Se kol avfiiraf: 6 arparo^;, 
Tw [lev dp/xarc rod arparriyov Kara \6^ov<i kul 
rd^ecf; CTTOyLtei^o?, aScov Se rd fiev a>Sd<; nva^ 
irarpiov^ dvajxepny fxeva^ yeXonTi, rd he iraidva^ 
iiTiViicLOv^ Kol Tcov hiaTTeiT pay fiivcdv eVatVoi;? €i9 
rov Al/ulXlov Trepi^XeTrrov ovra kol ^tjXcotov viro 
irdpTcov, ovBevl Be tcov dyaOcov eirii^O ovov TrXrjv et 
ri BaLjiovLov dpa roiv jxeydXajv kol vTrepoyKcov 
etXiT^^^ev €utv)(^ic()v dirapureLv kol /jbiyvvvat rov 

dvO pCOTTLVOV fiiOV, OTTft)? /JLTjBevl KaKOiV aKpUTO^ €L7} 

KOL fcadapo^, dXXd KaO^ "Ofirjpov dpicrra Bokmctl 
irpdrreiv ol^; al Tv^ai TpoirrfV eir d/uL(f)6T€pa roiv 
Trpayfidrcov e^ovcTLV. 

XXXV. ^iiaav yap avrw T€aaape<; viol, Bvo 
[i€v els erepas diTWKiapievoi avyyeveia<^, oo? rjBr) 
XeXeKTai, ^KrjTrlcov Kal (t>d^io<;, Bvo Be TratSe? en 
rrjv 'ifXiKiav, ovs eirl rrj<; olfclas eZ^e t^9 eavrov 
2 yey ov6ra<; ef erepas yvvaiKO'^. wv 6 fiev r}/jL€paL<; 
irevre irpo rov 6pia/jL^eveiv rov Al/jllXiov ireXev- 
TTjcre T6aaapecr/caiBeKeTr)(;, 6 Be BcoBe/ceTiif; fierd 
Tpel<s r}/jLepa<; Opiafi/Sevo-avro*; eiraireOavev, ware. 
IJLr}Beva yeveaOai 'Pw/jLalcov rov 7rdOov<; dvdXyrjrov, 
dXXd (ppl^aL rrjv MfMorrjra tt}? rv^V^ d7ravra<;, o)? 
ovK TjBecraro iTev6o<^ roaovrov et? OLKiav ^^]Xov 
Kal X'^P^'^ '^^^^ OvaLcov ye/jbovaav eladyovaa, Kal 



446 



m AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxiv. 3-xxxv. 2 

gold, four hundred in number, which the cities had 
sent with their embassies to AemiUus as prizes for 
his victory. Next, mounted on a chariot of mag- 
nificent adornment, came AemiHus himself, a man 
worthy to be looked upon even without such marks 
of pov/er, wearing a pur})le robe interwoven with 
gold, and holding forth in his right hand a spray 
of laurel. The whole army also carried sprays of 
laurel, following the chariot of their general by 
companies and divisions, and singing, some of them 
divers songs intermingled with jesting, as the ancient 
custom was, and others paeans of victory and hymns 
in praise of the achievements of Aemilius, who was 
gazed upon and admired by all, and envied by no one 
that was good. But after all there is, as it seems, a 
divinity whose province it is to diminish whatever 
prosperity is inordinately great, and to mingle the 
affairs of human life, that no one may be without a 
taste of evil and wholly free from it, but that, as 
Homer says,^ those may be thought to fare best whose 
fortunes incline now one way and now another. 

XXXV. For Aemilius had four sons, of whom two, 
as I have already said,^ had been adopted into other 
families, namely, Scipio and Fabius ; and two sons 
still boys, the children of a second wife, whom he 
had in his own house. One of these, fourteen years 
of age, died five days before Aemilius celebrated his 
triumph, and the death of the other, who was twelve 
years of age, followed three days after the triumph, 
so that there was no Roman who did not share the 
father's grief; nay, they all shuddered at the cruelty 
of Fortune, seeing that she had not scrupled to bring 
such great sorrow into a house that was full of gratula- 

* Iliad, xxiv. 525 ff. * Cf. chapter v. 3. 

447 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

/carafjLLyvvovaa Op-qvov^ koX BaKpva Traiaaiv 67n- 
VLKLOi^ Koi dpLd/jL/3oi<;. 

XXX VI. Ov fjLTjv aXV o AlfiiXio^ opOco^; \oyi- 
^6fjL€vo<i avhpeia^ xal OappdXeorijro^; dvOpcoTroc^; 
ov TT/oo? oirXa /cal crapiaa^ ^prjaLv elvac /jlovov, 
aXXd 77/90? irdaav o/jLaXco<^ "^^X^^ avriaraaiv, 
ovTW^ rjp/Mocraro kol KareKoafxr^ae rrjv tmp rrapov- 
Tcov avy/cpaaLV Mare rol<^ ciyaOol'^ rd cfyavXa koI 
rd olfcela rol^ 8rjfjLoaLOi<i ivacfiavtaOevTa /jLtj ra- 
Tieivcoaai to fieyeOo^ jjurfhe KaOv^piaai to d^Lcofia 

2 tt}? vi'/crji;. rov fiev ye TTporepov rwv TracScov diro- 
Oavovra Od-\jra<; €vOv<; iOpidix^evaev, &)? XeXeKrar 
rov he Bevrepov fxerd rov 6 piafji^ov re\evT7](ravT0<; 
crvvayayoDi' et9 eKKXijalav rov ^VcdfjLaicov BijpLOV 
e')(^prjaaro \6yot<i dvSpo<; ov Seofievov Trapa/jLvdla^;, 
dXXd Trapa/jivOovfMevov tol/? TroX/ra? SvaTraOovv- 
TWs ecj)' oh eVeti^o? eSva-TV^Vaev. e(f>r] yap on rciiv 
dv6 pwiTLvwv ovSev ovBeirore Setca?, rwi^ Be 6ei(ov 
ft)9 d-mcrroraTOv koX TrotKtXcoTarov Trpdy/xa rrjv 

3 rv^r]v del (f)0^7]deh, /jLoXiara irepl rovrov avTrj<; 
TOP TToXe/xop, coairep 7rvevp,aT0<^ Xa/iTrpov, rat? 
TTpd^eat irapovar]^, BiareXoLt] fJLeTa^oXrjv nva 
KOL iraXippoiav TrpoaBexofJievo^. " Mca fxev ydp,^^ 
elirev, " V/^^P^ '^^^ ^loviov diro ^pevrealov irepd- 
cra<; eh Kep/cvpav /caryx^V^' TrefiTTraLO^; S* efcelOev 
ev AeX(j)OL<s rw Oefp dvaa<i, erepai^i avOi<; av irevre 
rrjv Svvafiiv ev ISlaKehovia 7rapeXa/3ov, fcal rov 
elcoOora (7VV7eXeaa<; KaOapfxov avTrj<; xal tmv 
Trpd^ecov evdv<i €vap^dp.evo<; ev rj/iepaLf; dXXaL<; 
TrevTCKaiSeKa to KaXXiarov eTreOrjKa rw iroXefiw 

4 TeXo?. dTTKnoiv he rfj tvxV ^'^ '^h^ evpoiav tcov 



448 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxv. 2-xxxvi. 4 

tions, joy, and sacrifices, or to mingle lamentations 
and tears with paeans of victory and triumphs. 

XXXVI. Aemilius, notwithstanding, rightly con- 
sidering that men have need of bravery and courage, 
not only against arms and long spears, but against 
every onset of Fortune as well, so adapted and 
adjusted the mingled circumstances of his lot that 
the bad was lost sight of in the good, and his private 
sorrow in the public welfare, thus neither lowering 
the grandeur nor sullying the dignity of his victory. 
The first of his sons who died he buried, and im- 
mediately afterwards celebrated the triumph, as I 
have said ; and when the second died, after the 
triumph, he gathered the Roman people into an 
assembly and spoke to them as a man who did not 
ask for comfort, but rather sought to comfort his 
fellow-citizens in their distress over his own mis- 
fortunes. He said, namely, that he had never dreaded 
any human agency, but among agencies that were 
divine he had ever feared Fortune, believing her to 
be a most untrustworthy and variable thing ; and 
since in this war particularly she had attended his 
undertakings like a prosperous gale, as it were, he 
had never ceased to expect some change and some 
reversal of the current of affairs. " For in one 
day," said he, " I crossed the Ionian Sea from 
Brundisium and put in at Corcyra ; thence, in five 
days, I came to Delphi and sacrificed to the god ; 
and again, in other five days, I took command 
of the forces in Macedonia, and after the usual 
lustration and review of them I proceeded at once 
to action, and in other fifteen days brought the war 
to the most glorious issue. But I distrusted Fortune 
because the current of my affairs ran so smoothly, and 

449 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TT pay fJLOLTwv y CO? aheia iroWr) koX fCLvBvvo<; ov8el<; 
r}V aiTo TOdv TToXe/JULcov, /jLoXicrra Kara irkovv iSe- 
hieiv rrjv fiera^oXrjv rod haifjbovo^ iir evrv^^^la, 
ToaovTOV arparov vevcKrjKora Kal Xdcpvpa /cal 
^aGi\el<; alx/^aXcoTOV^; KOfiu^cov. ov /jltjv aWa 
Kal acoOeh 7Tpo<; v/iid<; koI ttjv ttoXlv opcov ev^po- 
avvr)<i Kal ^tjXov Kal dvcrtojv yifiovaav, en rrjv 
Tv')(r]v 81, v7roy^la<^ el^ov, elScof; ovBev elXLKpive's 
ovh^ dv€/jL€(T7)T0v dvO pco7rot<i Tcov jxeyokcov yapi- 

6 ^ojxevTjv. Kal rovrov ov irporepov rj yjrvxv '^ov 
(^6(3ov Qihivovaa Kal irepiaKOTrou/jLevrj to fxeWov 
VTrep T^9 TToXeo)? d(f)7JK€V rj rrfXiKavrr) fie Trpocr- 
irralaai hvarv^d^a irepl rov oIkov, vlwv dpiarwv, 
ov<; efiavTW fxovov^ iXiTro/jirjv Bia86xov<;, racf)d<; 
eVaXXTjXof? iv r)fjL6paL<; lepal^ fierax^cpto-dfjievov. 

6 vvv ovv dKLvSvv6<; elfiL rd fieyiara Kal dappco, Kal 
vofjii^co Tr]v rv^VV vfitv irapafievelv d^Xa^i) Kal 
^i^aiov. iKavM<; yap ifiol Kal rot? i/jLOL<i KaKOL<; 
eZ? Tvv rcov KarcopOcofievcov d7roKe')(^pr)Tat ve/jL€ai,v, 
ovK d^avearepov exovaa TTapdheiyjia tt}^ dvOpco- 
7rLvr}<; daOeveia^; rod OpiafjL^evofievov rov Opiap,- 
^evovra' ttXtjv on Tlepaevf; fxev e^^t Kal vevLKij- 
fjiipo^ rov<; 7rat8a?, Al/iiXio'^ he rov^; avrov viKrjcraf; 
dire/SaXev.^^ 

XXXVII. Ovrco p.ev evyevel<^ Kal jjueydXov^ 
Xoyov^ rov AI/jllXlou e^ dirXdarov Kal dXrjOivov 
<f>pov7]/jLaro<i iv rep Sy/jLO) SiaXex^H^ci^ Xeyovat. 
Tft) he Tiepcrel, Kaiirep oUrelpa^ rrjv /juer a^oXrjv 
Kal fidXa /SorjOrjaai Trpodv/jLTjOeLf;, ovSev evpero 
7rXr}v /jLerao-rdae(o<; ck rov KaXovfievov KdpKepe 
Trap avrol^ eh roirov KaOapov Kal (f)iXavOpco- 

2 irorepav Siairuv, ottov (f)povpovfievo<;, co? fuev ol 

450 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxvi. 4-xxxvii. 2 

now that there was complete immunity and nothing 
to fear from hostile attacks, it was particularly during 
my voyage home that I feared the reversal of the 
Deity's favour after all my good fortune, since 1 
was bringing home so large a victorious army, such 
spoils, and captured kings. Nay more, even when 
I had reached you safely and beheld the city full 
of delight and gratulation and sacrifices, I was still 
suspicious of Fortune, knowing that she bestows upon 
men no great boon that is without alloy or free from 
divine displeasure. Indeed, my soul was in travail 
with this fear and could not dismiss it and cease 
anxiously forecasting the city's future, until I was 
smitten with this great misfortune in my own house, 
and in days consecrated to rejoicing had carried two 
most noble sons, who alone remained to be my heirs, 
one after the other to their graves. Now, therefore, 
I am in no peril of what most concei'ned me, and am 
confident, and I think that Fortune will remain con- 
stant to our city and do her no harm. For that deity 
has sufficiently used me and my afflictions to satisfy 
the divine displeasure at our successes, and she makes 
the hero of the triumph as clear an example of human 
weakness as the victim of the triumph ; except that 
Perseus, even though conquered, has his children, 
while Aemilius, though conqueror, has lost his." 

XXXVII. With such noble and lofty words, we are 
told, did Aemilius, from an unfeigned and sincere 
spirit, address the people. But for Perseus, although 
he pitied him for his changed lot and was very eager 
to help him, he could obtain no other favour than a 
removal from the prison which the Romans called 
^^ career" to a clean place and kindlier treatment ; 
and there, being closely watched, according to most 

451 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrXelaroi <y€ypd(f>a(nv, cLTreKapreprjaev, eviot Se tt}? 2*? 
T6/\.6UT7}? Xhiov TLva KOi TTaprjWayfxevov rpoirov 
laropovaL. /JLefM-yfra/xevov^ yap n koX Ovp^codevra^ 
avTW Tov<; irepl to GMfxa arparKaTa^;, ax^ erepov 
ovSev rjhvvavTO XvTrecv koI KaKovv avrov, i^elp- 
yeiv t6)v virvwv, koL 7rpoa6XovTa<; aKpL^o)<; evi- 
(TTacrOat, Tafc9 KaTa<^opal^ kol avve^eiv iyprfyopora 
irdarj fjurj-^avr}, p^expi' ov tovtov rov rpoirov €k- 
3 TTovrjOeh ireXevTrjaev. ireXevrrjcre Be /cal rcov 
nraihiwv ra Bvo. rov Be rpirov, ^AXe^avBpov, 
€V(f)vd fxev ev rw ropeveiv kol XeTrrovpyelv yeve- 
aOai ^aaiv, eKfiaOovra Be ra 'Fco/jLalKa ypdjjifiaTa 
KOL rrjv BcdXe/CTOp vTToypa/jLfjLareveLV tol^ dp')(^ov- 
aiv, eiTiBe^Lov koI ')(^aplevTa irepl ravri^v rrjv 
vTTTjpediav e^era^o/ievov. 

XXXVIII. Tai? Be MaKeBovi/cai^ irpd^eau rov 
AlfjLtXiov Brj/j,oTLK(ordT7}V 7rpoaypd<f>ov(TL X^-P^^ 
virep rcov iroXXcov, co? roaovrwv eh ro Brj/ioa-tov 
rare XPVJ^^'^^^ ^'^^ avrov reOevrcov a>are jxriKerL 
Berjaai rov Brj/jLov elaeveyfcetv ctxpt Toyv 'Iprlov 
Kal Hdvaa xpov(ov, oc irepl rov irpayrov ^Avrwviov 

2 Kal Kaio-apo<; iroXefjUOv virdrevaav. KaKelvo S' 
XBlov /cat rrepirrov rov Al/jliXlov, ro airovBa^o- 
fievov VTTO rov Brjfiov Kal ri/jLco/xevov Bia(j)ep6vrco<; 
iirl tt}? dpiaroKpariKT]'^ jielvai Trpoaipeaecof;, Kal 
firjBev elireiv /jbrjBe irpd^aL ^a/3tTt roiv ttoXXojv, 
dXXd roi<; Trpcorot? Kal KpariaroL^; del avve^erd- 
^ecrOai irepl rr)v iroXiretav. o Kal xpovoi'; vare- 
pov ^Airirio<i wveiBtaev ^A(f)pLKavcp Xkijitlcovi. 

3 jJueyiaroL yap 6vre<^ ev rfj iroXei rore rrjv ri/Lirjrt- 
K7]v dpxv^ fieryeaav, 6 fiev rrjv jSovXrjv e%«wzv Kal 



452 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxvii. 2-xxxviii. 3 

writers the king starved himself to death. But some 
tell of a very unusual and peculiar way in which he 
died^ as follows. The soldiers who guarded his 
person found some fault with him and got angry at 
him, and since they could not vex and injure him in 
any other way, they prevented him from sleeping, 
disturbing his repose by their assiduous attentions 
and keeping him awake by every possible artifice, 
until in this way he was worn out and died. Two 
of his children also died. But the third, Alexander, 
is said to have become expert in embossing and fine 
metal work ; he also learned to write and speak the 
Roman language, and was secretary to the magis- 
trates, in which office he proved himself to have 
skill and elegance. 

XXXVIII. To the exploits of Aemilius in Mace- 
donia is ascribed his most unbounded popularity with 
the people, since so much money was then brought 
into the public treasury by him that the people 
no longer needed to pay special taxes until the 
times of Hirtius and Pansa, who were consuls during 
the first war between Antony and Octavius Caesar.^ 
And this, too, was peculiar and remarkable in Aemi- 
lius, that although he was admired and honoured by 
the people beyond measure, he remained a member 
of the aristocratic party, and neither said or did 
anything to win the favour of the multitude, but 
always sided in political matters with the leading 
and most powerful men. And this attitude of Aemi- 
lius was in after times cast in the teeth of Scipio 
A.fricanus by Appius. For these men, being then 
greatest in the city, were candidates for the censor- 
ship,2 the one having the senate and the nobles to 

1 The so-called "War of Mutina," in 43 B.C.; cf. the 
Cicero, xlv. 3-5. " In 142 B.C. 

453 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Tou? apiarov^ irepl avrov avrr) yap 'Atttt/o^? r/ 
iroKLreia Trdrpio^;' 6 Se fi€ya<; jxev mv €(/>' eavrov, 
/jieyaXr} 8' ael rfj irapa rod hrjixov '^dpin koI 
aTTovSfj K6')(^p7]iJLevoi;. ft)9 ovv ifi^dWovTO<; et? 
dyopav rod XfcrjTTLcovof; Karelhe irapa irXevpav 6 
"Atttt^o? dvO pcoTTOVi dyevvei<; koX hehovXevicoTa^iy 
dyopaiov^ he koi Bwa/juepov^ 6')(Xov avvayayetv 
KoX airovSapx^^ ^al /cpavyfj Trdvra nTpdyfiara 

4 pidaaaOai, jjueya /3o7]aa<;, "^fl IlaOXe," elirev, 
" At/xtXte, areva^ov vtto yrj^ ala06/ji€vo<i on aov 
rov vlov Al/juiXiof; 6 /crjpv^ kul KlkLvvlo^ ^lXo- 
v€iKo<; eVt TL/jbrjTeLav Kardyovatvy dWd X/cr]7rLa)v 
fiev av^cov rd irXelara rov Srj/nov evvovv elx^ev, 
Al/jLiXlo^ Si, Kaiirep mv dpiaroKpanKOf;, ovSev 
rjrrov vtto rcov ttoWcov rjyairdro rov fidXiara 
hrjfjLaycdyelv /cal tt/jo? X^P'-^ ofXiXelv roU TroXXoi? 

5 SoKOVvro^. ehrfkoiaav Se fxerd roiv aWwv KoKoiv 
Kal rifjbijreia^ avrov d^icoaavres, i]rL<; earlv dp^r) 
iraaayv lepwrdrrj koX hwapbevr) pukya rrpo'^ re 
raWa kclI irpo^ i^eracnv ^icov. ifc/SaXelv re yap 
e^ean avyKkrirov rov drrp€7rcb<; ^o)vra rol<i n/irj- 
ral^, Kol TTpoypd-^ai rov dpLcrrov, lttttov r d^ai- 
pecjei rcov vewv drtfidaai rov dKoXaa-raivovra. 
KOI ra)V ovaiMV ovroi rd rL/JLr]fjLara Kal rd<; diro- 

6 ypa(j)d<? iiriaKOTrovcrtv. dTreypdyjravro fjuev ovv 
Kar avrov fivpidBe^; diOpwrrcdv rpidKovra rpeU, 
ere 8' eTrraKLCTX^'XtOL rerpaKoaioi TrevrrjKOvra hvo, 
T?}? he ^ovXrj<^ Trpoeypayjre fiev Mdp/cov Al/jllXlov 
AeTTihov, yhr] Terpd/CL<i /capirov/jievov ravrrjv rrjv 

454 






^ AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxviii. 2>-^ 

support him, for this was the hereditary poHcy of 
the Appii, while the other, although great on his 
own account, nevertheless always made use of the 
great favour and love of the people for him. When, 
therefore, Appius saw Scipio rushing into the forum 
attended by men who were of low birth and had 
lately been slaves, but who were frequenters of the 
forum and able to gather a mob and force all issues 
by means of solicitations and shouting, he cried with 
a loud voice and said : " O Paulus Aemilius, groan 
beneath the earth when thou learnest that thy son 
is escorted to the censorship by Aemilius the common 
crier and Licinius Philonicus." But Scipio had the 
good will of the people because he supported them 
in most things, while Aemilius, although he sided 
with the nobles, was no less loved by the multitude 
than the one who was thought to pay most court to 

he people and to seek their favour in his intercourse 
with them. And they made this manifest by con- 
ferring upon him, along with his other honours, that 
of the censorship,^ which is of all offices most sacred, 
d of great influence, both in other ways, and especi- 
ally because it examines into the lives and conduct 

f men. For it is in the power of the censors to 
expel any senator whose life is unbecoming, and 
to appoint the leader of the senate, and they can 
disgrace any young knight of loose habits by taking 
away his horse. They also take charge of the pro- 
perty assessments and the registry lists. Accordingly, 
the number of citizens registered under Aemilius 
was three hundred and thirty-seven thousand four 
hundred and fifty-two ; he also declared Marcus 
Aemilius Lepidus first senator, a man who had 

» In 164 B.O. 
VOL. VI. Q 455 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TrpoeSplav, i^e/3a\€ Be rpels aruyK\rjTi,KOv<; ov rcov 
i7rL(l)ava)V, kuI irepl rrjv t<ov iinrewv i^eraaiv 
6/jiOi(o<; ifierpiaaev avro^; re koX MdpKio<i OtXtTr- 
7r09 (7vvdp)(^a)V avrov. 

XXXIX. ALWfcrj/jiei^cov Be Tciyv TrXeiarcov koI 
/xeybarcop ivocrrjae voaov iv dp^y /^€V eiTLcri^akrj, 
Xpovfp Be dKivBvvov, ipycoBrj Be koI BvaairdXka- 
KTOV yevofMevTjv. eVel ^e 7r€iaOel<; viro rcov larpcov 
eifkevaev eh ^EXeav t^9 'IraXta? /cal Bcirpt^ev 
avToOi irXeicd ^(povov ev irapakioL'^ dypol^ xal 
TToWrjv rjarv^lav e^ovaiv, iiroOrjaav avrov ol 
'Vfo/jialot, KoX (ji(ova<^ TroXXa/ci? ev OedrpoL<; olov 

2 ev^oP'^voi -/cat (T7reuBovre<; IBelv d(f>r}/cav. ov(T7]<; 276 
Be rivo<; lepovpyLa<; dvayKata^, tjBtj Be /cal Bokovv- 

T09 iKavco^ €)(^ecv avru) rod (T(i)fiaro^, eTravrjXOev 
€t9 ^Fd)/j,rjv. fcdK€LV7)v p,ev eOvae /xerd roiv aXXcov 
rrjv Ovaiav lepecov, eivi^avM^i rov B/j/jlov rrepc- 
Kex^/ievov /cal ')(^aipovro<i' rfj 8' varepaia TrdXiv 
eOvaev avr6<; virep avrov acor^pia roh 6eol<;. 

3 Kal (Tv/JL7repav6eiar]<;, a)9 rrpoeipyjraL, t% dvcria<i 
v7ro(Trpeyfra<; ot/caBe /cal /caraKXiOeh, irplv alade- 
crOai Kal vorjaat rrjv fiera^oXyjv, ev eKardaei 
Kal rrapacfiopa rr}<; Btavoia^ yevopievo^ rpuralo^ 
ereXevrrja-ev, ovBevo<; €vB€r}<; ovS* dr€X7]<; rwv 7rpo<i 
evBatfioviav vevofiia/jievcov yev6/ievo<;. Kal yap rj 
rrepl rrjv eK(j)opdv TropLTrrj davpLaa/iov t(j')(e, Kal 
^rjXov eiTLKoapLovvra rrjv dperrjv rov dvBp6<; T0t9 

4 dplaroL<; Kal pLaKapi(ordroL<; €vra(f)LOL<;. ravra 3* 
rjv ov ')(^pvao<; ovS* eXe(l)a(i ovB* y Xoctttj iroXvreXeta 

456 



AEMILIUS PAULUS xxxviii. 6-^xxxix. 4 

already held this presidency four times, and he ex- 
pelled only three senators, men of no note, and in 
the muster of the knights a like moderation was 
observed both by himself and by Marcius Philippus 
his colleague. 

XXXIX. After he had performed most of the 
more important duties of this office, he fell sick of 
a disease which at first was dangerous, but in time 
became less threatening, though it was troublesome 
and hard to get rid of. Under the advice of his 
physicians he sailed to V^elia in Italy, and there spent 
much time in country places lying by the sea and 
affording great quiet. Tlien the Romans longed for 
him, and often in the theatres gave utterance to 
eager desires and even prayers that they might see 
him. At last, when a certain religious ceremony 
made his presence necessary, and his health seemed 
to be sufficient for the journey, he returned to Rome. 
Here he offered the public sacrifice in company with 
the other priests,^ while the people thronged about 
with manifest tokens of delight ; and on the follow- 
ing day he sacrificed again to the gods privately in 
gratitude for his recovery. When the sacrifice had 
been duly performed, he returned to his house and 
lay down to rest, and then, before he could notice and 
be conscious of any change, he became delirious and 
deranged in mind, and on the third day after died.^ 
He was fully blessed with everything that men think 
conducive to happiness. For his funeral procession 
called forth men's admiration, and showed a desire 
to adorn his virtue with the best and most enviable 
obsequies. This was manifest, not in gold or ivory or 



^ See chapter iii. 1-3 

' Seven years after his triumph, 160 B.a 



457 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal (faXoTLfxia t?}? 7rapaaKevrj<;, aXX' evvoia koX 
Tifir] Kal X^P^^ ^^ fiovop irapa tcop ttoXitwv, aXXa 
Kai TMV 7ro\€/j,L(t)v. oaoL yovv Kara Tv^rjv 
Traprjaav ^\^rjpo}v /cal Aiyucov koI ^laKcSovcov, ol 
fi€P la^vpol ra aao/iara Kal veoi BtaXa^6vT€<; ro 
Xe%09 vireSuaav Kal TrapeKo/jLi^ov, ol Se irpeafiv- 
repoc (TvvrjKoXovdovv dvaKaXov/ievoi rbv Al/jLlXlov 
5 €V€pyeTr]v Kal crcorfjpa rwv TraTpiSoyv. ov yap 
fjiovov ev oh eKparrjae Kaipol<; rjiriw^ iraat Kal 
(piXavOpcoTTcofi aTTTjXXdyTj ^Ypr^o-ayitei/o?, dXXd Kal 
irapa wavra rov Xolttov ^lov del re Trpdrrcov 
dyaOov avTOL<; Kal Kr]S6/i€vo<; coajrep oIk€L(ov Kal 
avyyevcov BiereXeae. 

Tr)v 8' ovaiav avrov fioXi^; kirra Kal rpiaKOUTa 
fivpidhayv yeveaOai Xeyouaiv, ^79 avro^ fiev dp.- 
(j)OT6pov<; Tov<; vlov<; direXLire KXrjpovopov^, he 
v€d)T€po<; '^KtjTTicov Tw dheXcj)^) irdaav ex^tv avve- 
X(*>pv^^^ auTo? et9 oIkov eviropcorepov rov ^A(j)pi- 
Kavov 8€Sop,6vo<i. ovTo<{ fiev 6 TlavXov AI/jLiXlov 
Tp6'TT0<i Kal l3io<i Xeyerai yeveaOai, 



TIM0AE0NT02 KAI TIAYAOY AIMIAIOY 
2YrKPI2l2 

I. ^oLOVTWV he TO)v Kara rrjV IcTTopiav ovrcov, 
hrfXov ci)9 ovK ex^i' 'ttoXXcl^ hLa(^opd^ ovhe dvo- 
fiOiOTTjTa^; T) avyKpto'L<;. ol re yap TToXepoi 7rpo<; 
ipho^ovf; yeyovacnv dp,(t>OTepoi<; avTaycovLard'^y 
To) p.ev y[aKeh6va<;, tw he l^apxv^oviov<;, ai re 
yiKai TrepL^orjTOi,, tou fxev eXopTO<i MaKehoviav 

458 



TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS xxxix. 4-1. i 

the other ambitious and expensive preparations for 
such rites, but in good will and honour and gratitude 
on the part, not only of his fellow citizens, but also 
of his enemies. At all events, out of all the Iberians 
and Ligurians and Macedonians who chanced to be 
present, those that were young and strong of body 
assisted by turns in carrying the bier, while the more 
elderly followed with the procession calling aloud 
upon Aemilius as benefactor and preserver of their 
countries. For not only at the times of his conquests 
had he treated them all with mildness and humanity, 
but also during all the rest of his life he was ever 
doing them some good and caring for them as though 
they had been kindred and relations. 

His estate, we are told, hardly amounted to three 
hundred and seventy thousand drachmas, to which 
he left both his sons heirs ; but the younger, Scipio, 
who had been adopted into the wealthier family of 
Africanus, allowed his brother to have it all. Such, 
as we are told, was the life and character of Paulus 
lemilius. 




COMPARISON OF TIMOLEON AND 
AEMILIUS 

I. Such being the history of these men, it is clear 
that our comparison of them will have few points of 
difference or dissimilarity to show. For the wars 
which both conducted were against notable antago- 
nists ; in the one case against the Macedonians, in 
the other against the Carthaginians. Their victories, 
too, were far-famed : the one took Macedonia and 

459 




PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

Kal rr}v ctt' ^AvTcyovov BcaSo-)^r)V iv effSo/ifp 
^aaikel KarairavaavTO'^, rod Be Ta<; TVpavpiBa<i 
irdaa^ ave\6vT0<; i/c XiK€\[a<; Kal rrjv vrjaov 
iXevOepcoaavTo^' el fir) vrj Ala /SovXolto ti<; 
rrapey^eLpelv co? Al/jllXlo^; fjuev eppco/xevM Hepaec 

2 Kal 'V(Ofiaiov<; veviKrjKorL, Ti/ioXecov Se Atovv- 
ai(p iravTCLTracTLv aireip^^Kon Kal KaraTeTpLfifJievcp 
(TUveTreae, Kal irdXiv virep Tl/jL()X€ovto<;, on 
TToXXou? fjLev Tvpdvvov^, fieydXrjv Se rrjv Kap^T]- 
BovLCJV hyvapLLV diro r^? ru^ouo-?;? oTpaTid<; 
ivLKYjo-ev, ovx wairep Al/jllXlo^; dpSpdatu efiireLpo- 
iroXe/jLoif; Kal fiefiaOr^KocTLV dp'X^ecrOai ')(pd)fi€vof;, 
dXXd fiiadocpopoi's ovai Kal crrpaTicoraL'^ drdKroif;, 
TTyoo? r]hovrjV eWiapLevoi'^ aTpareueaOat,. rd yap 
diT oxjK La7j<i irapaaKevr)^ taa KaropOcofiara rco 
arpaTTjyu) rr]v alriav TTepiTidr-iaL. 

11. K.aOapa)v ovv Kal BiKaiwv iv TOt? irpd- 
yfjuaaiv dpL(^orepwv yeyovorwv, A.lp.iXLO'^ fiev vivo 
Tcoi' vofJLCov Kal Trj<; Trarpiho^ ovrco'^ eoLKSV ev6v<; 
d<^iKea6ai Trapea-Kevaapevo^, Ttp,oXi(ov Be roi- 
ovTov avTo<i eavTov irapeay^e. tovtov t€k/jL1]Piov 
on 'F(op,ai0L p^ev oyaaXco? iv rw Tore ■)(^p6v(p irdv- 
re? rjaav evraKroL Kal v7ro-)(^eLpLO0 rot? idLapLol^ 
Kal TOV<; v6pL0V<^ BeBiore^i Kal rov^ 'rroXira<;, 
^^jWrjvayv Be ovBel'i rjyep^cov iariv ovBe arpaT7jyo<^ 
0? ov Bie<p6dprj rore SiAreXta? dyjrdp,€vo<; e^co 

2 Aicovo^. KaiTOL AiMva noXXol p,ovapxi-CL^ op^' 
yeaOat, Kal ^aatXeiav nvd AaKWVLKrjv oveipoiro- 
Xelv virevoovv. Tipato'^ Be Kal VvXittitov dKXew'^ 2*3 
(jiTjai Kal drt/xo)? dTTOTrepyjrai, ^vpaKovalov;, (f)iXo- 
TrXovrlav avrou Kal aTTATjaTlav iv ry arpaTrjyia 



460 



TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS i. i-ii. 2 

brought the royal line of Antigonus to an end in its 
seventh king ; the other aboHshed all the tyrannies 
in Sicily and set the island free. One mighty indeed, 
argue otherwise, and say that Perseus was strong 
and victorious over the Romans when Aemilius en- 
gaged him, while Dionysius, when Timoleon engaged 
him, was altogether crushed and desperate. And, 
again, it might be said in favour of Timoleon that 
he conquered many tyrants and the force of the 
Carthaginians, large as it was, with what soldiers he 
could get, not having at his service, as Aemilius had, 
men who were experienced in war and taught to obey 
orders, but men who were hirelings and disorderly 
soldiers, accustomed to consult their own pleasure in 
their campaigns. For when equal successes follow 
an unequal equipment, the greater credit accrues to 
the commander. 

II. Further, in their administration of affairs both 
were just and incorruptible; but Aemilius, it would 
seem, w^as made so from the outset of his career by 
the laws and customs of his country, while Timoleon's 
great probity was due to himself. There is proof of 
this in the fact that the Romans in the time of Aemi- 
lius were, all alike, orderly in their lives, observant 
of usage, and wholesomely fearful of the laws and of 
their fellow citizens ; whereas, of the Greek leaders 
and generals who took part in Sicilian affairs during 
the time of Timoleon, not one was free from cor- 
ruption except Dion. And Dion was suspected by 
many of being ambitious for a monarchy and dream- 
ing of a kingdom like that in Sparta. Furthermore, 
Timaeus says that even Gylippus was sent away in 
ignominy and dishonour by the Syracusans, because 
they found him guilty of avarice and greed while 

461 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

KareyvwKora^. a he ^dpa^ 6 '^TrapTidrrjf; kol 
K.aX\L7nro<; 6 ^AOrjvalo'^ iXiriaavre^; ap^eiv XiKe- 
Xta? irapevo/jbrjaav koi Trapeairovhrjcrav, vtto ttoX- 

3 \o)v dvayeypairrai. Kairoi rtVe? rj irrfkiKoav kv- 
pioi irpa-yixdrayv ovre^ ovtol roiaura I'-jXirLaav; 
a)p 6 fiev eKireTrrwKora z,vpaKOuao)v idepdireve 
AiovvaLOP, KaXXtTTTTO? Be eh rjv rcou Trepl /^tcova 
^evaycbv, dWd TifjLoXewp alrrjcra/jLevoLf; kol 
SerjOelcnv avroKpdrcop irepi^Oel^ Xvpa/covaioi^;, 

Kot hvvafJLLV OV ^7JT€LV ttXX' €)(^6tV 6(f)€L\cDV fjV 

eXaySe ^ovXojJbevwv kol BlBovtcov, Trepa^; eTroirjaaro 
rrj<; aurov arparrjyla^; teal dp-)(rj<; rr]V tcjv irapa- 
vo/jLcov dp)(ovr(i)v KardXvaiv. 

4 ^FiKelvo fievToi tov KlfiiXiov Oavp^aarov, on 
TrfXiKavTr]v j^aaiXeiav KaTacrrpe-^d/jLevo'; ovSe 
BpaxP'j} P'€L^ova TTju ovaiav eTTohja-ep, ovBe elBev 
ovBe 'qyjraTO tcop ')(^pr)ij.dT(oVf KairoL iroXXa Bov<i 
eripoLf; koI Ba)pr]adp,€vo<;. ov Xeyco Be on Tip,o~ 
Xecov yLte/ATTTo? ianv ouKLav re KaXrjv Xa^wv fcal 
')(^copLOV' ov yap to Xa/Selv eic toiovtcov alcr^pov, 
dXXa TO /jLT] XajSecp Kpelrrov kol irepiovaia T779 
dperrj<;, eV oh e^eanv €7rLBeiKvvfxepr)<; to p,r) 
Beofievop, 

5 'Evret ^e, &>? crco^aTO? plyo<; rj OdXirof; (f)€p€ip 
Bvpa/JLePOv TO vrpo? dp,<^0Tepa<; ev 7r€(f)VKo<s ofiov 
Ta? peTal3o\d<; pcop^aXecoTepop, ovtco '^v')(^rj<; aKpa- 
T09 evpcoaTLU /cat la)(v<;, rjp ovTe to evTU)(elp 
ij^pei OpVTTTei Kol dplrjaip out€ avpL^opal Tairec- 
pova-L, (j^aiPeTUC TeXeLOTepo^i Alp^uXio^;, ip ')(^aXe'TTfi 
462 



I 



TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS ii. 2-5 



he was their general.^ And how Pharax the Spartan 
and CalHppus the Athenian violated laws and treaties 
in their hopes of ruling Sicily, has been told by 
many writers.^ And yet who were these men, or 
of how large resources were they masters, that they 
entertained such hopes ? One of them was a servile 
follower of Dionysius after he had been driven out 
of Syracuse, and CalHppus was one of Dion's captains 
of mercenaries. But Timoleon, at the earnest request 
of the Syracusans, was sent to be their general, and 
needed not to seek power from them, but only to 
hold that which they had given him of their own 
free will, and yet he laid down his office and command 
when he had overthrown their unlawful rulers. 

It is, however, worthy of admiration in Aemilius 
that, although he had subdued so great a kingdom, 
he did not add one drachma to his substance, nor 
would he touch or even look upon the conquered 
treasure ; and yet he made many liberal gifts to 
others. Now, 1 do not say that Timoleon is to be 
blamed for accepting a fine house and country estate, 
for acceptance under such circumstances is not dis- 
graceful ; but not to accept is better, and that is a 
surpassing virtue which shows that it does not want 
what it might lawfully have. 

Furthermore, a body that can endure only heat or 
cold is less powerful than one that is well adapted 
by nature to withstand both extremes alike. In like 
manner a spirit is absolutely vigorous and strong if it 
is neither spoiled and elated by the insolence which 
prosperity brings, nor humbled by adversity. The 
character of Aemilius, therefore, was manifestly more 



^ See the Nicias, xxviii. 2 f, 
■ See the Timoleon, xi. 4. 



463 



PLUTARCH'S LIVES 

TVXXI '^Gtl irdOei fxeyaXro too irepi tou? TratSor? 
ovBiv TL /jLLKp6r€po<; ovBe acre/jLvorepo^; rj Blo, tcjv 
6 evTV)(7] jjbdrciyv opaOei^- Tt/jLoXicov Be yevvala irpd- 
fa9 Trepl rov dB€X(f)ov ovk dvTkcrye tw Xoyia/jurp 
7r/309 TO nrdOo^, dWd fieravola koI Xvirrj ruTreL- 
vayOelf; irojv CLKoai to firjfia /cat rrjv dyopav IBelv 
ovx v7r6/jL€LV6. Bcl Be TCL ala^pd (^evyetv koI 
alBeladac, to Be tt/jo? irdaav dBo^iav ev\a^e<; 
€7n€iKou<; fiev ^6ou<; koX diraXov, /jL6yedo<; Be ov/c 
exovTO<i» 



464 



TIMOLEON AND AEMILIUS ii. 6 

perfect, since in the grievous misfortune and great 
sorrow brought upon him by the death of his sons he 
was seen to have no less greatness and no less dignity 
than in the midst of his successes; whereas Timo- 
leon, although he had acted in a noble way with 
regard to his brother, could not reason down his 
sorrow, but was prostrated with grief and repentance, 
and for twenty years could not endure the sight of 
bema or market-place. One should scrupulously shun 
disgraceful deeds ; but the anxious fear of every kind 
of ill report among men argues a nature which is 
indeed kindly and sensitive, but has not greatness. 



465 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF 
PROPER NAMES 




A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF 
PROPER NAMES 



Achradina, pp. 67, 77, 89, 305, 307, 
313, the flrst extension on the 
main-land of the island city of 
Syracuse, stretching from the 
Great Harbour northwards to 
the sea. 

Acilius, 177, Caius, not otherwise 
known. 

Acrae, 59, a small city of Sicily 
about twenty miles west of 
Syracuse. 

Adranum, 287, 289, 299, 301, a 
city of Sicily at the foot of the 
western slope of Mt. Aetna, 
founded by the elder Dionysius 
In 400 B.C. 

Adria, 25, an ancient and famous 
city of Cisalpine Gaul, originally 
a sea-port between the mouths 
of the Po and the Adige, but 
now some fourteen miles inland. 
It gave its name to the Adriatic 
sea. 

Agrigentum, 57, 345, one of the 
most powerful and celebrated of 
the Greek cities in Sicily, situated 
on the south-west coast of the 
island. It was colonised from 
Gela in 582 B.C. 

Agrippa, 185, Marcus Vipsanius, 
a fellow-student of Octavius 
Coesar at Apollonia, and a most 
intimate friend. He became one 
of the prominent and powerful 
men of the Augustan age. He 
lived 63-12 B.C. 

Alcimenes, 49, not otherwise 
known. 

Amphipolis, 47, 49, an important 
town in S.E. Macedonia, on the 
river Strymon, about three miles 
from the sea. 

Anicius, Lucius, 387, Lucius Ani- 
cius Gallus, praetor in 168 B.C., 

PLUT. VI. 



acted in concert with Appius Clau- 
dius against Genthius the Illyrian, 
and was completely successful in 
a campaign of thirty days, for 
which he celebrated a triumph. 

Antigonus (1), 373, 461, King of 
Asia, surnamed the One-eyed. 
Lived 382-301 B.C. 

Antigonus (2), 373, aurnamed 
Doson. On the death of Deme- 
trius II. (229 B.C.) he was 
appointed guardian of his son 
Philip. He married the widow 
of Demetrius and assumed the 
crown in his own right. He 
supported Aratus and the Achaean 
League against Cleomenes of 
Sparta. He died in 220 B.C. 

Antigonus (3), surnamed Gonatas, 
373, a son of Demetrius Polior- 
cetes by Phila, and grandson of 
Antigonus King of Asia. He 
succeeded to the title of King of 
Macedonia on his father's death 
in 283 B.C., and gained possession 
of part of his realm in 277 B.C. 
He died in 239 B.C. 

Antimachus, of Colophon, 347, 
a great epic and elegiac poet 
who flourished during the latter 
part of the Peloponnesian War 
(420-404 B.C.). See the Lysander 
xviii. 4f. 

Antiochus of Ascalon, 129, called 
the founder of the Fifth Academy. 
He was a teacher of Cicero at 
Athens in 79-78 B.C., and Cicero 
speaks of him in the highest and 
most appreciative terms {Bru- 
tus, 91, 315). 

Antiochus the Great, 363, 371, 
King of Syria 223-187 B.C. 
He was defeated by the Romans 
under Glabrio at Thermopylae 
in 191, and by Scipio near 
Magnesia in Asia in 190 B.C. 

469 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



He made peace with Rome in 
188 B.C., ceding all his dominions 
west of Mt. Taurus. 

Antium, 173, an ancient and 
powerful city of Latium, on the 
coast, thirty-eight miles south of 
Rome, the modern Porto d'Anzo. 

Antonius, Caius, 181-187, a 
brother of the triumvir, legate of 
Julius Caesar in 49 B.C., praetor 
urbanus in 44 B.C., receiving 
Macedonia as his province. 

Antonius, 421, Lucius A. Saturni- 
nus, governor of Upper Germany 
under Domitian, raised a rebel- 
lion ; but an inundation of the 
Rhine deprived him of the 
assistance of the Germans which 
had been promised him. Cf. 
Suetonius, Domit. 6. 

Appius, 453, 455. Appius Claudius 
Pulcher, consul in 143 B.C., 
father-in-law of Tiberius Grac- 
chus. He lived in constant 
enmity with Scipio Africanus the 
Youi ger. 

Apollocrates, 81, 107, 117, eldest 
son of Dionysius the Younger. 

Apollonia, 319, a small city in the 
central and northern part of 
Sicily, mentioned last by Cicero 
{in Verr. iii. 43, 103.) 

Apollonia, 175, 181-185. an 
ancient Greek city of lllyria, 
near the river AoUs and about 
eight miles from its mouth. 
Towards the end of the Roman 
republic it became a famous seat 
of learning. 

Archedamus the Aetolian, 417. 
In 199-197 B.C. he acted with the 
Romans against Philip V. of 
Macedon. Later he was prom- 
inent in the war between the 
Aetolians and Rome, and joined 
Perseus in 169 B.C. 

Archedemus, 37, apparently a 
disciple of Archytas. 

Archytas, 37, 41, a Greek of 
Tarentum, distinguished as philo- 
sopher, mathematician, general, 
and statesman. He flourished 
about 400 B.C. and onwards. 
Cf. the Marcellus, xiv. 5. 

Arete, 13, 43, 109, 121, 123, niece 
and wife of Dion. 

470 



Aristides the Locrian, 275, men- 
tioned elsewhere (Aelian, Var. 
Hist., xiv. 4) only as more grieved 
at the manner than at the fact 
of his death. 

Aristippus of Cyrene, 39, 41, 
founder of the Cyrenaic school of 
philosophy, obnoxious to Xeno- 
phon and Plato on account of his 
luxurious ways of living. 

Aristomache, 7, 14, 109. 121, 123, 
sister and mother-in-law of 
Dion. 

Aristoxenus the musician, 295, a 
pupil of Aristotle, and a philo- 
sopher of the Peripatetic school. 
Only fragments of his musical 
treatises have come down to us. 

Aristus, 129, brother of Antiochus 
of Ascalon, and a teacher of 
philosophy at Athens when 
Cicero was there in 51-50 B.C. 
{ad Att, V. 10, 5). Cicero calls 
him " hospes et familiaris meus " 
in Brutus, 97, 332. 

Athanis, 319, 351, of Syracuse, 
wTote a history of the events 
attending and following Dion's 
expedition. He was probably 
one of the generals elected by the 
Syracusans in Dion's place {Dion, 
xxxviii. 2). 

Attillius (Atilius), 213, otherwise 
unknown. 

Atticus, 191, Quintus Caecilius 
Pomponianus, surnamed Atticus 
on account of his long residence 
in Athens, where he took refuge 
from the storms of the civil 
wars in 85 B.C. He was Cicero's 
most intimate friend. He re- 
turned to Rome in 65, and died in 
32 B.C., at the age of seventy- 
seven. He was a man of wealth, 
learning, and refinement. 



Basternae, 377, 383, a powerful 
tribe of European Sarmatia 
(Russia). They were driven back 
across the Danube by the 
Romans in 30 B.C. 

Bibulus, 153, 177, Lucius Calpur- 
nius B., youngest son of the 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Bibulus who was Caesar's consular 
colleague in 59 B.C. He surren- 
dered to Antony after the battle 
at Philippi (42 B.C.), was par- 
doned by him, and made com- 
mander of his fleet. He died 
shortly before the battle of 
Actium (31 B.C.). 

Brundisium, 449, an important 
city on the eastern coast of 
Italy (Calabria), with a fine 
harbour. It was the natural 
point of departure from Italy to 
the East, and was the chief naval 
station of the liomans in the 
Adriatic. 

Brutus, 1.51, 169, 187, Decimus 
Junius Brutus, surnamed Albinus 
after his adoption by Aulus 
Postumius Albinus, the consul of 
99 B.C. He was widely em- 
ployed, highly esteemed, fully 
trusted, and richly rewarded by 
Julius (Caesar, and yet joined his 
murderers. After Caesar's death 
he opposed Antony successfully, 
but fell a victim to the coalition 
between Antony and Octavius in 
43 B.C. 

Buthrotum, 183, a city on the 
western coast of Epirus, opposite 
Corcyra, celebrated by Vergil in 
Aeneid, iii. 293 ff . 



Calauria, 337, a town of Sicily not 
mentioned elsewhere. 

Calends (Kalends), 147, the Roman 
name for the first day of the 
month. 

Callippus, 33, 61, 115-123, 463, 
of Athens, a disciple of Plato in 
common with Dion, to whom he 
came to have nmch the same 
relation as Brutus Albinus to 
Julius Caesar. 

Camarina, 59, a famous Greek city 
on the southern coast of Sicily, 
about twenty miles east of Gela. 
It was colonized from Syracuse 
in 599 B.C. 

Canidius, 131, 133, perhaps the 
Publius Canidius Crassus who was 
the friend and supporter of 



Antony (Plutarch, Antony, 
xxxiv.-lxxi.). 

Canutius, 173, mentioned only here. 

Carbo, 191, Gnaeus Papirius C, 
a leader of the Marian party and 
consular colleague of Cinna in 
85 and 84 B.C. He was put to 
death by Pompey in 82 B.C. 
(Plutarch, Pompey, x. 3f.). 

Carystus, 179, an ancient city on the 
south coast of Euboea, famous for 
its marble. 

Casca, 157, 163, 229, Publius 
Servilius C., tribune of the people 
in 44 B.C. He fled from Rome 
after Caesar's murder, and died 
soon after the battle at Philippi, 
in which he fought. His brother 
Caius was also one of Caesar's 
murderers (Plutarch, Caesar, 
Ixvi. 5). 

Catana, 123, 291, 305, 335, 341, 343, 
an ancient city on the eastern 
coast of Sicily, about midway 
between Syracuse and Tauro- 
menium, directly at the foot of 
Mt. Aetna. 

Cato (1), 411, Marcus Porcius C. 
Licinianus, son of Cato the Elder 
by his first wife Licinia. It was 
after the battle of Pydna that 
he became the son-in-law of 
Aemilius Paulus. For his educa- 
tion, and his exploit at the 
battle of Pydna, see the Cato 
Major, chapter xx. 

Cato (2), 237, 239, son of Cato the 
Younger. After the death of his 
father, Caesar pardoned him and 
allowed him the use of his 
patrimony. See the Cato Minor, 
chapter Ixxiii. 

Caulonia, 57, a Greek city on the 
eastern coast of Bruttium, con- 
quered by the elder Dionysius in 
389 B.C. 

Ceos, 345, one of the Cyclades 
islands in the Aegean sea, about 
thirteen miles S.E. of Attica, 
most famous as the birthplace of 
the great lyric poet Simonides. 

Cicero, 179, 183, Marcus TuUius, 
only son of the great orator, born 
in 65 B.C. He joined the ai-my of 
Pompey in Greece when only 
sixteen years of age, and gained 

471 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



credit as an officer of cavalry. 
After Pharsalus, he resided at 
Athens, where he fell into loose 
habits for a time. After Caesar's 
death, he served as military 
tribune under Brutus. After 
Philippi, he was taken up by 
Octavius, and became his con- 
sular colleague in 30 B.C. See 
the Cicero, xlix. 4. 

Cimber, 163, 169, Lucius TuUius, 
had been one of Caesar's warmest 
supporters, and rewarded by him 
with the province of Bitiiynia. 
After Caesar's murder he went to 
his province, raised a fleet, and 
co-operated effectually with Bru- 
tus and Cassius. 

Cinna (1), 191, Lucius Cornelius, 
leader of the Marian party during 
Sulla's absence in the East 
(87-84 B.C.). He was consul 
in 87, 86, 85, and 84. He was 
killed in a mutiny of his soldiers 
at Brundisium, where he had 
hoped to prevent the landing of 
Sulla. See the Pompey, chapter 
v. 

Cinna (2), 167, 181, Lucius Corne- 
lius, son of the preceding. He 
served under Lepidus and Ser- 
torius (78-72 B.C.), but was 
restored from exile by Caesar 
and made praetor in 44 B.C. 
He would not join the murderers 
of Caesar, but approved of their 
deed. 

Cinna (3), 171, 173, Caius Helvius, 
a friend of Catullus, and probably 
the same person as the Helvius 
Cinna whom Valerius Maximus 
(ix. 9, 1), Appian {B.C. ii. 147), 
and Dion Cassius (xliv. 50) 
call a tribune of the people. Cf . 
Suetonius, Div. Jul. 85 ; Plu- 
tarch, Caesar, Ixxiii. 2f. Only 
fragments of his poems remain. 

Clodius (Claudius), 171, Publius 
Claudius Pulcher, youngest son of 
the Appius Claudius mentioned in 
the Sidla, xxix. 3. He helped to 
demoralize the soldiers of Lucul- 
lus in Asia (LucuUus, chapter 
xxxiv.), became a venomous foe 
of Cicero, was notorious for 
incest and licentiousness {Caesar, 

472 



chapters ix. and x.), and was at 
last killed in a street-brawl with 
Milo in 52 B.C. {Cicero, chapters 
xxviii.-xxxv.). 

Colophon, 347, one of the Ionian 
cities of Asia Minor, situated on 
the river Hales, near the sea, 
north of Ephesus. 

Corcyra, 449, an island in the 
Ionian sea, opposite Epirus, the 
modern Corfu. 

Cornificius, Lucius, 185, afterwards 
an able supporter of Octavius in 
war on land and sea. He became 
consul in 35 B.C. 

Cratippus, the Peripatetic, 177, of 
Mitylene, a contemporary and 
intimate friend of Cicero, and a 
teacher of Cicero's son. 

Crimesus (Crimisus), 323, 325, 331, 
a river in the N.W. part of Sicily, 
near Segesta. 

Cyzicus, 187, a Greek city on the 
Propontis, in Mysia, wonderfully 
situated on the neck of a pen- 
insula. 



Demetrias, 181, an important 
city in the S.E. part of Thessaly, 
at the head of the Pagasaean 
gulf, founded by Demetrius 
Poliorcetes about 290 B.C. 

Demetrium, 423, of Samothrace, 
probably a sanctuary of Demeter 
connected with the mysteries and 
worship of the Cabeiri. 

Demetrius (1), 373, Demetrius 
Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus 
King of Asia, lived 337-283 B.C. 
See Plutarch's Life. 

Demetrius (2), 373, Demetrius II., 
son of Antigonus Gonatas, king of 
Macedonia 239-229 B.C. 

Demetrius (3), 375, younger, and 
only legitimate son of Philip V. 
of Macedo'n, sent to Rome as 
hostaire after the battle of 
Cynoscephalae (197 B.C.), where 
he won that favour of the 
Romans which roused the jeal- 
ousy of his brother Perseus and 
brought about his death. 

Diogenes, of Sinope, 297, a Cynic 
philosopher, born 412 B.C. He 



p 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



became a pupil of Antisthenes 
the Socratic at Athens, and 
changed from a dissolute to a 
most austere life. He was sold 
into slavery at Corinth, where he 
acquired his freedom and passed 
his old age. He died in 323 B.C., 
according to Plutarch (Morals, 
p. 717 c) on the same day as 
Alexander the Great. 

Dionysius, of Colophon 347, a. 
painter contemporary with Poly- 
gnotus (latter half of the fifth 
century B.C.), of whom he was 
said to be an imitator. Accord- 
ing to Aristotle, his work lacked 
idealism. 

Dolabella, 131, 141, 181, the 
profligate and debt-ridden son-in- 
law of Cicero, lived 70-43 B.C. 
He took part with Caesar in 
49 B.C., but approved of his 
murder, and gained the consul- 
ship for the remainder of the 
year 44, He was outlawed and 
declared a public enemy on 
account of his extortions in Asia, 
and committed suicide. 

Domitian, 421, 423, Roman Em- 
peror 81-96 A.D. 



E 



Ecnomum (Ecnomus), 57, a hill on 
the southern coast of Sicily, 
between Agrigentum and Gela. 

Elea (Velia), 177. 345, 457, a Greek 
colony from Phocaea in Ionian 
Asia Minor, founded about 540 
B.C. on the N.W. coast of Lucania 
in southern Italy (Herod, i. 
164-167), It received the Roman 
franchise in 90 B.C., and was a 
noted health resort. 

Empylus, 129, mentioned only here, 
unless he is the same person as 
the orator, Empylus Rhodius, 
mentioned by Quintilian (x. 
6, 4). 

Ephorus, 77, 79, 271, of Cym6, 
pupil of Isocrates, and author of 
a highly rhetorical history of 
Greece from the " Dorian Inva- 
sion " down to 340 B,0., in which 
year he died. 



Epicurus, 207, founder of the 
philosophical school named from 
him, born in Samos, 342 B.C., 
died at Athens, 270 B.C. He 
established his school at Athena 
in 300, was a man of pure and 
temperate habits, and bore 
suffering with cheerful fortitude. 

Epidamnus, 181, the city on the 
coast of Illyria known in Roman 
history usually as Dyrrhachium. 
It was a free state, and sided 
consistently with the Romans. 

Epipolae, 313, a triangular plateau 
rising gradually westwards from 
Syracuse, visible from the interior 
of the island city, and surrounded 
by precipitous cliffs, Cf. the 
Nicias, xvii. 1 ; xxi. 5-9. 

Eudemus, the Cyprian, 47, a 
member of the Platonic circle and 
an intimate friend of Aristotle. 
Aristotle's dialogue entitled 
" Eudemus, or On the Soul," is 
preserved only in scanty frag- 
ments (cf. Plutarch, Morals, 
p. 175 b, and Cicero, de Div., 
i. 25, 53). Eudemus fell in a 
battle between the friends of 
Dion and the traitor Callippus 
(Diodorus, xvi, 36, 5). 

Evander, the Cretan, 417, men- 
tioned only here. 



Favonius, 149, 151, 201, 203. 
Marcus F., called the " Ape of 
Cato," was aedile in 52, and 
praetor in 40 B.C. He joined 
Pompey in the East notwith- 
standing personal enmity to him, 
and accompanied him in his 
flight from Pharsalus (cf. the- 
Pompey, Ixxiii. 6 f.) 

Flavins, 241, Caius F,, an intimate 
friend of Brutus, and his prae- 
fectus fabrorum at Philippi. 



Gaesylus, the Spartan, 105, 107, 

mentioned only here. 
Galba, 435-439, Servius Sulpicius G., 

military tribune under Aemilius 



473 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Paulus, praetor in 151, and 
famous for his faithless cruelty 
in his province of Spain. He 
was consul in 144 B.C. He was 
also an orator of power. 

Galepsus, 417, a colony of Thasos 
on the coast of Thrace. 

Gela, 57, 345, an iniportant Greek 
city on the southern coast of 
Sicily, between Agrigentum and 
Camarina. It was colonized in 
690 B.C. from Crete and Rhodes. 
The Carthaginians destroyed it in 
405 B.C. 

Gelon, 319, tyrant of Syracuse 
485-478 B.C., and victor over the 
Carthaginians at Himera in 
480 B.C. 

Genthius, 387, King of Illyria. He 
graced the triumph of his 
conqueror, Lucius Anicius, in 
167 B.C., and died in captivity. 



Hanno, 307, had commanded 
successfully in the last war 
between the Carthaginians and 
Dionysius the Elder (368 B.C.). 
His failure to prevent the landing 
of Timoleon in 344 probably led 
to his recall and the substitution 
of Mago in his place. He was 
afterwards put to death for 
conspiracy. 

Harpalus, 393, mentioned only here. 

Hel con, of Cyzicus, 41, for some 
time a resident at the court of 
Dionysius the Younger. Suidas 
mentions a work of his on 
astrology. 

Heracleides, 25, 71, 73, 81, 83, 95, 
99, 101-107, 111-117, was com- 
mander of the mercenaries of 
Dionysius the Younger, and fled 
from Syracuse with Dion (Dio- 
dorus, xvi. 6, 4). 

Hermocrates, 7, an eminent and 
nobly patriotic Syracusan at the 
time of the great Athenian 
expedition against the city (415- 
413 B.C.), and prominent in the 
narrative of Thucydides. After 
the destruction of the Athenian 
armament, he served his native 



city ably as admiral in conjunc- 
tion with the Spartan fleet, but 
was deposed in 409 B.C. by a 
rival political party, and was 
killed two years later in an 
attempt to gain possession of 
Syracuse by force. 

Herostratus, 179, mentioned only 
here. 

Hicetas, 123, 265, 277, 281, 283, 
287-291, 299, 303, 305, 311, 313, 
319, 335-341, during the dis- 
orders following the death of 
Dion succeeded in establishing 
himself as tyrant of Leontini. 

Himera, 319, an important Greek 
city on the northern coast of 
Sicily, at the mouth of the river 
of the same name. 

Hirtius, 453, Aulus H., a warm 
friend and supporter of Julius 
Caesar. He fell in gallantly 
leading an assault upon Antony's 
troops. 

Hortensius, 181, 187, Quintus H. 
Hortatus, a son of the great 
orator Hortensius, though appar- 
ently cast off by his father on 
account of dissolute habits. He 
joined Caesar in 49 B.c, and 
served him in important com- 
mands. In 44 B.C. he held the 
province of Macedonia, and 
Brutus was to succeed him. 

Hostilius, 377, Aulus H. Mancinus, 
consul in 170, and pro-consul in 
Greece in 169 B.C., where he 
conducted a safe but inconclusive 
warfare against Perseus. 



lapygia. 53, the ancient (Greek) 
name for Calabria, the eastern 
peninsula of southern Italy. 
Probably the lapygian promon- 
tory is here meant. 

Ion, 425, a military oflacer of 
Perseus. 



Junia, 141, Junia Tertia, a half- 
sister of Brutus. She lived till 
22 A.D., and left large legaoiea to 
the leading men of Rome. 



474 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Labeo, 151, 241, Quintus Antistius 
L., an eminent jurist, and father 
of a jurist more eminent still, 
who lived under Augustus. 
According to Appian (B.C. iv. 
135), Labeo, unwilling to survive 
Brutus, had himself killed by a 
trusty slave and buried in his tent. 

Lacedaemon, 231, apparently a 
town of Macedonia near Thessa- 
lonica. 

Laenas, Popilius, 159, 161, a 
Roman senator, not otherwise 
mentioned (cf. Appian, B.C., 
ii. 115 f.). 

Leontini, 59, 85, 89, 301, 319, 339, 
an ancient Greek city of Sicily, 
between Syracuse and Catana, 
about eight miles inland. 

Lepidus. 169, 187, 455, Marcus 
Aemilius L., triumvir with Octa- 
vius and Antony. He joined 

*the party of Caesar in 49, and was 
praetor in Spain in 48 B.C., 
Caesar's magister equitum in 
47 and 45, and his consular 
colleague in 46. After Caesar's 
murder he sided with Antony, 
and as member of the trium- 
virate received Spain and Nar- 
bonese Gaul as his province, 
then, in 40, Africa, where he 
remained till 36 B.C., when he 
■was deposed from the triumvirate 
He lived till 13 B.C. 
Leptines, 123, 299,319, a Syracusan. 
who aided Callippus in capturing 
Rhegium in 351 B.C. His exile 
by Timoleon was in 342 B.C. 
Leucadia (Leucas), 295, an island 
in the Ionian sea, once a part of 
the mainland of Acarnania. 
Licinius, Publius, 377, P. L. 

Crassus, consul in 171 B.C. 
Lilybaeum, 321, a promontory and 
city at the extreme western end 
of Sicily. 
Lycon, the Syracusan, 121, not 
otherwise mentioned. 

M 
Maedica, 383, the territory of the 
Maedi, a powerful tribe in 
western Thrace. 



Mago, 303-315, commander of the 
Carthaginian fleet and army in 
Sicily in 344 B.C., succeeding 
Hanno. , ^ ^r. 

Mamercus (1), 359, son of Pytha- 
goras. Cf. the Numa, xiii. 9. 
Mamercus (2), 291, 335-351, tyrant 

of Catana. 
Marrucinians, 407, a warlike tribe 
of central Italy, generally sharing 
the fortunes of the neighbouring 
Marsi and Peligni, and after 
304 B.C. faithful allies of Rome. 
Maso, 365, Caius Papirius M., 

consul in 231, died in 213 B.C. 
Maximus (1), Fabius, 393, 447, see 

Plutarch's Life. 
Maximus (2), Valerius, 247, compiler 
of a large collection of anecdotes, 
in the time of Augustus. 
Mediolanum, 257, the chief city of 
Cisalpine Gaul, the modern 
Milan. 
Messala, 215-229, 245, 247, Marcus 
Valerius M. Corvinus, born about 
70 B.C., educated at Athens, 
and a friend of Horace. He 
attached himself to Cassius after 
the death of Caesar, and fought 
ably at Philippi. After the 
death of Cassius he became a 
supporter of Antony, and then of 
Octavius (Augustus). He was 
also a poet, historian, gram- 
marian, and orator. He wrote 
commentaries on the civil wars 
after Caesar's death. 
Messana, 103, 123, 309. 335, 343, 
an important city of Sicily, on 
the strait between that isUind 
and Italy, nearly opposite Rhe- 
gium. _ 
Milo 395, 397, of Beroea, an officer 
in the army of Perseus. He had 
been successful against the Ro- 
man consul Licinius Crassus in 
171 B.C. From Pydna he fled to 
Beroea, but soon surrendered the 
place to Aemilius. 
Miltas, the Thessalian, 47-51, not 

otherwise mentioned. 
Mycale, 421, a promoutory in Asia 
Minor, opposite the island of 
Samos, where the Athenians 
defeated the Persians in 479 B.C. 
Mylae, 351, an ancient Greek city 

475 




DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



on the northern coast of Sicily, 
about tiiirty miles west of 
Messana, and generally depen- 
dent on that city. 



N 

Nasica, see Scipio (2). 

Neon (1), the Corinthian, 305, 
mentioned only here. 

Neon (2), the Boeotian, 417, one of 
the principal authors of the 
alliance between the Boeotians 
and Perseus. After the battle 
of Pydna he fell into the hands of 
the Romans and was executed. 

Nicolaiis, the philosopher, 247, 
probably Nicolaus Damascenus, 
a famous historian and philo- 
sopher of the Augustan age. 

Nisaeus, 263, not otherwise men- 
tioned. 

Norbanus, 209, an officer sent 
forward into Macedonia by 
Octavius and Antony (Appian, 
B.C., ix. 87). 

Numantia, 415, a famous city in 
northern Spain. 

Nypsius, 87, 93, 99, not otherwise 
mentioned. 



Octavius, Gnaeus, 423, 425, praetor 

in 168 B.C., consul in 165. He 

was assassinated in 162, while on 

an embassy in Syria. 
Oreiis, 377, formerly called Histiaea, 

an ancient and important town 

in northern Euboea. 
Oricus (Oricum), 435, a town and 

harbour of Illyria, a few miles 

south of Apollonia. 



Pachynus, 53, the south-eastern 
promontory of Sicily. 

Paeonians, 403, an ancient and 
powerful people of Upper Mace- 
donia. 

Pansa, 453, Cains Vibius P., a 
devoted friend of Julius Caesar, 
who made him governor of 
Cisalpine Gaul in 46, and consul 
for 43 B.C. with Hirtius. 



Patara (Patareans), 131, 197, a 
flourishing city on the south- 
western coast of Lycia in Asia 
Minor, celebrated for its temple 
and cult of Apollo. 

Pelignians, 407, a warlike people in 
central Italy, neighbours to the 
Marsi and Samnites, and after 
304 B.C. faithful allies of Rome. 

Pella. 415, 417, was made the 
capital of Macedonia by Philip II. 
and was the birthplace of 
Alexander the Great. It was 
some fifteen miles from the sea, 
west of the river Axius. 

Pella, Lucius, 203, mentioned only 
here. 

Pelusium, 199, a strong frontier- 
town on the eastern branch of 
the Nile. 

Perrhaebia, 393, a district in 
northern Thessaly. 

Pharax, 103. 287, 463, perhaps the 
same person as the envoy from 
Sparta to Athens mentioned by 
Xenophon in Hell. vi. 5, 33, and 
as the Pharax characterized by 
Theopompus as most un-Spartan 
in his mode of life (Athenaeus, 
p. 536 c). 

Pliilip, 371-375, Philip V. of 
Macedon, one of the ablest 
Macedonian monarchs, reigned 
220-179 B.C. 

Philippus, Marcius, 457, Quintus 
M.P., consul in 186, and again in 
169 B.C., in which year he con- 
ducted the war against Perseus, 
handing over his command to 
Aemilius Paulus in the following 
year. He was censor with 
Aemilius in 164 B.C. 

Philippi, 179, 187, 207-211, a city of 
Macedonia on the river Strymon, 
formerly called Crenides, but 
renamed by Philip II. 

Philistus. 25-29, 39, 53, 77, 79. 299, 
a Syracusan, an eye-witness of 
the events of the Atheniaa siege 
of Syracuse in 415-413 B.C., 
which he described thirty years 
later in a history of Sicily. 

Plancus, 167, Lucius Munatius P., 
a friend and supporter of Julius 
Caesar, and after Caesar's death 
of Antony. He was consul in 



476 



p 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



42 B.C., as Caesar had planned. 
He abandoned the cause of 
Antony in 32, and joined Octa- 
vius, whose favour he thence- 
forth enjoyed. 

Plataea, 421, the little city of 
Boeotia near which the allied 
Greeks defeated the Persians in 
479 B.C. 

PoUis, the Spartan, 11, a Spartan 
naval commander in 376 B.C., 
defeated by Chabrias of Athens. 

Polybius, 135, 393, 395, 405, of 
Megalopolis in Arcadia, the 
Greek historian of the Punic 
Wars, born about 204 B.C., 
long resident in Rome, and an 
intimate friend of the younger 
Scipio, with whom he watched 
the destruction of Carthage in 
146 B.C. 

Porcia, 153, 155, 247, wife of 
Marcus Brutus, daugher of Cato 
the Younger by his first wife. 
See the Cato Minor, Ixxiii. 4. 

Poseidonius, 129, 405-413, of 
Apameia in Syria, a Stoic 
philosopher, pupil of Panaetius 
of Athens, contemporary with 
Cicero, who often speaks of him 
and occasionally corresponded 
with him. 

Ptoeodorus, the Megarian, 35, 
mentioned only here. 

Pydna, 397, 415, 419, a town of 
southern Macedonia, on the 
Thermaic gulf. 

Pythagoras, the philosopher, 359, 
of Samos, flourished about 540- 
510 B.C. After extensive travels 
he settled in Crotona of southern 
Italy, and founded a numerous 
and mysterious sect. 



Rhegium, 123, 281-285, 307, an 
important Greek city in the 
Bruttian peninsula of southern 
Italy, nearly opposite to Messana 
in Sicily. 

S 

Samothrace, 419, 423, a large island 
in the northern Aegean sea, 
about forty miles south of the 
Thracian coast. 



Scipio (1), the Great, 359, 367, 
Publius Cornelius S. Africanu8 
Major, conqueror of Hannibal. 
He lived 234-183 B.C. 

Scipio (2), 393, 395, 399, '03, 413, 
425, Publius Cornelius S. Nasica 
Corculum, celebrated as jurist 
and orator, consul in 162, 
censor in 159, and consul a 
second time in 155 B.C. He 
appears to have Avritten commen- 
taries on this campaign under 
Aemilius, which is his first 
appearance in history. 

Scipio (3), 139, Publius Cornelius S. 
Nasica, adopted by Metellus 
Pius and therefore often called 
Metellus Scipio. He was Pom- 
pey's colleague in the consulship 
for part of the year 52 B.C., and 
became a determined foe of 
Caesar. He killed himself after 
the battle of Thapsus (46 B.C.). 

Scipio (4), 365, 413, 415, 447, 453, 
455, 459, Publius Cornelius S. 
Aemilianus Africanus Minor, 
younger son of Aemilius Paulus, 
adopted by Publius Scipio, the 
son of Scipio the Great, was 
born about 185, and died mysteri- 
ously in 129 B.C. 

Servilia, 127, 129, 135, 137, 247, 
after the death of her first hus- 
band, the father of Brutus, 
married Decimus Junius Silanus, 
who was consul in 62 B.C. 

Servilius, Marcus, 437, mentioned 
only here. 

Sestius, 133, Publius Sestius, a 
supporter of Cicero in the 
suppression of the Catilinarian 
conspiracy, and active in securing 
Cicero's recall from exile. See 
Cicero's oration pro Sestio. In 
the civil war, he sided first with 
Pompey, and then with Caesar. 

Silicius, Publius, 187, called Silicius 
Coronas by Dion Cassius (xlvi. 
49), a Roman senator, appoin- 
ted one of the judges to try the 
murderers of Caesar. He ven- 
tured to vote for the acquittal 
of Brutus, and was therefore 
proscribed and put to death by 
the triumvirs. 

Simonides, 3, 349, of Ceos, the 

477 



DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



greatest lyric poet of Greece, 
556-457 B.C. 

Speusippus, 35, 45, 47, 77, a distin- 
guished disciple of Plato, whom 
he followed as head of the 
Academy (347-339 B.C.). 

Statilius, the Epicurean, 149, 151, 
mentioned only here. 

Strato, 245, mentioned only here. 



Tauromenium, 285-289, a city on 
the north-eastern coast of Sicily, 
about midway between Catana 
and Messana. 

Thasos, 227, an island in the 
northern part of the Aegean sea, 
off the coast of Thrace, half a 
day's sail from Amphipolis. 

Theomnestus, the Academic, 177, 
a brother of the Aristus men- 
tioned in ciiapter ii. 2, and 
apparently his successor as head 
of the Academy. 

Theopompus, 51, 271, of Chios, a 
fellow-pupil of Isocrates with 
Ephorus, wrote anti-Athenian 
histories of Greece from 411 to 
394 B.C., and of Philip of Macedon 
from 360 to 336 B.C. 

Thessalonica, 231, an important 
city at the head of the Thermaic 
gulf, capital of the Roman 
province of Macedonia. 

Thurii, 299, 307, a Greek city of 
Lower Italy, on the gulf of 
Tarentum, near the site of the 
ancient Sybaris. Its coloniza- 
tion in 444 B.C. was one of the 
great projects of Pericles. See 
the Nicias, v. 2. 

Timaeus, 13, 29, 69, 77, 79, 271, 
285, 345, 461, of Tauromenium, 
lived between 350 and 250 B.C. 
During a long exile in Athens 
he wrote a voluminous history 
of his native island from earliest 
time down to 264 B.C. 

Timon, 35, of Phlius, a philosopher 
of the Sceptic school, author of a 
famous satiric poem called SilH, 



taught successfully at Chalcedon 
and Athens. He flourished about 
280 B.C. 

Timonides, the Leucadian, 47, 67, 
69, 77, accotnpanied Dion to 
Sicily and fought on his side. 

Timotlieiis, 345, son of Conon the 
great Athenian admiral. He was 
made general in 378 B.C., and 
about 360 was at the height of 
liis popularity and glory. 

Titinius, 223, 225, a centurion. 
His story is toid also in Appian 
(B.C. iv. 113) and Valerius 
Maximus (ix. 9, ext. 2). 

Trebonius, 163, 169, Caius T., 
tribune of the people in 55 B.C., 
and an instrument of the first 
triumvirs. He was afterwards 
legate of Caesar in Gaul and was 
loaded with favours by him, but 
joined his murderers. 

Tubero, 367, 427, 433, Quintus 
Aelius T., son-in law of Aemilius 
Paulus. Cf; Valerius Maximus, 
iv. 4 ext. 9. 



Vatinius, 181, Publius V., tribune 
of the people in 59 B.C., and a 
paid creature of Caesar. After 
Pharsalus, Caesar gave him high 
command in the East. He was 
compelled to surrender his army 
to Brutus, but did not forfeit the 
favour of Octavius and Antony. 

Velia, 345, 457, see Elea. 

Volumnius, Publius, 235, 241, 243, 
mentioned only here. 



Xanthus, 131, 195, 197, the largest 
and most prosperous city of 
Lycia in Asia Minor, at the 
mouth of the river of the same 
name. 



Zacynthus, 47, 49, 119, 121, an 
island off the western coast of 
Peloponnesus, the modern Zaute. 



Fbiittbd m GaBAi Bbitais by Bichabd Clay akd Compaky, Ltd., 
BusoAY, Suffolk. 



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Vol. IL 3rd Imp.) 
DioNYsius OF Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Gary. 7 Vols. (Vols. I.-IV. 

2nd Imp.) 
Epictetus. W. a. Oldfather. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 1th Imp., 

III. and IV. 6th Imp.) Verse trans. 
EusEBius : Ecclesiastical Histoby. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 4th Imp.) 
Galen : On the Natubal Faculties. A. J. Brock. {4th Imp.) 
The Gbeek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. (Vols. I. and 

II. 5th Imp., Vol. III. 4th Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 3rd Imp.) 
Gbeek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacbeontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 
The Gbeek Bucolic Poets (Theocbitus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. {1th Imp. revised.) 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. (2nd 

Imp.) 
Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus : Chabactebs. 



Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vols. I.-III. ^th Imp., 

Vol. IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 

(Ith Imp. revined and enlarged.) 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E, T. Withington. 4 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Homer : Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 1th Imp., 

Vol. II. Uh Imp.) 
Homer : Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. {%th Imp.) 
IsAETTS. E. W. Forster. (2nd Imp.) 

IsocRATES. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
St. John Damascene : Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Josephus. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marciis. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VII. (Vol. V. 3rd Imp., Vol. VI. 2nd Imp.) 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols. 1. and II. 3rd 

Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp.) 
LuciAN. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vols. I. and 

II. Ath Imp., Vol. III. 3rd Imp., Vols. IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 4<A Imp., 

Vol. II. revised and enlarged, and III. 3rd Imp.) 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. (2nd Imp.) 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell : Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. (2nd Imp.) 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. (Ath Imp. revised.) 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon, Andocides, Lycurqus, 

Demades, Dinarchus, Hypekeides). K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
NoNNOS : DiONYSiACA. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. (Vol. III. 

2nd Imp. ) 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. a. W. Mair. (2nd Imp.) 
Papyri, Non -Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) Literary Selections. 

Vol. I. (Poetry). D. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 
Parthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chloe. 
Pausanias : Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

(Vols. I. and III. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. ; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX. ; F. H. Colson. (Vols. I.-IIL, 

V.-IX. 2nd Imp., Vol. IV. 3rd Imp.) 
Philo : two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph 

Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. Ath Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Philostratus : Imagines ; Callistratus : Descriptioi?3. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. 

Wikner Cave Wright. (2nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (1th Imp. revised.) 



Plato : Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lovers, 

Theaoes, Minos and Epinomis. VV. R. M. Lamb. (2nd 

Imp.) 
Plato : Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser 

HiPPiAS. H. N. Fowler, {^th Imp.) 
Plato : Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler. ( 1 Uh Imp. ) 
Plato : Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. W. R. M. 

Lamb. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Plato : Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. (5th 

Imp. revised.) 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., 

Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H.N. Fowler; Ion. W. R. M. 

Lamb, (ith Imp.) 
Plato : Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. (4,th Imp.) 
Plato : Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulae. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp.) 
Plutarch: Moralia. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt; 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold ; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. (Vols. I., 

III., and X. 2nd Imp.) 
Plutarch : The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 1 1 Vols. 

(Vols. I., II., VI., VII., and XI. 3rd Imp., Vols. III.-V. and 

VIII.-X. 2nd Imp.) 
PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Procopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. II.-VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 
Quintus Smyrnaeus. a. S. Way. Verse trans. (2nd Imp.) 
Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd 

Imp., III. 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 10th Imp., Vol. II. 6th 

Imp.) Verse trans. 
Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I., V., 

and VIII. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., III., IV., VI., and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds. Herodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. (3rd Imp.) 
Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort, 

Bart. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. L ith Imp., Vols. 

II., III., and IV. 3rd Imp. revised.) 
Tryphiodorus. Cf. QPPIAN. 
Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter JVIiller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4/A 

Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and III. 

3rd Imp., Vol. II. 4:th Imp.) 
Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant. 

(3rd Imp.) 
Xenophon : Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. (2nd Imp.). 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

Aristotle : De Mundo, etc. D. Furley and E. M. Forster. 
Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus : A. H. Armstrong. 



Latin Authors 

St. Augustine : City of God. 

Cicero : Pro Sestio, In Vatinium, Pro Caelio, De Provinciis 
CoNSULARiBus, Pro Balbo. J. H. Freese and R. Gardner. 
Phaedbus. Ben E. Perry. 



DESCRIPTIVE PROSPECTUS ON APPLICATION 



London WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

Cambridge, Mass. HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 



Plutarchus . 
Plutarch's lives. 



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Plutc.rchus. 
Plutarch's lives. 



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